Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition)

Similar authors to follow
Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition) file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition) book. Happy reading Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition) Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition) at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition) Pocket Guide.

The deconstruction of the british empire India, burma, Malaysia, the West Indies 5. The constitution of a neo-imperial sphere? The story is not told in the same way — when a story is told— and the relationship between text and production has considerably evolved. The author reviews the history of cultural practices by looking at how they were received. This is an enlightening synthesis for art historians, philosophers and anyone involved in cultural affairs who has pondered the role of the spectator today.

Christian Ruby is a doctor of philosophy. Ways of telling 2. The actor off-centre puppets, models, machines 4. The intermedia stage 5. Immersive device Table of ConTenTs The art of the spectator, elements of a cultural history I — an explosive debut for the spectator: There are two angles of approach: Yet Don Juan was born in the modern age and we know the first version.

Jean Rousset was a book reviewer specialized in poetry and baroque literature. He taught French literature at the University in Geneva. Critical readings and reception II — Reappropriations of the work 3. Death the chastiser 2. The female group 3. Don Juan defined by himself 4. This work in the mainstream of studies on discourse highlights the use of aphorism This book suggests that there are two systems of enunciation in speech: The use of aphorism varies depending on locations and times: The author, a distinguished linguist, brings a different perspective to our everyday verbal environment.

Dominique Maingueneau is a professor at the University ParisSorbonne and author of many works on linguistics that have been translated into other languages. It makes two fundamental points: Detachable statement, detached statement 2. The aphoristic statement 3. The setting for aphorism 4. Thesaurus and community 6. The academic world The evolution of the discipline is fully covered in a comprehensive bibliography.

Dictionnaire du roman a Dictionary of the novel Yves Stalloni A comprehensive, practical and instructional approach to the major traditional categories in fiction: This dictionary contains all you need to know about the novel and its methodology, whether narrative, thematic or sociological. This latest edition contains fifteen new entries reflecting trends and studies in contemporary fiction, such as the return of reality, sensationalistic fiction, etc.

He lectures in Grandes Ecoles preparatory classes in Toulon. Pragmatics as a specific branch of language science II — articles: Taking as its starting point basic texts that have marked a turning point in the evolution of literature and literary movements, it offers a dual approach to literature, one that is both theoretical and practical. Ranging from Classical times to the present, the work contains entries on authors, the genres in which these poetic arts took shape — manifesto, essay, poem, novel — schools or literary movements, concepts or notions evoked by literary theory and the idea of reflexivity.

This essay focuses the current debate on the question of the construction of cultural memory to present the search for truth as a modern sickness with at its heart a Utopia of transmission by testimony. These questions are highly topical because of the importance both of the problem of handing down the memory of the Holocaust, the current prominence of witness literature and the difficult question of post-colonialism.

The author combines history, philosophy and anthropology to shed necessary literary light on these issues. Catherine Coquio is professor of comparative literature at Paris 8. Brazilian, Korean, Spanish Academic Series: It seeks to promote a reading of the work of historians by philosophers and of the philosophy of history by historians.

Thus the author sets out to revisit the past of the discipline of history. In order to better grasp its meaning, he poses two questions. One concerns historiography, the practice of historians themselves. The other question is speculative and concerns the philosophical tradition of thinking about history. This new edition includes an extended section on the medieval period.

Navigation menu

Public health and the prehygienism of the enlightenment 18th century 2. Bergson found disciples of many types. However, the bourgeoisie relate it to a new signified: Immersive device Table of ConTenTs The art of the spectator, elements of a cultural history I — an explosive debut for the spectator: The inter-war colonial approach: The setting for aphorism 4. No longer is there working time on the one hand and leisure time on the other.

Plotin and the late empire: Plastic order in the Renaissance 6. Kant and the judgement of taste 8. The crisis of representation: Paul Klee — The sacrifice of form Tarkovsky or the cinematographic icon Modern art or exercises in looking How do they come to mould an era and shape a culture?

This great classic textbook surveys a broad range of Western philosophical ideas. From ancient Greece and Rome through today, it traces the history of the main themes in philosophy and cultural development in relation to the great philosophers and their currents and schools of thought. She is the editor of the philosophy series in the Cursus series and the author of numerous books, including, most recently, Comprendre Kierkegaard Understanding Kierkegaard , Armand Colin, She has written numerous secondary school and university textbooks.

