Book 5 A Visit to Singaling (. . .And Gulliver Returns --In Search of Utopia--)

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Let the lower jaw lose all of the set feeling. Let the ribs and chest lose unnecessary rigidity. And, let the whole body become relaxed and at ease. Sigh several times, vocalizing the exhaling breath on words with open vowels; for example, "Ah," "No," "One. Yawn several times, letting the body relax throughout. For relaxation of the throat muscles: Let the muscles of the throat and neck relax, and move the head slowly in a circular movement as follows: Down counting to 6 Toward the right counting to 6 To the back counting to 6 Toward the front counting to 6 To the front counting to 6 Up counting to 6 Repeat the exercise turning to the left, etc.

For ease in manner and speech: Give the following selections, interspersing with frequent laughter. At first, laughter as an exercise may seem forced; but practice and persistence will bring freedom and naturalness. Re- member that laughter is produced in the same manner as speech tones — the breath is inhaled and the tones allowed to float out as the breath is exhaled.

Jacques has just seen Touchstone, the merry court fool. A fool, a fool! I met a fool i' the forest, A motley fool; a miserable world! As I do live by food, I met a fool. May was busy in the dairy, Old December said, "Good day. Said she'd taken it in play, Ha! Laughed the merry little May. Laughed the merry little elf. The second condition to establish and maintain for a good speaking- voice is correct posture or position. For de- tailed explanation and exercises, see Chapter II pages The third condition for a pleasing speaking- voice is relative to properly controlled breathing habits.

Breathing should be correctly centered, deep, and regular. Much more depends upon this kind of breathing than is usually believed. Ease, freedom, poise, bearing, voice, character, all are interdependent with correct breathing. Whether reclining, sit- ting, standing, or walking, establish and maintain diaphrag- matic, rhythmical, and controlled breathing. A few, simple explanations regarding the normal operation and function of the diaphragm, the most important muscle used in respiration, will undoubtedly prove helpful in making sure that the breathing is correctly centered and sufficiently active.

The diaphragm is a muscular partition separating the chest from the abdomen. It is in the center of the torso. Its position is oblique, lower in back than in front. It is convex, and when the breath is inhaled, the diaphragm contracts and its surface becomes flattened; when the breath is expelled from the lungs, the dia- phragm is relaxed and the organs resume their position. Although all parts of the lungs are used in breathing, the lower parts as well as the upper, endeavor to overcome any tendency to raise the chest as you breathe. Avoid the fault of abdominal breathing.

The breath should be centered at the diaphragm. This respiratory muscle should be strong and active enough to keep the breath so centered. Full breaths give support to the tones. There are some persons who attempt to make themselves heard with as little air in the lungs as possible.

While the tone is going on, never have the sensation of a complete collapse of breath, for then you have nothing to rest the voice upon, and consequently you have no spring to your voice. The lungs, like automobile tires, give better service when filled with air than when flat! Breathe frequently, fully, and rhythmically, talk on top of the breath, so that you may establish the active and controlled con- ditions of the breathing activities that result in good tone-pro- duction. Air fresh, with as many windows open as possible 2.

Diaphragm active and flexible; throat passive 4. Body strong or firm, but not tense 5. Mind tranquil Directions for practice: Before beginning a breathing exercise, always expel the air from the lungs. Do not raise the shoulders as you inhale. Take the exercises in the sitting as well as in the standing posi- tion. If at home, take the first few exercises in a reclining position, straightening the body to its full length; in this position you will VOICE: Do your counting in the same tempo as the ticking of a large clock.

Counting when inhaling is impracticable and almost impossible; therefore, the teacher will count for the exercises that involve inhalation, the student counting silently when taking the exercises by himself. When exhaling, count imaginary objects — birds in the open, boats on a lake, or flags in a parade — and you will thereby give spontaneity to the exercises. Establish the feeling that the breath is supporting the tones. Let the words slip out on top of the breath. An apt illustration is that of a boy riding into shore on the top of a surf board: Take a deep breath, inhaling to the bottom of the lungs; expel in a soft whistle.

Take a deep breath, and as you exhale, slowly count aloud up to 25, to 30, to 50, and finally to Take full, deep breaths as follows, repeating each exercise several times: In, 2, 3, 4, 5; hold, 2, 3, 4; out, 2, 3, 4, 5; hold, 2, 3, 4; In, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; hold, 2, 3, 4, 5; out, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7; hold, 2, 3, 4, 5; and continue increasing the breath up to: In, 14; hold, 9; etc.

Establish rhythmical breathing as you walk, inhaling and exhaling in accordance with the steps taken; for example, inhale to 7, hold, 1; exhale to 7, hold, 1. Inhale a full breath and exhale slowly, counting aloud in a series of threes, fives, or sevens; for example: Vocalize the breath with different sets of numbers; with each series expel the breath until it feels almost spent: Vocalize the breath with the words: For application of breath control to speaking and reading: Breathe through the nostrils with the mouth open, repeating the preceding exercises according to this method of breathing.

