A fast temperature drop is critical for several reasons:. You want to be in this zone as briefly as possible. A rapid cool-down knocks proteins out of suspension and results in clearer beer in your glass. More predictable hops utilization: Hops continue to contribute bitterness even at sub-boiling temperatures. Letting wort remain too hot for too long extracts additional bitterness you may not want. Each and every beer we make has to be racked at least once during its lifespan. While professional brewers typically rely on pumps to move beer between stainless steel vessels, homebrewers usually employ a siphon.
Brewing the best beer possible means using enough yeast to get the job done. Unfortunately, a single vial or pack of liquid yeast contains only enough cells for very low gravity ales, up to about 1. Although you could simply use multiple packages, this can get expensive if you make lagers or high-gravity ales.
Homebrewers can use this to their advantage by making a yeast starter. A properly made starter lets you build up the number of yeast cells you need from just one package and can save you money. It takes only about half an hour, but plan to make it at least 24 hours before you need the yeast. This will give the yeast cells time to reproduce. One of the best things you can do to promote yeast health is to provide plenty of oxygen at the start of fermentation. Oxygen is vital for yeast growth and development.
But how much do you need, and how do you get there? Download the full illustrated guide here. The sixth tip in our list of Ten Tips for Beginning Homebrewers recommends investing in a carboy handle. A good handle prevents your hand from slipping on a slippery carboy neck and offers your aching back a reprieve from awkward lifting. Here are a few more things to know about these handy devices. Most of the time, I do just fine with the standard-issue airlocks you find at homebrew stores nationwide. I prefer the 3-piece airlock for primary fermentation and the S-shaped model for secondary and bulk aging.
A blow-off tube is nothing more than a generous length of wide-diameter tubing. One end plugs into your fermentor in lieu of an airlock, and the other end is submerged in an adjacent container of sanitizer I use a spare growler jug. So, how do you know you need a blow-off tube before you actually need a blow-off tube? Here are a few criteria I consider when deciding to reach for the blow-off tube instead of a regulation airlock.
Because the fermentation process produces heat, homebrewers are far more likely to need to cool down a vessel of homebrew than warm it up. There are certain circumstances, however, in which you may want to raise the fermentation temperature. If you find that your fermentation could benefit from a little extra warmth, here are a few ways to bring the heat. Dishwashers make bottling easy and painless.
Thiols, also known as mercaptans, are sulfur-containing organic compounds with a sulfur atom bound to a hydrogen atom. Homebrew expert Brad Smith, author of the Beersmith homebrewing software, and the voice behind the Beersmith podcast, answers a question on water profiles. So, how do I get started? The best advice for the beginner is to pick up a good book on home brewing and at least read the beginning chapters. The book by Papazian has more detailed instruction for beginners and lots of home brewers refer to it as the bible of home brewing. The book by Miller, in my opinion, has less information on recipes for beginners and proceeds more quickly into brewing theory and advanced brewing, but is a great technical guide.
So, what is this going to cost me? The equipment list for your first batch should include at a minimum:. Five gallons of beer is equivalent to a little more than 2 cases of 12 ounce bottles. Of course the cost will vary with the style of beer and the ingredients used. Sounds better all the time. So, let's see what brewing is about.
The basic ingredients in beer are malt extract typically from malted barley , hops, water and yeast. There are numerous other things you can put in your beer to produce various flavor profiles and characteristics, but we will keep this simple. Pick one of the books mentioned above to learn more. The malt you will use as a beginner will either be a malt extract in syrup or dry powder form.
The syrup is generally less expensive to use.
Malt extract is essentially a blend of complex sugars that the yeast will feed on. The waste product of yeast is alcohol which is why these little critters are so important. Hops are used as a preservative and to add the nice crisp bitterness found in some beers. To learn more about hops, see the article by Jim Layton http: To brew, you will go through a process of boiling the malt extract and hops in water.
Then you will cool the wort the term used for the malt extract, water and hops mixture and adding yeast to the cooled mixture. So, what do I do for my first brew? The first step is to visit your local brew shop to pick up your brewing kit. The shop owner will typically allow you to choose one of a variety of pre-packaged beer kits with the purchase of your starter brewing kit. Speak to the shop owner about the kit and your expectations for flavor and alcohol content.
He may recommend adding additional malt extract or hops to your batch. So you made it home with your new toys.
Making craft beer is lots of fun. This approachable and comprehensive guide will make it easy for to lear to brew beer at home. Brewing Beer at home is easy with our FREE guide. Download to print and keep!.
And you have either read the book that came with your kit or you just want to jump straight into brewing. Consider all the steps in your process for a few minutes and plan out your brew. The process will take several hours and the more organized you are the better utilized your time will be. This is a very important step and the author of any beginning book will express this strongly. Bacteria are a serious enemy of a good beer and contamination of your beer will provide you with some very unpalatable concoctions.
A simple sanitizing solution consists of 2 tablespoons of chlorine bleach per gallon of water. A fifteen minute soak of your carboy, racking hoses, corks, air locks and funnel is sufficient. Be sure to rinse everything thoroughly. Minute amounts of chlorine in your finished beer can also create some very strange flavors.