Her name is synonymous with quality and rigour in this field. It contains more than a thousand entries and derivatives of essential terms. The philosophical ideas of ancient Greece 4. Medieval philosophical ideas — a thousand years of the history of ideas 5. Philosophical ideas of the Renaissance 6. The 19th century — philosophy, science, reason 9. Brazilian, Spanish Best Best. This book aims to fill that gap through a systematic approach that enables it to cover the whole range of the field. It is a timely work in tune with the revival of aesthetic comment, particularly evident in the UK and the US.

Jacques Morizotand Roger Pouivetare both professors of philosophy, at the University of Provence and the University of Nancy respectively. A reference book, introductory textbook and toolbox for writing papers and preparing for exams in philosophy and other fields, this title includes: Jean Lefranc, a tenured professor of philosophy, is associate professor at the University Paris-Sorbonne. Hadi Rizk , D. Table of ConTenTs Prologue: The madman Portrait 1: Derrida archaeology — on truth figure 2: The delinquent Portrait 3: Brazilian, Portuguese, Romanian Best.

Serious clinical disorders Eating disorders anorexia, bulimia, obsessive snacking, obesity represent both real social problems and questions of psychological pathology. This title describes all of these disorders, gives concrete examples taken from case studies, and provides various interpretations of their aetiology and development. It also examines the relationship between these major medical problems and social issues, norms of beauty, adolescence and the role of eating in our postmodern culture.

Finally, it explains therapeutic measures for these complaints. This book will assist future and practising therapists to grasp the theoretical and technical aspects of these therapies, in which they are rarely trained. Guillaume Poupard is a trainer in Brief Therapy and Inclusive Therapies, addictions, depression and therapeutic work with children. Table of ConTenTs I — anorexia: Clinical aspects of anorexia 2. Psycho-social issues in anorexia II — bulimia 1. Clinical aspects of bulimia 2.

Psychopathological approaches III — obesity 1. Psychopathology of obesity 3. Therapy Table of ConTenTs 1. Current trends in brief Therapies 2. The ethos of brief Therapies 3. Methodology of brief Therapies 4. The tools of brief Therapies 5. While explaining clinical practices, the work illustrated with many case studies particularly investigates the similarities and specifics of the two main streams — psychoanalytic and systemic. The latest trends and approaches in family related therapy, such as cognitive and behavioural therapy and family mediation, are also considered.

Marie Anaut is a clinical psychologist and family therapist. The originality of this project lies in its organization by life stages interview with a child, adolescent, elderly person and situations in institutions, in an emergency, general hospital, visiting, in psychiatry. Objective circumstances and institutional arrangements determine the methods and structures of the exchange between clinician and patient, consultant or someone in a crisis situation.

Theoretical and practical considerations are based on a detailed analysis of real-life interviews drawn from various practitioners of clinical psychology. Bernard Chouvier is a professor of psychopathology and clinical psychology. The uniqueness of the clinical approach in conjunction with acquired psychoanalytic knowledge 2.

The frame of the interview 4.

Armand Colin Academic and professional

The verbal and non-verbal in the interview 5. Defences II — approaches to interview 1. The parent-baby interview 2. The family interview 3. Interview with a child 4. Interview with an adolescent 5. Interview with an elderly person III — Institutional locations of the interview 1. Interview at the hospital 3. Interview at home 4. Intermediary structures and the psychiatric hospital 5. It arises as an attempt to preserve a disturbed and threatened psycho-corporal integrity. The pathological side of this narcissism is expressed through narcissistic body image disorders anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphic disorder, etc.

This textbook — quite complete on this question — takes up developmental psychology and pathological self-image issues from the viewpoint of clinical medicine, backed by numerous case studies. Vincent Estellon is a clinical psychologist and psychoanalyst who lectures at the Institut de Psychologie, Paris. The body and body image during adolescence 2. The story of narcissus and the history of narcissism 3. Clinical aspects of adolescent narcissism 4.

In playing these new kinds of dangerous games that allow these youth to show that they can surmount fear and gamble with death, they feel that they are legitimizing their lives. This is the first title to survey and analyse many games that are potentially physically or psychologically dangerous.

The better able we are to recognize them, the better we can prevent them. Coslin is a professor of adolescent psychology at the University of Paris Descartes and director of the Adolescent Psychology Study and Research Group. His main fields of study are deviance, drug use, school violence, dropping out of school, family violence and childhood dangers. He lectures in the Faculty of Medicine in Lausanne and Paris. I play, therefore I live 2. Representing and jousting 3.