As the continual taking of the breath directly through the mouth has a tendency to dry the throat, this exercise is very valuable as preparation for platform speaking or reading. Be able to breathe through the nostrils as well when the mouth is open as when it is closed. Read the following poem, inhaling a full breath before each reading phrase and exhaling easily as you read the phrase. Take a great deal of time with this exercise.

I indicates that the breath is to be inhaled. As a result of attaining the three bodily- conditions — ease and relaxation, correct posture, and controlled breathing — the speech student should find the establishment of correct voice placement more or less of a simple process. Voice placement, let us say in explanation, is a term used today with several different meanings. Some authorities use the term in reference to the place that the voice seems to originate, the head resonators.

Other authorities use it in relation to the place where the words are focused, the point in space just outside the lips. Still others use the term in connection with the voice as it is pro- jected into the auditorium. However, voice placement is here used to mean the first named — the placing of the tones in the nose resonators. We may add, the mastery of the other two phases of a good speaking voice, — focusing the words just outside the lips, and projecting the voice into the auditorium in a way that all may hear, — will greatly aid in the establishment of perfect voice placement.

Inhale a full breath, hum the sound ng in the nose resonators, opening and closing the mouth but keeping the sound placed far forward so that there will be no difference in the sound whether the mouth is open or closed. As you read "The House of the Trees" and the poems on pages , hum before giving each phrase to make sure that the tones are in the nose resonators.

For focusing the words: As you read the passages, page 45, focus or condense the voice tones just outside the lips. For projecting the tones: As you read the passages, pages project the tones to the farthest corner of the room. A flexible voice is most desirable in ordinary conversation, and it is indispensable in platform speaking or reading. The body that is at ease and free from rigidity is at one's com- mand for action; likewise, the voice that is flexible and easily modulated is responsive to speech expression.

This flexibility may be innate, but with the ordinary voice it usually is not.

There- fore, as the pianist practices scales and arpeggios to give his wrists elasticity and strength, the average person should play with the speech tones of his voice to give them agility and freedom. Flexibility of voice includes range of tones, pitch of voice, and inflections. The range, or compass, of an ordinary speaking voice should be at least seven full notes; other notes should be available in addition to these seven.

Compare a voice with a range of only two or three speech tones with a selection played upon the piano with only two or three notes to give it variety! Monotony of tones is not only trying to the listener, but it many times indicates some form of monotony in the person's disposition. Take an inventory of your speech tones. If you find that your voice is rigid and inflexible, develop responsiveness in your character, and, at the same time, take the exercises pages until your voice has normal range. As you practice exercises that develop the upper notes in your voice, your lower tones will become richer in melody and quality.

Needless to say, the exercises are not for the purpose of encourag- ing you to use all of the tones all of the time, but to enable you to bring into action the tones that the occasion demands. A full range of speech tones will give you a feeling of ease and freedom, will please your auditors, and will greatly aid you in winning and holding the attention and interest of your audience. Pitch of tones is determined by the rate of vibration of the vocal cords.

If the cords are drawn tightly and the vibrations are rapid, the pitch of the voice is very high. If the cords are less tense, the vibrations are slower, and the pitch of the voice is low. The pitch of the voice may be lowered by the taking of deep breaths. One of numerous instances that might be quoted to illustrate this point is that of a certain boy with an excellent tenor voice, who was found to speak in a most trying voice of upper register.

After taking regular exercises in diaphragmatic breathing much deeper than was his custom, and learning how to vocalize these full breaths into his speech tones, this boy, much to his own delight, was able to pitch his speaking voice in a normal key, four notes lower than his former unnatural tones. Normal pitch indicates normal poise and ease. Changes of pitch are a means of discriminating one's ideas; they should not be chaotic, but should come with some definite change in thought.

Voice inflection is the modulation or sliding of the voice during the utterance of a word. There are three forms of inflection used in both ordinary conversation and in platform speech: Downward Circumflex ment ; long inflections indicate repose. Too definite rules regarding the making of inflections are rightfully considered old-fashioned, but the observance of a few simple directions regarding their general use will unquestionably help anyone overcome such tend- ency as he may have to place upward inflections where downward inflections belong, or downward inflections where upward inflec- tions belong.

Use downward inflections at the end of sentences to express affirmation or conviction. Use slight upward inflections within the sentence to indicate that the thought is incomplete. An upward inflection at the end of every thought phrase within the sentence serves to sustain the thought, — that is, to hold the ideas together and to give unity to the sentence-thought. Avoid making the upward inflections too marked, for you thereby will give to your speech tones an un- pleasant patronizing effect. Give upward inflections at the close of sentences only when you wish to imply question, uncertainty, or doubt.

