The roughly litres of water that has been continuously flowing out of the tunnel every second ever since cannot simply. Airbags in a car are made of plastics, the helmet and much of the protective clothing for a motorcyclist is based on plastics, an. Hot-filling is a non-aseptic method for high-acid drinks mainly juices in which sterilisation. The technical possibilities for use of geothermal energy extend from the supply of individual family homes using heat close to the surface. At 2 0 0 degrees Celsius a n d thousands [ A somehow more complex one could be like switching on several pre-defined light sources,.
The advantages of this material over a laminated coldform film include the environmental benefits from optimized materials input,. What is a characteristic of highly flammable Class. At the glacial maximum of the last ice age roughly 18, years ago the. Most frequent English dictionary requests: Please click on the reason for your vote: This is not a good example for the translation above.
The wrong words are highlighted. It does not match my search. It should not be summed up with the orange entries The translation is wrong or of bad quality. Thank you very much for your vote! You helped to increase the quality of our service. In comparison with resistance thermometers, thermocouples have the clear advantage of a higher upper temperature limit of up [ All available economic reports indicate, however, that the cost of not acting in terms of natural disasters by far exceeds the costs of reducing [ When the surrounding temperature [ Europe, the ground temperature a few meters below a building's basement is a relatively [ Mitteleuropa hat das Erdreich wenige Meter unter dem Kellerboden eine im Jahresverlauf relativ konstante Temperatur [ The EU is to ensure that all European discussions and measures relating to the topic of climate change be consistent with the overarching [ Therefore, the weight matrix W is set as follows for the relative error approach: It is often advantageous to have the ability to limit the allowable ranges of each branch durations.
These are set in the GTSSM by appropriate values are assigned to the elements in the small b min and b max vectors forming the right hand sides of the matrix-dependency relations in equation 24th. In some cases, it is desirable to specify that certain branch durations are to be exactly the same to the target values. Das wird als Sperren des Zielwertes bezeichnet.
This is called locking the target value. In some cases, it is for. This capability is implemented in the GTSSM by the value of the appropriate elements of the upper and lower bounds vectors bmin and bmax forming the right hand sides of the matrix depending on conditions in Equation 24 is respectively set to the target value the matrix H should be positive definite. To avoid complications with this numerical problems, branches can be the duration of no interest, small weights are assigned or may be a solution method are used, the treated particularly the case where H is only positive semidefinite.
On the basis of previous experience or special tests, the desired durations of all of thermal forming process steps reheat, final-bubbles, etc. If the cycle period branch duration unlocked, locked all of the branch durations related to thermal molding, and lock the mechanism-motion branch durations at the value corresponding to the fastest possible mechanism work durations, the target duration for the cycle period to zero may be set thereby indicating that is to take it as short as possible. The QP-solving method then finds the plan with the shortest possible cycle period consistent with all network dependencies.
These constraints include the locked thermal process durations and the durations of the mechanism moves, together with the requirement that a collision is avoided, that an appropriate sequence is maintained, etc. It is possible that a special plan reaches the required cycle period and desired set of durations of thermal forming processes, but that it requires a faster moving some mechanisms, as it is required in the strict sense, to achieve these goals. It may instead be desirable to operate the mechanisms only as fast as necessary to achieve the other desired objectives.
This would reduce the average and the peak current of the servo motors and the corresponding heating of engines and may reduce other general wear of the system. The QP-solving method would have to speed up the mechanism if this is necessary to meet the constraints of the cycle period and the durations of thermal processes the degree of freedom, otherwise it would increase the motion durations as much as possible.
Das kann erreicht werden, indem die Werte der Lagrange-Multiplikatoren am Ort des Optimalplanes untersucht werden. Values for a particular Lagrange multiplier, which is not zero, indicate that the objective function either grow or would drop depending on the algebraic sign of the Lagrange multiplier by the value of the associated element of the bmin and b, max vector changes.
Solche Bedingungen werden aktive genannt. Such conditions are called active. By the user the active constraints listed are displayed appropriately on the relative size of their Lagrange Multiplikatioren values, the user is informed about which limits would be the biggest constraint in achieving the desired results. In such a case it is important to recognize that the problem can not be solved, and the limits as far too loose, so as to obtain a reasonable solution.
QP solution methods can typically recognize that there is no reasonable solution, and set a corresponding flag. This flag can be used by software that implements the GTSSM, to display a prompt the user to relax some constraints as much as possible. The MAR "Matrix Algebraic Representation" also makes it possible to analyze a proposed plan to detect potentially harmful or undesirable violations of constraints.
This option includes a mechanism for performing intelligent input qualification with which the user is requesting changes to event times which goes far beyond a conventional checking the upper and lower limits. The main purpose of the methodology for the analysis plan is to provide the opportunity to consider a proposed plan to violations of constraints now and then to report the violations that are found.
The method also allows to immediately report any violations in a manner that allows the user to understand the consequences of this violation and, if possible, indicate an antidote. The actual checking for violations of constraints is quite simply the computationally and includes only a single matrix multiplication and subtraction. To achieve the desired functionality completely, some further considerations must be taken into account. The added complexity is due primarily to the fact that only node event is scheduled to be time for a subset of the nodes in the overall system model. This subset of nodes is called the set of independent nodes.