When the avatar gets the upper hand 4. Wolves in the chat room. Having fun by hurting people 8. You have to make a move - from group practices to solitary activity 9. It surveys the specifics of working in institutions retirement homes, care homes, long-stay treatment centres as well as with networks, private practices and care in the home, particular attention being paid to clinical appraisal.

The truth is that to meet the demands of our work and social lives we need a network of cooperating individuals; we need other people to see us and speak to us, in order to perceive who we are and how we act. Making progress requires both a cognitive and emotional approach that leads us to interrogate our representations, values and beliefs. The development of relational abilities rests on thinking deeply about who we are and what we can improve about ourselves. Training and development 2.

Health and relations II — Ties and interaction 5. Development and socialization - 6. Identity and social ties 7. Interactivity III — Practices and relational abilities 8. To be centred and concentred - 9. Regulating your emotions - Debating and agreeing His thinking, based on an epistemological interrogation and new research methods, profoundly influenced the ways of conceptualizing the work of the sociologist and the structuring of social space. The importance and nature of his influence today is best grasped by focusing on the sociological uses of his theorization.

It also presents a framework for understanding the question: The school as an organ of social reproduction 2. The theory of cultural legitimacy 2. The legitimization of a cultural practice 3. Questioning the theory of cultural legitimacy IV — The theory of social space 1. Capitals and social space 2. This title examines the myths and the realities of individuals today. The authors pursue two aims. One is to suggest a different way to look at sociology, and offer students well known texts on the subject by Beck, Giddens, Baumer, etc.

The other is to point out the existence of a specifically French current Kaufmann, de Singly, etc. Danilo Martuccelli is professor of sociology at the University of Lille Toward a sociology of the individual 2. Which theories for a sociology of the individual? Which methods for a sociology of the individual? Mendras Following a summary of the evolution of the changing patterns of world agriculture, this book discusses the prevailing new typological model: It highlights the originality of changes signalled by the new environmental deal, and the management of risks that transcend these three types of agriculture and furnish material for social and political debate.

Brazilian in The same series sociologie des religions. Brazilian, English India , Portuguese, Vietnamese. What is the corporate responsibility? Taking at their starting point risk environments, the authors contextualize by analysing the economic, technological and psychological origins of such situations.

This theoretical approach is complemented by numerous clinical cases and real-life professional situations to reflect a complex social reality. Pierre Bardelli is emeritus professor and a former university president. Table of ConTenTs stress at work: CsR and stress at work, a critical reading of the paradox 2. The norm Iso , a step toward taking into account health at work 3.

The CsR speech, an off-topic social reality II — stress and distress at work: Harassment in all its forms, a source of stress to employees 8. Mergers and acquisitions, factors of stress 9. Time management as a factor in stress at work The inadequation of management practices III — Work and stress: Psychologicalhealthatwork, responsibilitiesandresponses impliedintheconceptofCsR No longer is there working time on the one hand and leisure time on the other. Time, as it is lived today, is fragmented, filled with manifold activities and packed with commitments and pressures, some work-related, others peripheral to it.

This multi-activity may be a self-fulfilling generator of stress and strain. The author investigates this new relationship with time by analysing three life-stages: The art of allure in Marketing Franck Cochoy The first title to examine curiosity from a sociological point of view An original approach offering a history of curiosity from genesis to contemporary markets A study of marketing practices The sociologist Franck Cochoy presents an anatomy of curiosity, a trait much prized by marketing professionals seeking to lure consumers, and propulsive force in the technologies they employ.

A highly original and funny book. Franck Cochoy is a professor of sociology at the University of Toulouse. Intermittent work and mobilizations II — The interim of studying 3. Keeping subordination at bay Table of ConTenTs 1. They are presented so that we can learn about specific issues and their involvement in key areas of international cooperation security, environment, trade, human rights, etc. Guillaume Devin is a university professor at Sciences Po, Paris.

Are You an Author?

The result is a title that clarifies the question of globalization from two angles. The title includes some entries and 30 mini-essays in which various authors give their views on the most controversial questions. For each of the topics addressed, it offers an initial contextualization, a timeline and an introductory presentation of the issues under debate. Cooperation and organisation - 2. The development of coordinated international action 3.

