In , the Englishman R. Of perhaps greater importance was the social contacts that the club created between its members, many of whom would later help found other breed clubs. In , the Bulldog Club was founded at the Blue Post Inn in London, and now is longest operating breed specialty club in the world.
The Bulldog Club published a new standard very similar to the Philo-Kuan standard, and likely partially based their standard on it. The Bulldog Club began to hold breed specific dog shows, as well as award special prizes for exceptional animals. Other Bulldog clubs were formed, most prominently the London Bulldog Club. These breeders worked to maintain what they considered to be the most important breed characteristics, but to substantially change the temperament of the breed.
The animal that they created was substantially different from its ancestors. Breeders focused on the least aggressive Bulldogs, those that would not only make the best family companions, but cause the fewest issues with other animals as well. It is widely believed that some early breeders crossed Bulldogs with Pugs to soften their temperaments. The Bulldog was reinvented.
The breed which was once so fierce that it could not be used by gamekeepers because it was impossible to control and could not be kept from attacking other animals had become world-renowned for its gentle and affectionate nature. Small size was more desirable for companion dogs, and the average height of the Bulldog shrunk by several inches, largely due to a reduction in the length of the legs.
In fact, the modern Bulldog is considered by many to be the most exaggerated of all pure-bred dogs. A dog that would have once been described as stocky had become squat. A rich musculature had become immense bulk. The always short face became almost flat. Within a few decades, the Bulldog went from being an energetic and fit athlete to a lazy and tank-like couch potato. Some breeders continued to breed smaller and smaller bulldogs, and for several decades in the late 19th and Early 20th Centuries, there was a unique breed known as the Toy Bulldog.
During these years, a number of British factory workers had immigrated to Normandy, France. They brought the Toy Bulldog with them and it became extremely popular with the French people. So many of these dogs were imported to France that they became very rare in England. The French made several alterations to the breed such as adding long prick ears and eventually the Toy Bulldog became the French Bulldog.
The Bulldog became so popular that it became an icon, an unofficial symbol of everything British, and especially everything English. The appeal of the Bulldog as a mascot is quite obvious. The breed looks scary and tough, an animal both to be feared and worthy of imitating. However, unlike most other mascots, it is easy to keep an actual Bulldog around and not just a person in a cartoonish suit. The Bulldog itself is inexpensive and low maintenance to keep, and most are more than good-natured enough to meet the fans in person. American colleges and universities, as well as elementary, middle, and high schools, particularly favor the breed.
Probably one of the oldest Bulldog mascots in continuous use is that of the United States Marine Corps; the first of which was King Bulwark, a registered English Bulldog signed into Marine Corps service in a formal ceremony on 14 October The use of the Bulldog as a mascot has a great deal to do with the long lasting popularity of the breed. Many children are familiarized with the breed from a young age as a result of sports, and many also get a chance to meet live Bulldogs serving as mascots.
Because of its unique appearance and tremendous popularity, the Bulldog is very commonly depicted in popular media. Bulldogs have made countless appearances in art, literature, film, and television. Recently, web videos of skateboarding Bulldogs have gotten the breed a great deal of attention. Bulldogs have been present in the United States since colonial times, and new Bulldog blood was regularly imported with British immigrants. Although the changes made to the modern Bulldog were primarily made in England, American breeders were quick to follow the same paths.
The official AKC name for the breed is simply the Bulldog. Four years later, H. Although initially composed of a few men in the Northeast, the BCA quickly became a truly national organization. The Bulldog became popular around the world, especially in English-speaking countries, and numerous Bulldog clubs have been formed in many countries. In recent years, the Bulldog has become the target of criticism, largely as a result of its health. The exaggerated physical characteristics cause the breed a number of health concerns, most famously respiratory and cardiac issues. Bulldogs have a very short life expectancy for a dog, although the exact length varies from country to country.
These dogs also suffer from a number of chronic painful conditions. The head of the Bulldog has become so large that most females cannot give birth naturally and require Caesarian Sections. In , the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC broadcast the documentary Pedigree Dogs Exposed , which was highly critical of pedigree dog breeding practices especially with regards to inbreeding and health. Pedigree Dogs Exposed was especially critical of the health of the Bulldog.
The Kennel Club refused to exclude any breeds, in a move many believe put advertising revenues and profit above the health, well being and general soundness of the breeds in question. The official statement from the KC was: The Kennel Club was, however, convinced some have said forced under popular pressure to make changes to the official Bulldog standard, as well as implement new health protocols for all breeds.
This great controversy does not seem to have especially impacted the United States. As of yet, the AKC and UKC have not made significant changes to their Bulldog standards, and the breed continues to rise in popularity. In Australia, Bulldog breeders unhappy with the health of their dogs decided to cross Bulldog males with females of other breeds to create a healthier, natural whelping breed.