The nodes times for the remaining dependent nodes are then automatically calculated from the independent nodal times and known, fixed branch durations. Die Gesamtmethodologie besteht dann aus den folgenden Komponenten: The overall methodology then consists of the following components: The slave node times can be achieved with the previously defined set of constraints by the following method is used.
If the proposed plan by the vector of nodal times, where t proposed constraints given to be tested by the equations 22 and 23 are given by the following set of inequalities: Are not completely satisfied the inequalities in one of the equations 35 or 36, the proposed plan violates at least one constraint. Jede Reihe in Gleichung 35 und Gleichung 36 stellt eine besondere Systemzwangsbedingung dar.
Each row in Equation 35 and Equation 36 represents a particular system constraint. Accordingly, any number can be assigned in these equations, an explanatory text and a display of the extent.
The series numbers of those series that have not met the required inequality would then provide an index for recalling and displaying the appropriate error message. This assignment of text and severity can be done in an automated fashion. To understand how such an automatic assignment can be carried out, one must recall that the rows in Equation 35 or 36 are derived from network branches.
The implied by each branch type of injury can therefore be an attribute that a particular branch type is assigned and then specified for that particular branch. For a collision branch z.
This event could also provide an indication of the extent to z. Die entsprechende Reihe in Gleichung 35 oder Gleichung 36 wird dann diese Beschreibungen von den Zweigen, von denen sie herstammt, erben. The corresponding row in Equation 35 or Equation 36 is then inherit these descriptions from the branches, from which they originated. Alternatively, after once a network dependency graph has been fully defined for a particular molding process, individual messages are entered manually or automatically generated default set could be edited and the resulting data could in a table for each of the finite number of injury are stored by constraints that may occur.
While this manual approach may have some improvement in readability of the messages result he might otherwise be prone to error and must be updated if any changes in the network dependency graph are made. Der automatische Ansatz ist daher zu bevorzugen. The automatic approach is therefore to be preferred.
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The "on" switch of a mechanism is an event and "off" switching of a mechanism is an event. This list is available by the machine control. In order to move from a closed to an open plan plan, the original network dependency graph is extended with a new set of directed branches called opening branches. The subgraph formed from the opening branches along with the motion and sequence branches and the nodes that lie on these branches will be referred to as a cycle-opening graph.
The CUG is a connected graph. The nodes of the CUG correspond exactly to the set of all the source and destination nodes for all motion and process branches in the NCD "nework Constraint Diagram", network dependency diagram. This means that each "on" - and "off" angle of the synchronized drum sequence controller is shown on the graph. Every branch in the CUG is part of a cycle path from an event to the next periodic repetition of that event. The feature of the fourth associated with the nodes of the CUG branches fan out on either or, but not both.
If there is more than one branch, leaving a given node then there is only one node entering it fan out. The above features imply that the CUG further has the following additional features: Jede Sequenz von drei Knoten, die von zwei miteinander verbundenen Zweigen in Zweigrichtung durchlaufen werden kann, ist Teil mindestens eines gemeinsamen Zyklus'. Any sequence of three nodes that can be traversed by two interconnecting branches in branch direction, is part of at least one common cycle. Thus, each node in the CUG is between two other events in a cycle sequence.
Since each branch in the CUG is part of a cycle ', it must be less than one period. The problem is then solved in a series of steps, the tests include whether the input data is properly ordered to provide a valid solution. An open cycle following the formation of the post and its delivery to the blank station, the transfer of a parison from the blank station to the blow station and the removal of a formed bottle from the blow station.
Which is a translation of the relevant data in the dependency graph and includes lists of all branches and identifies for each name, type, source node number, end node number, etc.. This can be done manually by a drawing of the dependency diagram is investigated, but it can also be done by a computer using a computerized image of the dependency graph. In the illustrated embodiment the computerized model is based on Matrizenmathematik, but there could be other mathematical approaches are used. Depending on the type of bottle and process for producing the bottle z.
As shown, may be stored in memory, and input a number of data tables Data Table "N" , if desired. It should be noted that travel times for the job must be defined, while the event angles and machine cycle time are normally available from an existing job file. While the word input means that the inputted information is made available, it could be made available through other sources. Especially the lower limits for the collision and sequence branches zero can be set or to a selected margin of error, and that in turn can be locked by the user, or the user can access to these inputs are provided, so that the user define any desired lower limits can.
A violation of a constraint would be a plan that would lead to an event in the wrong order. Another would be a plan that would lead to a collision. These inputs and outputs, as well as the inputs and outputs in the later discussed embodiments, could be made available for viewing on an appropriate screen. It runs a particular job and basic data for that job the durations and limits have already been entered into the controller.
These data together with the machine cycle time can be downloaded from the machine control. In a conventional IS machine having a number of mechanisms that are operated via pneumatic cylinders, the travel times and under aeration durations need to be defined empirically such. For example, with high-speed cameras. The information presented by interested parties shows that sales of foundry coke are generally based on contracts where both.
Features of this environment include construction work, substrates forming soil from relocated soils, from exposed rock or a large number of. For if the choice of a female head with curly hair in the illustration for curly can still be explained by traditional. Although the manufactured cigarette products may be further segmented according to their characteristics relating to their presentation packsize, length, packaging, diameter or characteristics relating to the tobacco blend, taste and flavour,. On the other hand, it is precisely one of the fascinating points in the Hannover piece that there are repetitions in reality, that the place stages itself every day all by itself: Why are eyebrows being lightened?
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