Typologies and global approach II — The role of international organisations 1. Theoretical approaches to be renewed - 2. The transformations of multilateralism - 2. Regulating globalization Table of ConTenTs - about entries - 40 essays related to some of them Best. The edition surveys the situation and analyses the most recent events: It examines the proposal under consideration the Red Sea-Dead Sea Canal , whose financing is to be lead by the World Bank, in all its complexities and challenges.

The political cooperation required could foster peace between the three stakeholders, while serious environmental problems can be foreseen. At that time, Bergson had already made an extensive study of biology including the theory of fecundation as shown in the first chapter of the Creative Evolution , which had only recently emerged, ca.

Bergson served as a juror with Florence Meyer Blumenthal in awarding the Prix Blumenthal , a grant given between and to painters, sculptors, decorators, engravers, writers, and musicians. Bergson traveled to London in and met there with William James , the Harvard philosopher who was Bergson's senior by seventeen years, and who was instrumental in calling the attention of the Anglo-American public to the work of the French professor.

The two became great friends. James's impression of Bergson is given in his Letters under date of 4 October So modest and unpretending a man but such a genius intellectually! I have the strongest suspicions that the tendency which he has brought to a focus, will end by prevailing, and that the present epoch will be a sort of turning point in the history of philosophy. Four years later, a couple of articles by him appeared in the journal Mind: Bergson quoted the first two of these articles in his work, Time and Free Will. In the following years, —91 appeared the two volumes of James's monumental work, The Principles of Psychology , in which he refers to a pathological phenomenon observed by Bergson.

Some writers, taking merely these dates into consideration and overlooking the fact that James's investigations had been proceeding since registered from time to time by various articles which culminated in "The Principles" , have mistakenly dated Bergson's ideas as earlier than James's. It has been suggested [ by whom? This article deals with the conception of thought as a stream of consciousness , which intellect distorts by framing into concepts. They are further apart in their intellectual position than is frequently supposed.

Both have succeeded in appealing to audiences far beyond the purely academic sphere, but only in their mutual rejection of "intellectualism" as decisive as their actual agreement. Although James was slightly ahead in the development and enunciation of his ideas, he confessed that he was baffled by many of Bergson's notions.

James certainly neglected many of the deeper metaphysical aspects of Bergson's thought, which did not harmonize with his own, and are even in direct contradiction. In addition to this, Bergson can hardly be considered a pragmatist. For him, "utility," far from being a test of truth, was, in fact, the reverse: I have been re-reading Bergson's books, and nothing that I have read for years has so excited and stimulated my thoughts.

I am sure that his philosophy has a great future; it breaks through old frameworks and brings things to a solution from which new crystallizations can be reached. He remarks on the encouragement he gained from Bergson's thought, and refers to his confidence in being "able to lean on Bergson's authority. The influence of Bergson had led James "to renounce the intellectualist method and the current notion that logic is an adequate measure of what can or cannot be".

It had induced him, he continued, "to give up logic, squarely and irrevocably" as a method, for he found that "reality, life, experience, concreteness, immediacy, use what word you will, exceeds our logic, overflows, and surrounds it". These remarks, which appeared in James's book A Pluralistic Universe in , impelled many English and American readers to investigate Bergson's philosophy for themselves, but no English translations of Bergson's major work had yet appeared.

James, however, encouraged and assisted Dr. Arthur Mitchell in preparing an English translation of Creative Evolution. In August , James died. It was his intention, had he lived to see the translation finished, to introduce it to the English reading public by a prefatory note of appreciation. In the following year, the translation was completed and still greater interest in Bergson and his work was the result.

By coincidence, in that same year , Bergson penned a preface of sixteen pages entitled Truth and Reality for the French translation of James's book, Pragmatism. In it, he expressed sympathetic appreciation of James's work, together with certain important reservations. In response to invitations he visited England in May of that year, and on several subsequent occasions. These visits were well received. Although necessarily brief statements, they developed and enriched the ideas in his books and clarified for English audiences the fundamental principles of his philosophy.

The Clarendon Press published these in French in the same year. Oxford later conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Science. Two days later he delivered the Huxley Lecture at the University of Birmingham , taking for his subject Life and Consciousness. In Bergson visited the United States of America at the invitation of Columbia University , New York, and lectured in several American cities, where very large audiences welcomed him. Spirituality and Freedom and The Method of Philosophy.

