Voyager 1 Observations and Model Results. Published online 27 June [DOI: McDonald "Recent Voyager 1 data indicate that on 25 August at a distance of Article first published online: Stone , "Radial Velocity along the Voyager 1 Trajectory: Webber , "Modelling of low-energy galactic electrons in the heliosheath", Advances in Space Research, Volume 48, Issue 9, p.
Decker , "Higher-energy plasma ions found near the termination shock: Wood , "The Dynamic Heliosphere: Higbie , "Galactic propagation of cosmic ray nuclei in a model with an increasing diffusion coefficient at low rigidities: Higbie , "Limits on the interstellar cosmic ray electron spectrum below GeV derived from the galactic polar radio spectrum and constrained by new Voyager 1 measurements", Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume , Issue A11, CiteID A, Lal , "Galactic cosmic ray H and He nuclei energy spectra measured by Voyagers 1 and 2 near the heliospheric termination shock in positive and negative solar magnetic polarity cycles", Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume , Issue A10, CiteID A, Webber , "An asymmetric solar wind termination shock", Nature, Volume , Issue , pp.
Lal , "Passage of a large interplanetary shock from the inner heliosphere to the heliospheric termination shock and beyond: McDonald , "Cosmic ray energy changes in the heliosphere: Liu , "Correlation between energetic ion enhancements and heliospheric current sheet crossings in the outer heliosphere", Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 33, Issue 21, CiteID L, Magnetic Fields", Science, , , Stone, "Characteristics of the Termination Shock: Heikkila, Nand Lal, Norman F.
Richardson, and William R. Edited by Vladimir Florinski, Nikolai V.
Pogorelov, and Gary P. American Institute of Physics, p.
Lockwood , "Onset and amplitude of the year solar modulation of cosmic ray intensities at the Earth and at Voyagers 1 and 2 during the period from to ", Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume , Issue A9, CiteID A, McDonald , "Step decreases observed at 1 AU and in the distant heliosphere: McDonald , "A 1. Reames , "Relative recovery of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays at 1 AU: Debrunner , "Differences in the maximum intensities and the intensity-time profiles of cosmic rays in alternate solar magnetic field polarities", Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume , Issue A6, pp.
Toward a new paradigm for understanding the global solar modulation process: Lockwood , "Voyager and Pioneer spacecraft measurements of cosmic ray intensities in the outer heliosphere: Toward a new paradigm for understanding the global modulation process: Heikkila , "Using transient decreases of cosmic rays observed at Voyagers 1 and 2 to estimate the location of the heliospheric termination shock", Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume , Issue A1, pp.
Ormes, Editor, submitted, Proceedings of the 10th Annual International Astrophysics Conference.
The year marked the 50th anniversary of the invention of the neutron monitor, a key research tool in the field of space physics and solar-terrestrial relations. East Dane Designer Men's Fashion. Jagadeesan, Atul Jain, S. Zank , "Asymmetries of the Heliosphere: AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Travis and Andrew A.
Lal , "Large periodic time variations of termination shock particles between 0. An example of freshly accelerated cosmic rays? As they propagate through the heliosphere, their intensity and properties are modulated by the structure of the solar wind. This modulation is seen, for example, in the anticorrelation between solar activity and GCR intensity.
Anomalous cosmic rays ACRs were first observed in the early s as a peculiar, or "anomalous," distortion of the cosmic-ray composition. Most ACRs begin as galactic neutral atoms that enter the heliosphere and are subsequently ionized. Some are accelerated to higher energies by interplanetary shocks and may experience further acceleration—to energies in excess of 1 GeV—at the termination shock.
Because of their mobility, the ACRs can then move throughout the heliosphere, to be observed as a significant distortion of the observed galactic cosmic-ray spectrum.
Cosmic Rays and Earth , Edited by J.