In general, the format used by the faculty in all subjects is shown in Table 2. Biostatistics is a key component of biomedical research. Highly reputed journals like The Lancet, BMJ, Journal of the American Medical Association, and many other biomedical journals include biostatisticians on their editorial board or reviewers list.
This indicates that a great importance is given for learning and correctly employing appropriate statistical methods in biomedical research. This was followed by a practice and demonstration session. Statistics CD, compiled by Dr. Raveendran, was distributed to the participants before the session began and was demonstrated live. Both speakers worked on a variety of problems that involved both clinical and experimental data. They discussed through examples the experimental designs encountered in a variety of studies and statistical analyses performed for different types of data.
For the benefit of readers, we have summarized statistical tests applied frequently for different experimental designs and post-hoc tests [ Figure 1 ]. Conceptual framework for statistical analyses of data. Of the two kinds of variables, qualitative categorical and quantitative numerical , qualitative variables nominal or ordinal are not normally distributed. Numerical data that come from normal distributions are analyzed using parametric tests, if not; the data are analyzed using non-parametric tests.
The most popularly used Student's t -test compares the means of two populations, data for this test could be paired or unpaired. One-way analysis of variance ANOVA is used to compare the means of three or more independent populations that are normally distributed. Applying t test repeatedly in pair multiple comparison , to compare the means of more than two populations, will increase the probability of type I error false positive. In this case, for proper interpretation, we need to adjust the P values. Repeated measures ANOVA is used to compare the population means if more than two observations coming from same subject over time.
Subsequently, appropriate post-hoc tests are used for pairwise comparisons of population means. Two-way or three-way ANOVA are considered if two diet, dose or three diet, dose, strain independent factors, respectively, are analyzed in an experiment not described in the Figure. Categorical nominal unmatched variables counts or frequencies are analyzed by Chi-square test not shown in the Figure. The legitimate pursuit of scientific creativity is unfortunately being marred by a simultaneous increase in scientific misconduct.
A disproportionate share of allegations involves scientists of many countries, and even from respected laboratories. Misconduct destroys faith in science and scientists and creates a hierarchy of fraudsters. Investigating misconduct also steals valuable time and resources. In spite of these facts, most researchers are not aware of publication ethics. He spoke on the essentials of publication ethics that included plagiarism attempting to take credit of the work of others , self-plagiarism multiple publications by an author on the same content of work with slightly different wordings , falsification manipulation of research data and processes and omitting critical data or results , gift authorship guest authorship , ghostwriting someone other than the named author s makes a major contribution , salami publishing publishing many papers, with minor differences, from the same study , and sabotage distracting the research works of others to halt their research completion.
He also advised the audience that authorship is not just credit for the work but also responsibility for scientific contents of a paper. Although some Indian Universities are instituting preventive measures e. Unnikrishnan argued for a great need to sensitize young researchers on the nature and implications of scientific misconduct. Finally, he discussed methods on how editors and peer reviewers should ethically conduct themselves while managing a manuscript for publication. Research outcomes are measured through quality publications. The story of the project must be told in a clear, simple language weaving in previous work done in the field, answering the research question, and addressing the hypothesis set forth at the beginning of the study.
Scientific publication is an organic process of planning, researching, drafting, revising, and updating the current knowledge for future perspectives. Writing a research paper is no easier than the research itself. The lectures of Day 2 of the workshop dealt with the basic elements and logistics of writing a scientific paper. The characteristics of a good abstract and title and the creation of appropriate key words were discussed.
He also suggested that an abstract is a succinct summary of a research paper, and it should be specific, clear, and concise, and should have IMRaD structure in brief, followed by key words. Selection of appropriate papers to be cited in the reference list was also discussed.
The final part of the presentation was devoted to thesis writing, and Dr. Prakash provided the audience with a list of common mistakes that are frequently encountered when writing a manuscript.
The backbone of a study is description of results through Text, Tables, and Figures. This section is subdivided into three segments, that is, descriptive form of the Text, providing numerical data in Tables, and visualizing the observations in Graphs or Figures. All these are arranged in a sequential order to address the question hypothesized in the Introduction.