Meanwhile, his popularity increased, and translations of his works began to appear in a number of languages: Bergson found disciples of many types. In France movements such as neo-Catholicism and Modernism on the one hand and syndicalism on the other endeavoured to absorb and appropriate for their own ends some central ideas of his teaching. The continental organ of socialist and syndicalist theory, Le Mouvement socialiste , [23] portrayed the realism of Karl Marx and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon as hostile to all forms of intellectualism, and argued, therefore, that supporters of Marxist socialism should welcome a philosophy such as that of Bergson.

While social revolutionaries endeavoured to make the most out of Bergson, many religious leaders, particularly the more liberal-minded theologians of all creeds, e. The Roman Catholic Church , however, banned Bergson's three books on the charge of pantheism that is, of conceiving of God as immanent to his Creation and of being himself created in the process of the Creation. In the Scottish universities arranged for Bergson to give the famous Gifford Lectures , planning one course for the spring and another for the autumn.

Bergson delivered the first course, consisting of eleven lectures, under the title of The Problem of Personality , at the University of Edinburgh in the spring of that year.

The course of lectures planned for the autumn months had to be abandoned because of the outbreak of war. Bergson was not, however, silent during the conflict, and he gave some inspiring addresses. Meanwhile, he found time to issue at the request of the Minister of Public Instruction a brief summary of French Philosophy. Bergson did a large amount of traveling and lecturing in America during the war.

He participated in the negotiations which led to the entry of the United States in the war.

Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition)

A session was held in January in his honour at which he delivered an address on Ollivier. In the war, Bergson saw the conflict of Mind and Matter, or rather of Life and Mechanism; and thus he shows us the central idea of his own philosophy in action. To no other philosopher has it fallen, during his lifetime, to have his philosophical principles so vividly and so terribly tested.

As many of Bergson's contributions to French periodicals remained relatively inaccessible, he agreed to the request of his friends [ which? The first of these was being planned when war broke out. The conclusion of strife was marked by the appearance of a delayed volume in It bears the title Spiritual Energy: The advocate of Bergson's philosophy in England, Dr.

Buy Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) (French Edition): Read Kindle Store Reviews - uzotoqadoh.tk PROFESSION: CLAIRVOYANT: uzotoqadoh.tk: ÉRIC PERROT: Books. Profession clairvoyant (Essais et documents) and over one million other books are PROFESSION: CLAIRVOYANT (French) Paperback – Aug 4 Kindle Edition.

Wildon Carr , prepared an English translation under the title Mind-Energy. The volume opens with the Huxley Memorial Lecture of , "Life and Consciousness", in a revised and developed form under the title "Consciousness and Life". Signs of Bergson's growing interest in social ethics and in the idea of a future life of personal survival are manifested. The volume is a most welcome production and serves to bring together what Bergson wrote on the concept of mental force, and on his view of "tension" and "detension" as applied to the relation of matter and mind.

Like Bergson's, his writings were placed on the Index by the Vatican. Bergson and the Einsteinian Universe was published. This argument, Merleau-Ponty says, which concerns not the physics of special relativity but its philosophical foundations, addresses paradoxes caused by popular interpretations and misconceptions about the theory, including Einstein's own.

While living with his wife and daughter in a modest house in a quiet street near the Porte d'Auteuil in Paris, Bergson won the Nobel Prize for Literature in for having written The Creative Evolution. He completed his new work, The Two Sources of Morality and Religion , which extended his philosophical theories to the realms of morality, religion, and art, in It was respectfully received by the public and the philosophical community, but all by that time realized that Bergson's days as a philosophical luminary were passed.

He was, however, able to reiterate his core beliefs near the end of his life, by renouncing all of the posts and honours previously awarded him, rather than accept exemption from the antisemitic laws imposed by the Vichy government. Bergson inclined to convert to Catholicism, writing in his will on 7 February On 3 January Bergson died in occupied Paris from bronchitis. Bergson rejected what he saw as the overly mechanistic predominant view of causality as expressed in, say, finalism.

He argued that we must allow space for free will to unfold in an autonomous and unpredictable fashion.

  • Lionelle Heinen.
  • uzotoqadoh.tk: Lionelle Heinen: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle!
  • Henri Bergson - Wikipedia.