Circumflex inflections indicate indecision, evasiveness, sarcasm, or comedy. Although these inflections are not used so frequently in ordinary conversation as are the other two forms, you will gain flexibility of tones by practicing the circumflex inflections with the other forms of inflection. Inflections are expressive, and they should be natural. If you find that you are speaking with unnatural inflections, just ask yourself, according to the context of your reading or speech, the questions What? In answering these questions with the appropriate words of the con- text, you will be able to establish natural inflections.

The meaning of a word or passage is often conveyed through inflec- tion. Provided your voice is flexible, you will find that definite thinking will result in correct inflections. For variety of tones: Count to twelve, speaking each number in a different tone and giving the final numbers with the same force and decisiveness that you would give to the conclusion of a speech. Count to twenty, to thirty, to forty, in the same manner. Count to fifty, phrasing the numbers into threes, fives, or sevens and speaking with the greatest variety of tones of which you are capable.

Tell three short stories 1 serious, 2 funny, 3 mysterious, using, instead of words, the letters of the alphabet. Have the feeling, as you take this exercise, that you are playing with the tones. Give words and phrases with decided inflections, as: Upward Downward Circumflex Figure 7. For variety of voices: Are you the gardener? According to the changes in thought, speak the following with quick changes in pitch: Was heard the old clock on the stair, — " Forever — never!

Rosalind aside to Celia. Read the following aloud, stressing in thought the words that are the most significant: It is easy in the world to live after the world's opinion; it is easy in solitude, to live after our own; but the great man is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.

Give the following lyric selections with the tip of the tongue nimble but strong: O the South Wind and the Sun!

How each loved the other one — Full of fancy — full of folly — Full of jollity and fun! Hail to thee, blithe Spirit! Bird thou never wert, That from Heaven, or near it, Pourest thy full heart In profuse strains of unpremeditated art. Come, and trip it as ye go, On the light fantastic toe. It was a lover and his lass, With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino, That o'er the green corn-field did pass In the spring time, the only pretty ring time, When birds do sing, hey ding a ding, ding: Sweet lovers love the spring.

Capulet gayly to his guests: A hall, a hall! Hamlet sincerely to Laertes: Give me your pardon, sir; I've done you wrong. Octavius defiantly to his enemies: Defiance, traitors, hurl we in your teeth; If you dare fight today, come to the field. Prospero profoundly to Ferdinand: Like the baseless fabric of this vision, The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve.

Bassanio loyally of Antonio: The dearest friend to me, the kindest man, The best-condition'd and unwearied spirit In doing courtesies. King Lear irefully to his daughter, Goneril: What, fifty of my followers at a clap! Gratiano humorously to Antonio: I am Sir Oracle, And, when I ope my lips, let no dog bark! Orlando jocularly to Rosalind: Good day and happiness, dear Rosalind! Othello earnestly to the Senators: Most potent, grave, and reverend signiors, My very noble and approved good masters. Horatius wonderingly to Hamlet: O day and night, but this is wondrous strange!

Portia charmingly to Bassanio: I pray you, tarry: Celia teasingly to Rosalind: Rosalind reproachfully to Orlando: Why, how now, Orlando! Portia anxiously to servant, Lucius: Why dost thou stay? Rosalind playfully to Orlando: Make the doors upon a woman's wit, and it will out at the casement; shut that, and 'twill out at the key-hole; stop that, 'twill fly with the smoke out at the chimney. Ophelia candidly to Laertes: Perdita graciously to Polixenes: It is my father's will I should take on me The hostess-ship o' the day.

Viola ardently to Olivia: Most radiant, exquisite, and unmatchable beauty! Perdita winsomely to Polixenes: Here's flowers for you; Hot lavender, mints, savory, marjoram; The marigold, that goes to bed wi' the sun. Portia thoughtfully to Nerissa: If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor men's cottages princes' pal- aces.

It is a good divine that follows his own instructions. Resonance is musical vibration, sometimes enriched and amplified. In voice, resonance results from the free vibration of the vocal cords, which vibration is amplified by the resonance chambers, — the hollow bones of nose, face, and mouth. Some persons have naturally a good voice resonance; others need to develop this musical quality of voice.

The resonance chambers of the speaking voice can well be com- pared with the bodies of musical instruments. All musical instru- ments have frames, usually of wood, that vibrate as the instrument is played. The key that is struck upon the piano plays upon a string which, in turn, sets in vibration the piano frame. The quality of tone depends not only upon the kind of wood of which the frame of the musical instrument is made, but also upon the freedom from all hindrances both inside and outside the frame.

Every person should be even more particular regarding the resonance chambers of his speaking voice than is the musician regarding his instrument. When you interfere consciously or unconsciously with your nasal resonators, you bring about the same kind of result that you would if you stuffed paper or cloth into the body or frame of a piano or a violin! Today, he is told that if he lets the nose resonators vibrate freely, he will have natural tones.

