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As suggested by Hill and Marks [ 24 ], a mass media campaign ought to be considered as akin to holding down a spring in driving behaviour change, restraining the very powerful forces that otherwise promote smoking behaviour. The only content we will consider removing is spam, slanderous attacks on other members, or extremely offensive content eg. The outcome was a binary variable representing the occurrence of a quit attempt in the 3 months prior to completing a follow-up survey. NRT GRPs were unrelated to quit attempts in the initial multivariate model and were dropped from further analysis. Uptake and effectiveness of the Australian telephone quitline service in the context of a mass media campaign.
Jan 18, John Adams by David McCullough. Search for a book to add a reference. We take abuse seriously in our discussion boards. Only flag comments that clearly need our attention. There was only weak evidence that quit attempts differed between states, while gender and SES were unrelated to quit attempts. NRT GRPs were unrelated to quit attempts in the initial multivariate model and were dropped from further analysis.
Respondents who had an interest in quitting in the previous year had 2. Refitting the final model using bootstrap estimation did not result in appreciably different standard errors and CIs e. This suggests that the conclusions from the final model are fairly robust and not likely to be due to the increased chance of detecting significant effects when several models are fitted on the same set of data. For the purposes of interpretation, Fig. These values are derived from predictions using the final model where GRPs are allowed to vary from their minimum observed value to the maximum, and all other covariates are held constant at their observed values.
At the mean value of approximately GRPs over 3 months, the predicted probability of making a quit attempt is We found that tobacco control media campaigns are associated with a significant increase in the proportion of smokers who make quit attempts in the months during advertising exposure but not for advertising exposure that is more than 3 months old. This supports past suggestions that there are relatively short-term carry-forward effects of campaigns on quit attempts. In the public health literature, the notion that mass media campaigns might provide a time-limited trigger for prompting behaviour change has not been well appreciated, with some lamenting the absence of long-term effects of only short-run campaigns.
Funding authorities often assume that after a period of initial investment, media campaigns might be expected to require very little ongoing support [ 24 ].
This suggests a basic misunderstanding of the capability of mass media campaigns to produce durable effects on behaviours like quitting smoking. Our results instead underline the need for repeated cycles of broadcasting of mass media campaigns to achieve sustainable population changes in smoking behaviour. We found that recent campaign exposure prompted quit attempts even among those not interested in quitting at baseline. Furthermore, spontaneous quit attempts appear to have at least a similar likelihood of success as those that are delayed [ 28 ] and unplanned attempts seem at least as successful as those that are planned [ 26 , 27 ].
In Australia, baseline quit attempt activity is relatively high [ 14 , 29 ] and anti-smoking mass media campaigns are a frequent reason cited for trying to quit [M. Wakefield, submitted for publication.
Within the recent 3-month period, the fact that we did not find a diminishing return on quit attempts at higher levels of campaign exposure suggests that even in this population who evidence relatively high quit attempt activity, further increases in tobacco control media campaign investment could be expected to efficiently result in additional population increases in quit attempts. The fact that NRT advertising was unrelated to quit attempts in this population is worthy of comment.
Our findings are consistent with a previous time-series study in Australia which found that while tobacco control advertising accelerated declines in smoking prevalence, NRT advertising did not [ 16 ]. Arguably, the main aim of NRT advertising is not to promote quit attempts but to direct those trying to quit to use a particular product as an aid when they do try.
Limitations of the study include the use of GRP data as the measure of media campaign exposure. GRPs represent estimates of exposure at the population level and smokers within media markets may receive more or less exposure depending upon how much television they watch and their television program selection. However, GRPs do correlate well with recall of advertising [ 8 , 30 , 31 ].
A second potential limitation was that our outcome measure was a self-report of making a quit attempt in the past 3 months and our advertising exposures needed to be aggregated accordingly to cover this 3-month period. More fine-grained aggregations at the monthly or weekly level, if sample size permitted, would have furnished more detailed information about the decay of advertising effects.
In this respect, future studies might employ weekly or monthly cross-sectional tracking surveys undertaken during and after broadcasting to further investigate campaign decay effects [ 32 ]. Thirdly, we did not adjust for the different styles of tobacco control campaigns that were broadcast over the period that may have had different rates of decay. Continuous tracking of graphic ads illustrating health harms of smoking has suggested different effects for different executions [ 32 ]. Although the majority of Australian campaign advertising did use this style of message, our aim was to examine the effects in aggregate of tobacco control campaigns.
In fact, a strength of our study is that our campaign exposure and outcome measures are not tied to any one specific campaign but are average effects of these styles of campaigns in general. Assessing the effects of individual styles of campaigns on quitting attempts remains a question for further study. As suggested by Hill and Marks [ 24 ], a mass media campaign ought to be considered as akin to holding down a spring in driving behaviour change, restraining the very powerful forces that otherwise promote smoking behaviour.
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Once campaign broadcasting ends and the factors that promote smoking are allowed to regain dominance, the higher rate of quit attempts declines. Our study results are entirely consistent with this perspective and lend support for ongoing investment in media campaigns to reduce smoking prevalence. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation. Conflict of interest statement. Effects of mass media campaign exposure intensity and durability on quit attempts in a population-based cohort study M. View large Download slide. Uptake and effectiveness of the Australian telephone quitline service in the context of a mass media campaign.
Investigating the relation between placement of quit antismoking advertisements and number of telephone calls to quitline: Effectiveness and cost effectiveness of television, radio and print advertisements in promoting the New York smokers' quitline. Televised state-sponsored antitobacco advertising and youth smoking beliefs and behavior in the united states, Anti-tobacco television advertising and indicators of smoking cessation in adults: Effects of different types of antismoking ads on reducing disparities in smoking cessation among socioeconomic subgroups.
The outcome consequences of defunding the Minnesota youth tobacco-use prevention program. Impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence. Differential cessation rates across populations: Predicting smoking cessation with self-reported measures of nicotine dependence: Catastrophic pathways to smoking cessation: Unplanned attempts to quit smoking: To what extent do smokers make spontaneous quit attempts and what are the implications for smoking cessation maintenance?
Findings from the international tobacco control four country survey. One size does not fit all when it comes to smoking cessation: Can we measure encoded exposure? Validation evidence from a national campaign. Assessing the validity of confirmed ad recall measures for public health communication campaign evaluation. Continuous tracking of the Australian national tobacco campaign: Adults' response to Massachusetts anti-tobacco television advertisements: Published by Oxford University Press.
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