While Kant saw free will as something beyond time and space and therefore ultimately a matter of faith, Bergson attempted to redefine the modern conceptions of time, space, and causality in his concept of Duration , making room for a tangible marriage of free will with causality. Seeing Duration as a mobile and fluid concept, Bergson argued that one cannot understand Duration through "immobile" analysis, but only through experiential, first-person intuition. Bergson considers the appearance of novelty as a result of pure undetermined creation, instead of as the predetermined result of mechanistic forces.

His philosophy emphasises pure mobility, unforeseeable novelty, creativity and freedom; thus one can characterize his system as a process philosophy. It touches upon such topics as time and identity, free will , perception, change, memory, consciousness, language, the foundation of mathematics and the limits of reason.

Calaméo - Armand Colin Academic and professional

Because of his relative criticism of intelligence, he makes a frequent use of images and metaphors in his writings in order to avoid the use of concepts , which he considers fail to touch the whole of reality, being only a sort of abstract net thrown on things. For instance, he says in The Creative Evolution chap. III that thought in itself would never have thought it possible for the human being to swim, as it cannot deduce swimming from walking. For swimming to be possible, man must throw itself in water, and only then can thought consider swimming as possible.

Intelligence, for Bergson, is a practical faculty rather than a pure speculative faculty, a product of evolution used by man to survive. If metaphysics is to avoid "false problems", it should not extend the abstract concepts of intelligence to pure speculation, but rather use intuition. The Creative Evolution in particular attempted to think through the continuous creation of life, and explicitly pitted itself against Herbert Spencer 's evolutionary philosophy. Spencer had attempted to transpose Charles Darwin 's theory of evolution in philosophy and to construct a cosmology based on this theory Spencer also coined the expression " survival of the fittest ".

Bergson disputed what he saw as Spencer's mechanistic philosophy. Bergson's Lebensphilosophie philosophy of life can be seen as a response to the mechanistic philosophies of his time, [36] but also to the failure of finalism. Bergson regarded planning beforehand for the future as impossible, since time itself unravels unforeseen possibilities. Indeed, one could always explain a historical event retrospectively by its conditions of possibility. In his words, the effect created its cause. The foundation of Henri Bergson's philosophy, his theory of Duration , he discovered when trying to improve the inadequacies of Herbert Spencer 's philosophy.

An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness as a response to another of his influences: Kant believed that free will better perceived as The Will could only exist outside of time and space, indeed the only non-determined aspect of our private existence in the universe, separate to water cycles, mathematics and mortality. However, we could therefore not know whether or not it exists, and that it is nothing but a pragmatic faith. Based on this he concluded that determinism is an impossibility and free will pure mobility, which is what Bergson identified as being the Duration.

Duration, as defined by Bergson, then is a unity and a multiplicity, but, being mobile, it cannot be grasped through immobile concepts. Bergson hence argues that one can grasp it only through his method of intuition. Two images from Henri Bergson's An Introduction to Metaphysics may help one to grasp Bergson's term intuition, the limits of concepts, and the ability of intuition to grasp the absolute.

The first image is that of a city. Analysis, or the creation of concepts through the divisions of points of view, can only ever give us a model of the city through a construction of photographs taken from every possible point of view, yet it can never give us the dimensional value of walking in the city itself. One can only grasp this through intuition; likewise the experience of reading a line of Homer. One may translate the line and pile commentary upon commentary, but this commentary too shall never grasp the simple dimensional value of experiencing the poem in its originality itself.

The method of intuition, then, is that of getting back to the things themselves. This concept led several authors to characterize Bergson as a supporter of vitalism —although he criticized it explicitly in The Creative Evolution , as he thought, against Driesch and Johannes Reinke whom he cited that there is neither "purely internal finality nor clearly cut individuality in nature": Hereby lies the stumbling block of vitalist theories It is thus in vain that one pretends to reduce finality to the individuality of the living being.

If there is finality in the world of life, it encompasses the whole of life in one indivisible embrace. An Essay on the Meaning of the Comic , Bergson develops a theory not of laughter itself but of how laughter can be provoked see his objection to Delage, published in the 23rd edition of the essay.

From his first publications, Bergson's philosophy attracted strong criticism from different quarters, although he also became very popular and durably influenced French philosophy. But he did not have the equivalent of graduate students who might have become rigorous interpreters of his thought. Thus Bergson's philosophy—in principle open and nonsystematic—was easily borrowed piecemeal and altered by enthusiastic admirers".