This so-called nasal quality of tone comes from closing off the nasal or resonance chambers. You can easily prove the truth of this state- ment by placing the fingers firmly over the nose resonators and then trying to speak. Hence, you will soon find that by the use of the nose resonators, the voice loses all nasality and becomes pleasantly resonant. If one has a beautiful singing voice, it does not necessarily follow that his speaking voice is melodious.

In fact, some excellent sing- ers are known to have rasping speaking voices; this is because they use the nose resonators when they sing, but when they speak, they partly shut them off. Make every endeavor to give the purest, the fullest, and the richest resonance to the speaking voice. Do not waste the smallest vibration. Keep free and active the nasal resonators so that they will respond readily and easily to the vibrations of the vocal cords. As far as possible, speak with the mouth in the singing shape.

A flat shape to the mouth has a tendency to produce flat tones, whereas a singing or more rounded shape to the lips un- doubtedly gives a rounder, fuller, and more pleasing sound to the tones. In order to give definite shape to a word, you condense the sounds just outside the lips. This condensation of sound you reenforce with the nasal resonators, the center of vibration.

One should never attempt to force resonance. Therefore, begin exercises for the development of resonance of tones with the most delicate of vibrations. If you increase the length and volume of these vibrations gradually, you will be greatly surprised at your rapid progress in the establishment of rich and resonant speech tones. Hum the sounds n-e-o-a. Repeat slowly several times. Repeat rapidly the word one; the word no. Hum the sound ng and vocalize into the words ring, sing, swing, cling, king, fling, bring, spring.

Hum, and then vocalize the hum into the words: Inhale a deep breath and as you exhale, hum the sound ng in the anterior nares. Open and close the mouth as you prolong the hum, and if the sound is exactly the same whether the mouth is open or closed, you have found the way to develop the resonance of your speaking voice. To verify the correctness of your placing of the resonance, let some one listen with his eyes turned from you to note any difference in the hum when your mouth is open and when it is closed.

For fullness of resonance: Read the following poem very slowly, imitating the sound of the bell each time that it occurs in the poem, thus: Inhale a full breath before each stroke of the bell and let the exhalation be in the form of condensed sound waves in the head resonators. If this is done correctly, the whole head will feel like a vibrant bell and the voice will immediately express fuller resonance than before. In every stanza but one, the ringing of the bell occurs; hence the members of the class may give the stanzas in rotation. This is a valuable exercise and should be given very slowly.

Singing bass to himself in his house at home.

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With his Bing, Bim, Bang, Borne! Mighty big in his house at home! For the Owl was born so poor and genteel, He was forced from the first to pick and steal; He scorned to work for honest bread — "Better have never been hatched," he said. So he slept all day; for he dared not roam Till the night had silenced the Bing, Bang, Borne! When his six little darlings had chipped the egg, He must steal the more; 'twas a shame to beg.

And they ate the more that they did not sleep well. So a fortnight he sat, and felt like a mome, For he dared not shout his Bing, Bang, Borne! Said the Owl to himself, and hissed as he said, "I do believe the old fool is dead. Now, now, I vow, I shall never pounce twice; And stealing shall be all sugar and spice. There let him hang, the shapeless gnome! Choked, with his throat full of Bing, Bang, Borne! And napped the poor Bell and said, "Is that you? Where is your voice with its wonderful tone, Banging poor owls and making them groan?

A fig for you now, in your great hall-dome! Too-whoo is better than Bing, Bang, Borne! He sat where he fell, as if naught was the matter, Though one of his eyebrows was certainly flatter. Said the eldest owlet, "Pa, you were wrong; He's at it again with his vulgar song. I brought him to life by perching inside. Hum America, My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean, and other melodies, taking a full breath before each musical phrase.

Hum lightly and make sure that the vibration is centered in the anterior nares; open and close the mouth as in Exercise page Read aloud the Little Classics from Shakespeare, pages , especially numbers 3 and 5 for boys or 1 and 5 for girls. Read aloud Ring Out, Wild Bells, pages The quality of voice is that indefinable some- thing that expresses the individuality of the person speaking.

Although this quality always remains the same in fundamental character, it may be molded and refined. A voice with a pure and mellow tone quality is universally ap- preciated. This quality depends partly upon the taking of deep, full breaths, yet it depends more upon the character and mental attitude of the individual. The saying is-,- J 'There is no index of the character so sure as the speaking voice. Therefore you will greatly improve the tone quality of your speaking voice by oral reading of fine and noble literature, and also by the singing of songs rich in beauty and harmony.

Even though you are not an accomplished musician, and never hope to be, you should know the principal chords upon the piano in order that you may intelligently give variety to your practice. Be sure that the piano is in tune. The keynote, or point of departure, varies with the individual.

The keynote of a girl's voice is usually about b below the middle c, and the keynote of a boy's voice is usually about an octave lower. Find this keynote of your voice and from this point of departure practice the exercises with an ascending and then a descending series of tones. Let your voice be responsive to the full meaning of each word as you give it aloud to the class. For example, do not speak the word mother as if you were asking your mother to wait upon you, but rather with the understanding of the real reverence given to the motherhood of the race.