The end result of their efforts was a new breed, the Australian Bulldog. The Bulldog has long been popular in the United States but has recently gone through an immense surge in popularity and numbers. In the last decade, the Bulldog has become one of the most fashionable dog breeds and is highly sought after as a pet.
There are now many thousands more Bulldogs registered each year than there were ten years ago. In , the Bulldog was the 21st most registered breed in terms of AKC registrations. The Bulldog is currently one of the most popular pets in the United States, and its popularity does not show any signs of letting up.
Although once bred as a ferocious fighter, the modern Bulldog has become so exaggerated and lazy that it is ill-suited for any task other than companionship or conformation showing. Virtually every Bulldog in the world is now primarily a companion animal or show dog, although that is probably to the great preference of most breed members.
There is perhaps no dog breed with as unmistakable an appearance as an Bulldog.
Long a common sight in popular media, the Bulldog is perhaps the most recognizable dog in America. The Bulldog is quite short in height, but surprisingly large in terms of weight. Although Bulldogs are somewhat variable in terms of height, most stand between 12 and 16 inches tall at the shoulder. The average female Bulldog weighs between 35 and 55 pounds, and the average male weighs between 40 and 60 pounds.
The first reference to the word with the modern spelling is dated Therefore, the Old English Bulldog had outlived its usefulness in. Modern English Bulldogs rarely live longer than six human years or just term for large dogs so the bulldog's earliest origins remain unclear.
These weights are for breed members in good shape, many obese Bulldogs weigh significantly more. The Bulldog is perhaps the stockiest of all breeds, and is often described as the tank of the canine world. Some of the girth comes from thick bones, but most comes from pure bulk. The Bulldog is surprisingly muscular, but does not always appear this way. The legs of the Bulldog are very short, and often have heavily bent joints. This breed is also perhaps the most thick-chested in comparison to body size of any dog.
The tail of the Bulldog is naturally very short. The tails of most Bulldogs are between 1 and 3 inches long, but may be straight, curly, or kinky. The head of an Bulldog sits at the end of a neck that is both very thick and very short. The head itself is massive for the size of the dog, both in terms of depth and width. This breed is famous for having a flattened, square shaped head. This is perhaps the most brachycephalic of all dogs, meaning that it has the most pushed-in muzzle.
The muzzles of many Bulldogs are so reduced in length that they barely extend from the rest of the head at all. The lower jaw generally extends farther than the upper jaw and most Bulldogs have pronounced under bites. The muzzle generally points slightly upwards, and the noses of many Bulldogs look like they are facing partially backwards. The lips of the Bulldog are very pendulous, forming prominent jowls. The face of the Bulldog is covered in long, thick wrinkles. The eyes of this breed are set fairly deeply into the skull, and as far from the ears as is possible.
The ears of this breed are very short and thin. The ears of some Bulldogs drop down close to the head, while others stick straight out. The overall impression of the Bulldog is somewhere between fierce and comical. The coat of an Bulldog is quite uniform over the entire body of the dog, short and straight. The coat lies flat and very close to the skin. The hair is smooth and soft to the touch and should look glossy to the eye.
Bulldogs come in many different colors, all of which have a number of fanciers. However, kennel clubs have preferences for various color schemes. According to both the AKC and the UKC, the ideal color for an Bulldog is red brindle red base coat with black stripes , followed by all other brindles, solid white, solid red, fawn, or yellow, and piebald white base coat with patches of solid color or brindle in that order.
Standards do indicate that an ideal specimen of one pattern is preferably to an inferior specimen of a more preferred pattern. Bulldogs are also occasionally found in solid black or solid dark brown. While most kennel clubs strongly disfavor these two colors, especially solid black, many fanciers greatly prefer them.
Perhaps no breed has gone through as dramatic a temperament change as the Bulldog has over the past years. The Bulldog went from being an athletic and dangerously aggressive fighter to a lazy and good natured companion. Bulldogs are a very people-oriented breed. These dogs like to be around their families at all times. Some Bulldogs are very dependent, and want to be lap dogs.
Others prefer to be in the same room as their families but on their own sofa. Most Bulldogs are quietly affectionate, not in a jumping and licking way. The Bulldog is generally very tolerant of strangers, and when properly socialized almost all are polite and accepting. Although very rarely human aggressive, some Bulldogs do develop territorial issues and food aggression issues are quite common. Some breeders recommend feeding Bulldogs outside of the presence of children or other animals to prevent problems from developing.