Detergents can also effect head retention, so if you like that bead of foam on your glass, rinse your equipment well. While we are discussing chlorine, if you are using municipal water, you should use a carbon filter or boil your brewing water for about 15 minutes the day before you brew to get rid of the chlorine. The closer to boiling the full 5 gallon batch of beer the better. One reason for boiling is to sanitize your wort and the more of your water that you boil, the less chance of bacterial infection.
If you are adding additional hops, the boil will also be used to extract the oils from the hops. There is some trade off to larger boils. Larger boils take longer to get started. Large boils also take longer to cool and you will not want to add your yeast to your wort until it is below 78 degrees Fahrenheit. Open your beer kit or can of extract and add it to your water. Take a small amount of boiling water and rinse the can so you get all the syrup out. Stir the wort and add heat. Stir periodically until the solution comes to a boil.
This will help keep the wort from scorching. You should never poor hot wort directly into an empty glass carboy.
The things will shatter. The more wort you boiled, the more important this step is. You can accomplish the cooling process by placing your boiling pot in a sink or bathtub full of ice. You will want to keep the pot covered during this process to help prevent contamination, but be sure your pot lid is sanitized.
As the temperature of the wort drops it becomes more vulnerable to bacteria. The faster you can cool the wort the better. If you boiled less than five gallons, you can put the difference in cool water directly into the carboy. Then you can add relatively hot wort to the cool water in the carboy. This will save you time off the cooling process.
The cool water in the carboy will help cool the hot or warm wort. If you have decided to use a pack of dry yeast, then at least 15 minutes before you are ready to add your yeast to the carboy, the yeast should be rehydrated. Let the water cool to the desired temperature of to degrees Fahrenheit. Then add the yeast.
The yeast should be allowed to stand in the water for 15 to 30 minutes before adding to the wort in the carboy. So, don't put the yeast in the carboy just yet. If you are using liquid yeast such as White Labs, you do not need to do this step. Follow the instruction on the vial. Add your wort to the carboy and aerate. Poor the wort into the carboy. You will notice that the wort has particulate floating in it. The amount of particulate will vary with your ingredients such as additional hops that you added. Ideally, you want to prevent as much of this from entering your carboy as possible.
Don't worry it too much though. There are many conflicting opinions on how detrimental this stuff, called trub pronounced troob , is to the final taste of the beer.
I have no real strong opinion on this and simply try to minimize the transfer as little trub as possible to the fermentation vessel. There are a several methods to minimize the amount of trub entering your carboy. One method is to place a hop bag a small mesh nylon bag used for placing hops in for boiling in the mouth of the funnel as a filter.
If you have used extra hops in the boil, you can place the hop bag with the hop still in it out of your wort and put it in the funnel for a filter. Then poor your wort over the hops and into the carboy.
The method I use is to rack or siphon the wort out of the boiling pot into the carboy. I use my racking cane and hose for siphoning. The racking cane his a rigid plastic tube with a curved end. There is a plastic cap on one end. The cap is designed to allow fluid to flow over its top and into the cane. You will lose a little of the wort regardless of the method you use. As you are adding the wort to the carboy or after you have transferred all the wort to the carboy, aerate the wort. You can do this by rocking the carboy back and forth gently so that the wort splashes up the sides of the carboy.
Yeast need oxygen in their early stages and aeration helps ensure a healthy start for your friends. If you want to track your alcohol content, this is the point that you take a sample of the wort. Drop your hydrometer in the glass and take a reading.
Creating an awesome beer that is even better than you expected is a great feeling. A fifteen minute soak of your carboy, racking hoses, corks, air locks and funnel is sufficient. A 5 gallon fermentation vessel. The yeast you get with your can of homebrew concentrate is not the best yeast going around. You want to be in this zone as briefly as possible. One of the best ways to reduce the likelihood of your beer getting contaminated is to chill the wort as fast as possible, dropping the temperature from that dangerous range that evil bacteria just love.
Pitch the yeast and put on the airlock. Make sure your wort has cooled to 78 degrees Fahrenheit or lower before adding or pitching your yeast. High pitching temperatures get the yeast to work faster, but the yeast will produce strange flavors if the temperature is excessively high. They will also die if they are extremely hot.
After you have aerated your wort for 5 or 10 minutes, pour the yeast into the carboy. Place the cork or carboy cap on the mouth of the carboy. Put the airlock in the hole in the cork or cap. Half fill the airlock with water or vodka. I recommend vodka in the airlock because bacteria are not likely to bother with it and it adds a layer of protection.
Ferment for 10 days to 2 weeks. Put the fermenter in a cool dark spot.
The temperature of fermentation is ideally between 60 and 70 degrees for most ales and between 45 and 55 degrees for most lagers. Try not to aerate the wort after the yeast has been added. Aeration, once fermentation begins, can cause cardboard like stale flavors. Light is another enemy of beer. Ultraviolet rays can cause skunky aromas in beer. So either keep the carboy in a closet or cover it with a dark towel.