For additional words, see pages Read aloud the following poem, letting the quality of tones be full and rich, velvety and mellow, or light and delicate, as the words and thought suggest. An English apple orchard in the spring? When the spreading trees are hoary With their wealth of promised glory, And the mavis pipes his story In the spring! Have you plucked the apple blossoms in the spring? And caught their subtle odors in the spring? Pink buds bursting at the light, Crumpled petals baby-white, Just to touch them a delight!

Beneath the apple blossoms in the spring? When the pink cascades were falling, And the silver brooklets brawling, And the cuckoo bird is calling In the spring! Have you seen a merry bridal in the spring? In an English apple orchard in the spring? When the brides and maidens wear Apple blossoms in their hair: Apple blossoms everywhere, In the spring?

If you have not, then you know not, in the spring, in the spring, Half the color, beauty, wonder of the spring. No sight can I remember, Half so precious, half so tender, As the apple blossoms render In the spring! Read aloud other lyric poems, thinking of the vowel sounds as you pronounce the words see pages For development of richness of tones: Read aloud exercises for spontaneity pages and for word- illumination pages Quality of tone should not be sacrificed for bigness of speech tones.

If the exercises for both quality and quantity of voice are taken watch- fully, these two elements of voice production may be developed at the same time. An open throat helps you to pronounce the vowels more freely and openly, and the vowels are the sounds that give the carrying quality to the voice.

A more active flexibility of the diaphragm always results in greater strength of voice. In the effort to make yourself heard, do not hamper this added strength by straining the throat muscles. The voice should never be forced. Activity of the diaphragm with passivity of the throat is the general condition to be established and maintained. When speaking before an audience, include in thought all persons in that audience, especially those in the last rows;.

If the auditorium is large and it is necessary for you to turn to the several parts of the audience at different times, you will find that if you speak directly to one part of the audience at one time, the other parts of the audience will have a feeling of directness in your delivery. In general, however, have the feeling that you are addressing the audience as if it were one person. Give the following words several times with volume and strength, inhaling a full breath before each word and speaking in wider and wider circles, aiming your voice definitely at different parts and corners of the hall or auditorium.

Or better still, speak with di- rectness to some one who may go from one part of the auditorium to another, asking you to speak "louder," "louder," "louder. As vowels give the carrying qual- ity to the voice, words with open vowels have been chosen for the following exercise.

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Book 5 A Visit to Singaling ("And Gulliver Returns" --In Search of Utopia--) Kindle Edition. by Lemuel Gulliver XVI and Jacqueline Slow (Author). An overview of the series " And Gulliver Returns" --In Search of Utopia-- This synopsis outlines the 8 finished books and the future 6 books. It also gives the.

Speak through an imaginary funnel with the large end towards yourself and the small end towards the audience, thus focusing the tones. Come over the river to us. Let each student, in turn, read a stanza of one of the following poems, expressing full responsiveness to the breadth of the ideas in that particular stanza. Ring out the grief that saps the mind, For those that here we see no more; Ring out the feud of rich and poor; Ring in redress to all mankind. Ring out a slowly dying cause, And ancient forms of paltry strife; Ring in the nobler modes of life, With sweeter manners, purer laws.

Ring out the want, the care, the sin, The faithless coldness of the times; Ring out, ring out my mournful rhymes, But ring the fuller minstrel in. Ring out false pride in place and blood, The civic slander and the spite ; Ring in the love of truth and right, Ring in the common love of good. Ring out old shapes of foul disease, Ring out the narrowing lust of gold, Ring out the thousand wars of old; Ring in the thousand years of peace.

Blow high, blow low, Heigh hi, heigh ho, We reached the Susquehanna Two hundred years ago. Blow high, blow low, Heigh hi, heigh ho, And crossed the salty deserts A year or so ago. We crossed Sonoma's mountains An hour or so ago, And found this mighty forest An hour or so ago. Blow high, blow low, Heigh hi, heigh ho, And found this mighty forest An hour or so ago. This was the noblest Roman of them all: All the conspirators, save only he, Did that they did in envy of great Csesar; He only, in a general honest thought And common good to all, made one of them.

His life was gentle, and the elements So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up And say to all the world, "This was a man! Orlando encouraging old Adam: Why, how now, Adam! Live a little; comfort a little; cheer thyself a little. If this uncouth forest yield any thing savage, I will either be food for it or bring it for food to thee. Remember March, the ides of March remember: Did not great Julius bleed for justice' sake? What villain touch'd his body, that did stab, And not for justice?

