Word origin of 'deviant'. Example sentences containing 'deviant' These examples have been automatically selected and may contain sensitive content. And how long have they been screening against such rare deviant behaviour? Times, Sunday Times For the very vulnerable it gives them a platform , a licence to express their extreme and deviant behaviour.
straying or deviating especially from an accepted norm (see norm sense 2) deviant behavior. deviant. noun. de·vi·ant | \ ˈdē-vē-ənt \. plural deviants. Definition. Deviant definition, deviating or departing from the norm; characterized by deviation: deviant social behavior. See more.
Times, Sunday Times It is important to recognize that not all deviant acts are criminal , and that not all criminal acts are universally regarded as deviant. Translate your text for free. Nearby words of 'deviant'. Definition of deviant from the Collins English Dictionary. Many Marxist writers have the theory of the capitalist state in their arguments.
For example, Steven Spitzer utilized the theory of bourgeois control over social junk and social dynamite; George Rusche was known to present analysis of different punishments correlated to the social capacity and infrastructure for labor.
He theorized that throughout history, when more labor is needed, the severity of punishments decreases and the tolerance for deviant behavior increases. Jock Young , another Marxist writer, presented the idea that the modern world did not approve of diversity, but was not afraid of social conflict. The late modern world, however, is very tolerant of diversity. The late modern society easily accepts difference, but it labels those that it does not want as deviant and relentlessly punishes and persecutes.
Michel Foucault believed that torture had been phased out from modern society due to the dispersion of power; there was no need any more for the wrath of the state on a deviant individual. Rather, the modern state receives praise for its fairness and dispersion of power which, instead of controlling each individual, controls the mass. He also theorized that institutions control people through the use of discipline. Foucault theorizes that, in a sense, the postmodern society is characterized by the lack of free will on the part of individuals.
Institutions of knowledge, norms, and values, are simply in place to categorize and control humans.
And how long have they been screening against such rare deviant behaviour? An Empirical Assessment of the Mediating Process". Labeling theory, consequently, suggests that deviance is caused by the deviant's being labeled as morally inferior, the deviant's internalizing the label and finally the deviant's acting according to that specific label in other words, you label the "deviant" and they act accordingly. Mercenaries and Masculinity in Twentieth-Century America. Rather, the modern state receives praise for its fairness and dispersion of power which, instead of controlling each individual, controls the mass. Acts of punishment thus designate who is in our community by clearly defining who is not in our community.
Praveen Attri claims genetic reasons to be largely responsible for social deviance. The Italian school of criminology contends that biological factors may contribute to crime and deviance. Cesare Lombroso was among the first to research and develop the Theory of Biological Deviance which states that some people are genetically predisposed to criminal behavior. He believed that criminals were a product of earlier genetic forms. The main influence of his research was Charles Darwin and his Theory of Evolution.
Lombroso theorized that people were born criminals or in other words, less evolved humans who were biologically more related to our more primitive and animalistic urges. From his research, Lombroso took Darwin's Theory and looked at primitive times himself in regards to deviant behaviors. He found that the skeletons that he studied mostly had low foreheads and protruding jaws.
These characteristics resembled primitive beings such as Homo Neanderthalensis. He stated that little could be done to cure born criminals because their characteristics were biologically inherited. Over time, most of his research was disproved. His research was refuted by Pearson and Charles Goring.
They discovered that Lombroso had not researched enough skeletons to make his research thorough enough. When Pearson and Goring researched skeletons on their own they tested many more and found that the bone structure had no relevance in deviant behavior. The statistical study that Charles Goring published on this research is called "The English Convict". Beccaria assumed a utilitarian view of society along with a social contract theory of the state.
He argued that the role of the state was to maximize the greatest possible utility to the maximum number of people and to minimize those actions that harm the society. He argued that deviants commit deviant acts which are harmful to the society because of the utility it gives to the private individual. If the state were to match the pain of punishments with the utility of various deviant behaviors, the deviant would no longer have any incentive to commit deviant acts. Note that Beccaria argued for just punishment; as raising the severity of punishments without regard to logical measurement of utility would cause increasing degrees of social harm once it reached a certain point.
Cross-cultural communication is a field of study that looks at how people from different cultural backgrounds endeavor to communicate. All cultures make use of nonverbal communication but its meaning varies across cultures.
In one particular country, a non-verbal sign may stand for one thing, and mean something else in another culture or country. The relation of cross-cultural communication with deviance is that a sign may be offensive to one in one culture and mean something completely appropriate in another. This is an important field of study because as educators, business employees, or any other form of career that consists of communicating with ones from other cultures, you need to understand non-verbal signs and their meanings, so you avoid offensive conversation or misleading conversation.
Below is a list of non-verbal gestures that are appropriate in one country, and that would be considered deviant in another. These are just a few non-verbal cross-cultural communication signs of which one should be aware. Cross-Cultural communication can make or break a business deal, or even prevent an educator from offending a student.
Different cultures have different methods of communication, so it is important to understand the cultures of others. Proponents of the theory of a Southern culture of honor hold that violent behavior which would be considered criminal in most of the United States, may be considered a justifiable response to insult in a Southern culture of honor. Taboo is a strong social form of behavior considered deviant by a majority. To speak of it publicly is condemned, and therefore, almost entirely avoided. Some forms of taboo are prohibited under law and transgressions may lead to severe penalties.
Other forms of taboo result in shame , disrespect and humiliation. Taboo is not universal but does occur in the majority of societies. Some of the examples include murder , rape , incest , or child molestation. Howard Becker , a labeling theorist, identified four different types of deviant behavior labels which are given as:. The police maintain public order by enforcing the law. Police use personal discretion in deciding whether and how to handle a situation.
Research suggests that police are more likely to make an arrest if the offence is serious, if bystanders are present, or if the suspect is of a visible minority. Courts rely on an adversarial process in which attorneys-one representing the defendant and one representing the Crown-present their cases in the presence of a judge who monitors legal procedures.
In practice, courts resolve most cases through plea bargaining. Though efficient, this method puts less powerful people at a disadvantage. There are four jurisdictions for punishment: Community-based corrections include probation and parole. These programs lower the cost of supervising people convicted of crimes and reduce prison overcrowding but have not been shown to reduce recidivism.
Many works of literature offer allegories illustrating the conflict between character and society, in which the character does not conform to the society's norms and is subsequently alienated, ostracized, socially sanctioned, discriminated against or persecuted.
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Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency. A first look at communication theory. An Introduction, An Interpretation, Integration. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Genesis, Varieties, and Criticism. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Starpoint Press, Elmhurst, IL. Types of Neutralization and Delinquency.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. The Free Press, In Cullen, Francis T. Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory. An Empirical Assessment of the Mediating Process". Louisiana State University Press. Asch conformity experiments Milgram experiment Stanford prison experiment. Auxology Biological hazard Chief Medical Officer Cultural competence Deviance Environmental health Euthenics Genomics Globalization and disease Health economics Health literacy Health policy Health system Health care reform Public health law Maternal health Medical anthropology Medical sociology Mental health Pharmaceutical policy Public health intervention Public health laboratory Reproductive health Social psychology Sociology of health and illness.
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In the United States the O. In the United States the thumbs up is used for hitchhiking, or approving of something. In the United States whistling can express approval, as in cheering at a public event. In East Asian cultures, avoiding eye contact is considered polite. In Japan the O.
In the United States using your middle finger is very offensive. Used in place of swearing or deliberately offensive verbal language. In Europe whistling may be a sign of disapproval at public events.