The watch and guard dog abilities of this breed vary tremendously from dog to dog. Many Bulldogs are so lazy and disinterested that they will not give even the slightest alert that a guest is at the door. Others jealously guard their homes with very loud and flashy displays which are enough to give a wrongdoer pause. Most of these displays are all bark and no bite, and only a very small percentage of Bulldogs are aggressive enough to make a serious guard dog. It takes a tremendous amount of teasing or threatening to arouse an Bulldog, but once one is enraged it is a powerful and determined force of nature.
Bulldogs are generally good with children. This breed is very gentle with children, and also very tolerant of them, although it is very important that children be taught how to behave properly around the dog. With the exception of the aforementioned food and territorial issues, most socialized Bulldogs get along very-well with children although they are not especially playful with them or anyone else for that matter. The modern Bulldog generally gets along well with other animals. This breed has comparatively low-levels of dog aggression and when properly trained and socialized most breed members get along very well with other dogs and would prefer to share their lives with a canine companion.
Although generally not dog aggressive, some male Bulldogs become somewhat aggressive towards other male dogs and may challenge them for dominance on a regular basis, sometimes with violence. Bulldogs also get along very well-with non-canine animals. Although any unsocialized dog will pursue and potentially attack unfamiliar animals, this breed has a very low prey drive and is much less interested in doing so than most dogs. Once properly socialized, the Bulldog will rarely give other pets any problems, especially cats which most of these dogs completely ignore when familiar with them.
The Bulldog is famously difficult to train. This breed is perhaps the most stubborn of all dogs. This stubbornness often prevents a breed member from learning a new command, or from obeying a command it knows well. Bulldogs will learn manners and simple obedience without too many difficulties, but they are rarely flawlessly obedient.
Only masterful dog trainers working with exceptional Bulldogs can get this breed to do advanced training such as obedience competitions and even then there is a limit. Negative training techniques and correction have virtually no impact on this breed, which is capable of and willing to completely ignore them. Rewards based training techniques are considerably more effective, but Bulldogs often decide a treat or a word of praise is insufficient to get them to perform a task.
While the Bulldog is not an especially dominant breed, it does recognize a master that is not in control.
While generally stubborn and resistant, an Bulldog that comes to think that it is in charge of a situation is absolutely intractable. More important is to know what exactly where the foundation dogs of these breeding programs, hence, the third theory option.
Immigrants from the British Isles, Spain and Northern Europe brought their prized bulldogs and bull terriers with them on their voyage to the New World, where they would certainly have proved their worth in many ways. The dogs provided welcome protection in a sometimes hostile land and also were invaluable to the livestock farmer whose cattle and pigs roamed unfenced over wide areas; this made the livestock hard for the farmer to catch when required, and so the "catch dog" came into being.
The selective breeding that had created a dog with the strength, tenacity, courage and longing to seize a bull at a baiting or engage in some other form of animal combat now made him the free-range livestock farmer's best friend. In his new role the bulldog could seize a cow or pig and and hold him firm until his handlers joined him to tie or slaughter the animal.
In addition those same abilities made him a most formidable tool for hunting wild game, a scenario the American Bulldog continues to excel in today in parts of the United States. His major role however was as a general watchdog and companion more than anything else, which continues to be the breed's forte. Pedigrees or other records were not kept, these were not show dogs so there was no need. Natural selection governed the development of the bulldog in America in those times, and as working dogs in a harsh world, poor performing dogs either died in action or would be culled by their owners.
Breedings would be decided purely on a dog's abilities: If you had a good bitch and wanted a litter and you knew someone who had a good proven dog then a tie might be arranged to create another generation of working bulldogs , some of which may have been sold to provide a little extra cash in those tough times. Many breeding experiments would undoubtedly have been tried over the many decades that have elapsed since those first bulldogs and bull terriers landed in America, some successful and some probably less so.
Higher proportions of terrier blood would have added tenacity and quickness to some strains too. An extra dose of modern "sour-mug" English Bulldog blood has apparently been added by at least one well known breeder in fairly recent history to increase the "bulliness" of his lines.
A couple of mystery ingredients have probably been added too at some points back in the past. Continue reading with the American bulldog types and blood lines and the breed's description. Stories, Facts and Legends by L. Miller Unfortunately out of print.
Types and blood lines. Original idea, design and development by C. No part of bulldoginformation. Please feel free to link from your site to any of the pages on this website in a non-frame presentation only. True Stories of Dogs and Their Handlers by Kristin Mehus-Roe Explores the many ways in which dogs historically and currently serve humankind in the workplace, while encouraging sensitivity to the needs of working dog breeds kept as pets.
MacKenzie Good for both novice and seasoned trainers More information. A Training Manual--Tracking, Obedience, Protection by Dietman Schellenberg For beginners and experts alike in the fields of tracking, obedience and man-work.