What, shall one of us, That struck the foremost man of all this world But for supporting robbers, shall we now Contaminate our fingers with base bribes, And sell the mighty space of our large honours For so much trash as may be grasped thus? I had rather be a dog, and bay the moon, Than such a Roman. Romeo extolling beauty of Juliet: What light through yonder window breaks? It is the east, and Juliet is the sun. Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon, Who" is already sick and pale with grief, That thou, her maid, art far more fair than she.

Polonius giving advice to his son, Laertes: To thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man. Portia addressing the court: The quality of mercy is not strain'd, It droppeth as the gentle rain from heaven Upon the place beneath: Viola pleading Duke's suit to Olivia: If I did love you in my master's flame, With such a suffering, such a deadly life, In your denial I would find no sense; I would not understand it.

Why, what would you? Make me a willow cabin at your gate, And call upon my soul within the house; Write loyal cantons of contemned love, And sing them loud even in the dead of night; Halloo your name to the reverberate hills, And make the babbling gossip of the air Cry out, " Olivia! Rosalind plotting disguise with Celia: Were it not better, Because that I am more than common tall, That I did suit me all points like a man? A gallant curtle-axe upon my thigh, A boar-spear in my hand; and, in my heart Lie there what hidden woman's fear there will, We'll have a swashing and a martial outside, As many other mannish cowards have That do outface it with their semblances.

Juliet speaking from the balcony to Romeo: Thou know'st the mask of night is on my face, Else would a maiden blush bepaint my cheek For that which thou hast heard me speak tonight. Fain would I dwell on form, fain, fain deny What I have spoke: Juliet expressing love to Romeo: My bounty is as boundless as the sea, My love as deep ; the more I give to thee, The more I have, for both are infinite.

When and where is a good speaking- voice especially necessary? What are the main qualities of an ideal speaking-voice? What are three conditions, or prerequisites, for a good voice? What relation to a good voice has correct bodily position? What is meant by voice placement? Do you have good breath control? Is your voice placed correctly? Is it pitched pleasantly? Do you speak with rich and full resonance of tones? Have you flexibility of tones? Do you speak with directness and strength of tones? The word diction L.

According to the derivation either meaning is correct. In this chapter, however, the word is used in the latter significance, — to mean clear and correct utterance. Good diction is considered one of the greatest assets of a suc- cessful speaker, a singer, or an actor; it is none the less important for a person of business or of social interests. It is a delight to listen to one whose diction may be considered perfect.

Sometimes such a one has good diction naturally; sometimes he has labored hours and days to acquire it. Be that as it may, the standard of correct and distinct speech is being recognized throughout the educated world as it has never been before, and this standard is rapidly being adopted and utilized. Some one has said, "The same natural law which commands each of us to defend the place of his birth obliges us also to guard the dignity of our tongue.

The little pebble thrown into the pond makes ripples that circle ever outward. A clear understanding of what good diction is and of the habits necessary to acquire that diction will greatly aid in insuring its permanency. Pronunciation and enunciation of words are the two main phases of diction. In the development of good diction, both the vowels and the consonants must be considered. Vowels give the music or beauty, consonants give the form or definiteness, to the words. As an English writer so well states: To gain the full value of the vowels, remember that the a's must be pure, the e's, the i's, and the w's sustained, and the o's open.

If you will read a passage of good literature — preferably poetry — bringing out only the vowel sounds, and then re-read, pronouncing the entire words, you will find that your tones have gained much in speech melody. It is readily seen that by beginning the study of diction with an appreciative pronunciation of the vowel sounds, you thus will make the music of words the basis of speech tones.

Pronunciation, as has been stated, refers to the correctness with which words are uttered. It in- cludes 1 giving to vowels and consonants their correct sounds, 2 syllabication, or dividing the words into their proper syllables, and, 3 placing the accent on the right syllable. Even though the correct pronunciation may seem strange and perhaps affected to you, do not hesitate to pronounce the words according to the standards of educated people of today.

Vigi- lantly watch all such tendencies as the common one of pronouncing most of the vowel sounds as if they were all short u; for example, because beciis , for fur , to tu , sirup siirup , and spirit spirut. As the subject of pronunciation is almost endless in its niceties of detail, only the most flagrant errors are pointed out and the simple rules pertaining to correct diction are herein given. Pronunciation with the aid of diacritics. To indicate the particular letter sound of a letter as differentiated from the other sounds of the same letter, a diacritic distinguish- ing mark is used.

There are eight main diacritics, including several modifications: The system of diacritical markings as given in Webster's New International Dictionary is the one generally understood and adopted as authority, and therefore it is the one used in this book. The long sounds of the five vowels are the name-sounds of the letters; that is, they are pronounced as they appear in the alphabet. The long vowel sounds occur always in accented syllables, and are distinguished by the macron above the letters. Of these sounds the most frequently slighted is the long u; therefore, give it special attention.