The description in Text provides clear content of the findings highlighting the observations. It should not be the repetition of facts in tables or graphs. Tables are used to summarize or emphasize descriptive content in the text or to present the numerical data that are unrelated. Illustrations should be used when the evidence bearing on the conclusions of a paper cannot be adequately presented in a written description or in a Table.
Tables or Figures should relate to each other logically in sequence and should be clear by themselves. Furthermore, the discussion is based entirely on these observations. Additionally, how the results are applied to further research in the field to advance our understanding of research questions was discussed. The Discussion section deals with a systematic interpretation of study results within the available knowledge. He said the section should begin with the most important point relating to the subject studied, focusing on key issues, providing link sentences between paragraphs, and ensuring the flow of text.
Points were made to avoid history, not repeat all the results, and provide limitations of the study. The strengths and novel findings of the study should be provided in the discussion, and it should open avenues for future research and new questions. The Discussion section should end with a conclusion stating the summary of key findings. Sahni gave an example from a published paper for writing a Discussion.
Sahni described the important components of a good title, such as, it should be simple, concise, informative, interesting and eye-catching, accurate and specific about the paper's content, and should state the subject in full indicating study design and animal species.
Sahni explained structured IMRaD and unstructured abstracts and discussed a few selected examples with the audience. The next lecture of Dr. His presentation emphasized the importance of brevity and clarity in the writing of manuscripts describing biomedical research. Starting with a guide to the appropriate construction of sentences and paragraphs, attendees were given a brief overview of the correct use of punctuation with interactive examples.
Prakash discussed common errors in grammar and proactively sought audience participation in correcting some examples. Additional discussion was centered on discouraging the use of redundant and expendable words, jargon, and the use of adjectives with incomparable words. The session ended with a discussion of words and phrases that are commonly misused e. The appropriateness in selecting the journal for submission and acceptance of the manuscript should be determined by the experience of an author. The corresponding author must have a rationale in choosing the appropriate journal, and this depends upon the scope of the study and the quality of work performed.
His presentation defined the metrics that are most commonly used to measure journal quality e. Various peer review models e. A typical checklist sent to referees was shared with the attendees, and clear guidance was provided on the best way to address referee feedback. The session concluded with a discussion of the potential drawbacks of the current peer review system.
Posters have become an increasingly popular mode of presentation at conferences, as it can accommodate more papers per meeting, has no time constraint, provides a better presenter-audience interaction, and allows one to select and attend papers of interest.
Buy Credible Research Made Easy: A Step by Step Path to Formulating Testable Hypotheses on uzotoqadoh.tk ✓ FREE SHIPPING on qualified orders. Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Dorcas Mladenka is a retired professor who taught Credible Research Made Easy: A Step by Step Path to Formulating Testable Hypotheses - Kindle edition by Dorcas Mladenka. Credible Research Made Easy: A Step by Step Path to Formulating Testable Hypotheses Kindle Edition.
In Figure 2 , we provide instructions, design, and layout in preparing a scientific poster. In the final presentation, Dr. Sahni provided the audience with step-by-step instructions on how to write and format posters for layout, content, font size, color, and graphics. This stage is where interesting results can be earmarked for further research and adaptation of the initial hypothesis.
Even if the hypothesis was incorrect, maybe the experiment had a flaw in its design or implementation. There may be trends that, whilst not statistically significant , lead to further research and refinement of the process. The results are usually published and shared with the scientific community, allowing verification of the findings and allowing others to continue research into other areas. This is not the final stage of the steps of the scientific method , as it generates data and ideas to recycle into the first stage.
The initial and wider research area can again be addressed, with this research one of the many individual pieces answering the whole question. Building up understanding of a large area of research, by gradually building up a picture, is the true path of scientific advancement. One great example is to look at the work of J J Thomson , who gradually inched towards his ultimate answer.
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His presentation defined the metrics that are most commonly used to measure journal quality e. Experimental Design and Statistics. The objectives are sometimes organized into hierarchies: Dr Jeremy J Foster. Both speakers worked on a variety of problems that involved both clinical and experimental data. The initial and wider research area can again be addressed, with this research one of the many individual pieces answering the whole question. The hypothesis should link a process to an existing or postulated biologic pathway.
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