For lowered-long e, which is the long e followed in the same syllable by an r, see below the long vowels. The quickened-long vowel sounds are thus named because they are not so long in quality as the long vowels. These vowel sounds are sometimes referred to as half-long, and also as modified-long, vowels. They always occur in unaccented syllables, and the distinguishing mark is a suspended bar above the letter. Quickened-long a duplicate gradation portraiture vacation Note: For a as in cottage, see short 1. The quality of the short vowel sounds varies according to whether the vowel occurs in an accented, or in an unaccented, syllable.

The breve is used to distinguish the short vowel sounds. The sounds occurring in accented syllables appear in the regular roman type; the sounds occurring in un- accented syllables appear in italics. Of the five short vowel sounds, the short 6, including the italic short o, is most frequently mispronounced; therefore, give it special attention. For short circumflex 6, as in s5ft, see below circumflex vowels. The long 6b and the short do are both formed by rounding the lips into a whistling shape, but this shape is narrower with the sound of long 6b than with the short 6b.

There is a faulty tendency to pronounce long oo with as short a value as the short 6b and sometimes to pronounce it as short u. If the sound of 6b in the word moo is used for the key sound in the pronunciation of words containing long oo, this error may be quickly overcome. The distinguishing diacritic for long oo is a macron above; and, the distinguishing diacritic for short do is a breve above. The Italian a, pronounced ah, is called the open throat vowel, and is perhaps the most beautiful sound in the English language. There are two sounds, the long Italian a and the short Italian a, which are the same in quality but different in quantity, — the long sound being more prolonged than the short sound.

The long Italian a is distinguished by two dots above the letter. The short Italian a is distinguished by one dot above the letter, — the short sound that occurs in accented syllables being indicated by roman type and the sound that occurs in unac- cented syllables being indicated by italicized type. It is helpful to know that the Italian a when followed by an r, as in art and harbor, is always pronounced correctly.

It is important to know that a, as in awful, has the sound of circumflex 6. For the short circumflex o, as in soft, see below circumflex vowels.

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Intermediate o gone office song toss offer soft strong wrong Tilde vowel sounds. The tilde e is pronounced with a delicate but distinct glide or wave. It always is followed by an r, and occurs only in unaccented syllables. The distinguishing mark is a tilde or wave. The soft c has the name sound of c as in the alphabet, and is distinguished by a cedilla below the letter. The hard e has the sound of k and is distinguished by a macron placed across the letter. The soft g has the name sound of the letter g as in the alphabet and is distinguished by one dot above the letter. The hard g is pronounced with a more guttural sound and is distinguished by a macron above the letter.

The voiced, or soft, s has the sound of z, and is distinguished by a suspended bar below the letter. The voiceless, or sharp s, has the name sound of the letter, and is not distinguished by a diacritic. Voiced or soft s: The voiced th is pronounced, as its name indicates, with a distinct vocal sound and is distinguished by a macron or bar across the letters.

The voiceless, or aspirate L.

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If you place your hand before your mouth when you pronounce the following examples, you will be aware that the aspirate is given with more breath than the vocal sound. Voiced w is a guttural sound shaped by the lips. Voiceless w has the sound of wh, or, better still, as hw. Some persons seem to have difficulty in differentiating voiced and voiceless w; and yet there is no greater error in pro- nunciation in the English language than that of omitting the h sound in words beginning with wh.

If you are told that you have this fault in pronunciation, take the exercise carefully as follows: Pronounce the wh by rounding the lips as if forming oo and then draw them apart, expelling the breath as you utter the word. Repeat the words in this list additional words to be found on page 78 until you have mastered the correct pronunciation.

The voiced x is pronounced with a distinct vocal sound and is distinguished by a suspended bar below the letter. The voiceless or aspirate x is pronounced as the name- sound in the alphabet; this letter is breathed out as the term aspirate implies and it has no distinguishing diacritic. The digraph ch has three main sounds: The two vowel diphthongal sounds are oi or oy, pronounced as a-e , and ou or ow pronounced as a-oo.

The letter y is classed as a vowel when it is part of the diphthong oy; the letter w is classed as a vowel when it is part of the diphthong ow. The diphthongs have no distinguishing diacritics. Bring to class examples other than those given of the fol- lowing groups of sounds: Compose a short story of either sense or nonsense that con- tains at least fifty of the words cited as examples of the word- sounds. Read the result to the class, being careful not to slight nor to mispronounce a single vowel sound.

Syllabication, as the name implies, is the method of dividing words into the proper syllables for pronunciation. In the primary grades, the young people of today are taught to recog- nize certain phonograms or phonic units; for example, ed, en, an, ot, ig, un, which serve as key sounds to the pronunciation of words. The children thus learn to pronounce easily at sight words that are unfamiliar. After looking over the above table according to its arrangement — from left to right, then from upper to lower divisions — make a similar chart inserting examples of your own selecting.

Whichever method you use, learn to pronounce words new to you with ease, assur- ance, and accuracy. When you come upon an unfamiliar word in your oral reading, do not make a full stop and look at it as a jumble of letters, neither look appealingly to the teacher or to your fellow students; but deliberately and quickly separate the words into phonic-units, or into syllables, and pronounce these sound units in their regular order.

This quick discernment of sounds in their proper sequence will add to the smoothness and rhythm of your oral reading. A syllable, wherever possible, should be opened with a con- sonant, and closed with a vowel, as: Two consonants occurring together are separated, as: However, this rule does not apply to digraphs, such as ch, gh, ph, th, which are pronounced as single sounds.

Two vowels occurring together are separated, as: A consonant between two vowels goes with the later syllable, as: Practically same rule as Rule 1. An initial vowel forms a syllable by itself, as: However, this rule does not apply when the vowel forms the initial letter of a one-syllable prefix. The above rules are applicable only in general, because of the many peculiarities of the English language. Pronounce the following words according to the syllabica- tion indicated and state the general rule applied: Read silently, separating the words into sound units, and then read aloud, the following: Popular government is a practical rather than a philosophical concept.

Its existence is not determined by the application of political dogmas, the constitutional organization and distribution of its powers, or the qualifications of its electors. Its existence depends ultimately upon considerations that are more permanent, organic, and psychological.

In the last analysis and for all prac- tical purposes, popular government is that form of political organ- ization in which public opinion has control. And this means that the existence of public opinion is the prime requisite of popular government. The stress or accent that is given to certain syllables of words imparts not only clearness but rhythm to our language. Few greater errors can be made in the use of the English tongue than the mispronunciation of a word through the accenting of a wrong syllable.

If you are remiss in this regard, you can easily overcome your weakness by using either of the following devices: If you receive too much help from the other students, you will be able to gain little freedom and accuracy in giving stress to the accented syllable. It is far more important that the method and habit of stressing accented syllables be acquired than that a specific word be accented correctly. Pronounce these words aloud, the class naming the syllables accented. Let the class in unison, and then as individuals, pronounce according to the accent mark, the following words: Accent the first syllable: Accent the second syllable: Accent the third syllable: Let the class pronounce in unison the pairs of words that are alike in spelling, but different in accent, as follows: Let the class in unison pronounce correctly the following words being careful to pronounce all letters that should be pronounced, and to omit all letters that should not be pronounced.

Let the members of the class take turns in endeavoring to give without error the complete list. Pronounce in one syllable: Pronounce correctly, neither inserting nor adding letters: Pronounce the following words, omitting the silent letters: Pronounce the following words, speaking each word in order according to its two pronunciations, which are both correct: Pronounce the i as y in the following words: Pronounce correctly words containing ur ur: Pronounce the following words respelled and marked to in- dicate pronunciation: Let the class pronounce in unison, and then individually, the following everyday words.

Compose sentences impromptu, using with pronunciation accuracy some or all of the words given. Pronounce, according to the anglicized pronunciation, the following names: Eiffel Tower eif'fel Marseilles mar sals" Barcelona bar'ce lo'nd Michelangelo mikel an'gelo 7. Pronounce clearly and correctly the following words that are frequently confused because of similarity in either spelling or sound. Use these words in sentences in a way that indicates your understanding of the difference in meaning.

Consult the dictionary if you have the least doubt regarding either the pronunciation or the meaning.

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For distinct enunciation, the tongue, especially the tip, and the lips, especially the outer edge, should be used very definitely in the formation of the sounds. An arched tongue, too lazy a tongue tip, too rigid a jaw, or too tightened a larynx inevitably result in poor enunciation. It is easy to be seen that the words are mumbled when a person talks with the middle, or root of the tongue, and the tones muffled when a person VOICE: The front part of the mouth is called the vowel chamber. Form the vowel sounds in this vowel chamber, and you will do much toward bringing the sounds forward and toward making them intelligible.

The using of the breath that is in the mouth will greatly aid in bringing about effortless enunciation.

Be watchful that you finish one word before you begin the next. Nearly everyone has a tendency to enunciate the beginning conso- nants but to slur some of the middle consonants and to clip the final consonants. Two cautions may well be given at this point. In the endeavor to enunciate clearly, do not make the mistake of over-using the organs of speech. It is worse, in some ways, to over-use the lips in pronunciation than not to use them enough. And do not enunciate words ending with the letters d or tin such a way that you add extra letters; for example, crept-t, kept-t, and met-t!

The class in unison will give with rhythm and slowly increas- ing tempo the following exercise. The a has the sound of long Italian a; and, p and b are more muscular than aspirate. Each single exercise is to be repeated several times before the word is uttered. Trill with the tip of the tongue and then with the lips the melody of some familiar song; for example, "My Bonnie Lies over the Ocean," "Home Sweet Home," "America.

Let the class in unison give the following exercise, enunciat- ing distinctly the initial consonants with the tip of the tongue and the edge of the lips. The exercise must be given in rhythm, the tempo of which should be slightly increased as each combi- nation of sounds is repeated in quick succession.

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