The answers achieved by analyzing weather data, identifying weather effects, and assessing the impact of weather on systems, tactics, and operations provide vital information for commanders to optimally employ their forces. The global mission of the United States Armed Forces requires an extensive network of weather observers, analysts, and forecasters. Meteorological services of each country provide the basic observation network and related weather facilities in the country.
Current and future global weather conditions can be forecast by exchanging data among nations. Peacetime cooperation among nations for weather services provides global and hemispheric analyses in support of military operations anywhere in the world. During wartime, meteorological control and other security restrictions may drastically limit the availability of other national and indigenous weather information. US military weather services and units are specialized organizations with worldwide capabilities structured to satisfy unique military requirements.
They exchange weather data with national weather services and have access to national and international weather data bases. Characteristics of the military weather services are Weather support is most effective when weather personnel know the mission, organization, capabilities, plans, and procedures of the Army units they support.
The demands placed on weather support organizations are more realistic when Army personnel understand the basic principles of weather forecasting and recognize the capabilities, limitations, and support requirements of the WETM. Weather support for Army tactical operations is based on the following principles. Each of these principles as they apply to Army operations is described in chapters and appendixes as shown. The Air Force provides the bulk of weather support required by the Army. Joint responsibilities of the individual services are determined in contingencies and wartime by Wartime support required by individual combat arm units is described in the field manuals and doctrinal publications of those units.
Peacetime support required by US Army garrisons, other fixed installations, and combat elements for peacetime training is determined in accordance with Army and joint regulations listed in the references. This peacetime training support may exceed the level of wartime support. US Army commanders should be well informed of the differences between peacetime and wartime support. There are several other sources of weather information besides national and international sources. This information ranges from intermittent measurements of a few weather elements to detailed observations of many environmental elements taken on a regular schedule by trained weather observers.
The detailed observations contribute most significantly to the data base from which tactical weather products are derived. The primary sources of tactical surface weather observations and upper-air data are the The AWS obtains, evaluates, and disseminates weather information for the Army.
Weather is critical to Army tactical operations and operational level planning. History is .. provides global and hemispheric analyses in support of military operations anywhere in in the field manuals and doctrinal publications of those units. Weather Support for Army Tactical Operations FM /AFM CHAPTER OPERATIONS, Military Manual - Kindle edition by U.S. Army.
The AWS operates on a global scale. Its mission is to provide weather support for Army, Air Force, and certain joint operations.
In continental Europe, strategy must be considered with severe winters and with the annual autumn and spring thaws affecting trafficability and cross-country movement. Very early in the planning process, planners must relate the possible courses of action to weather expectancies derived from c1imatological studies. There must be an acceptable likelihood that the weather conditions required for any proposed course of action will occur.
It is imperative that an operation be feasible meteorologically at the operational level of warfare, and that planning for seasonal weather changes be considered early in the campaign process. When considering the effects of environmental conditions, the impact weather and terrain have on each other must be considered.
Weather and terrain are so interrelated they must be considered together when planning ground and air operations.
Weather elements can drastically alter terrain features and trafficability. Conversely, terrain features may exert considerable influence on local weather. The relationship between weather and terrain must be carefully correlated in terrain studies to produce accurate terrain intelligence. This planning is an integral part of the IPB process. These specific elements vary with the geographical area, time, and season.
A description of the climate of a large area considers terrain influences only in general terms; whereas a description of a small area such as a single valley can be specific. FM contains further information on terrain. It is important that commanders and staffs understand and consider weather in their tactical planning.
They must recognize the tactical significance of weather effects on intended operations and the risks or opportunities they present. The effects of weather are integrated with enemy and terrain analysis through IPB. Factors that must be considered include Low visibility is beneficial to offensive and retrograde operations and detrimental to defensive operations.
In the offense, it conceals the concentration of maneuver or friendly forces, thus enhancing the possibility of achieving the element of surprise. Low visibility hinders the defense because cohesion and control become difficult to maintain, reconnaissance and surveillance are impeded, and target acquisition is less accurate. These disadvantages may be offset partially by extensive use of illuminatives, radar, sound detection, thermal, and infrared devices; however, infrared devices are degraded in range by any moisture source, precipitation, or moisture-absorbing smoke.
Smoke and obscurant aerosols can be expected on medium-intensity to high-intensity battlefields and may be used locally to reduce visibility. In all operations, obscurants limit the use of aircraft and aerial optical and infrared surveillance devices.
Wind speed and direction, both on the surface and aloft, usually favor the upwind force in the use of NBC weapons. Winds of sufficient speed can reduce the combat effectiveness of a force downwind as the result of blowing dust, smoke, sand, rain, or snow on personnel and equipment.
The force located upwind has better visibility and can, therefore, advance and maneuver faster. Strong winds limit airborne, air assault, and aviation operations. Generally, winds above 20 nautical mph create such effects. Smoke operations are usually ineffective at wind speeds greater than 7 nautical mph. As surface wind speed SFC increases, either naturally or enhanced by vehicle movement, the windchill becomes a critical factor.
The windchill factor adversely affects improperly clothed personnel and impedes activity in unsheltered areas. Wind speed also affects the distance that sound will travel. Wind may prove beneficial by aiding in drying soil.
They exchange weather data with national weather services and have access to national and international weather data bases. Figure B shows the effects of weather on logistical operations. Weather information provided by each of the sources in the preceding paragraphs must be integrated with operational data to determine its impact on tactical operations. A complete description of SWO duties is in Chapter 3. Lauren Armstrong My friends are so angry because they don't know how I have all this high quality ebooks. Electrical storms often accompany severe weather conditions and add the hazard of lightning strikes at munitions storage areas and fueling points.
The primary significance of precipitation is its effect on soils, visibility, personnel effectiveness, and the functioning of ground maneuver systems, aviation, and E-O and infrared systems. State-of-the-ground affects trafficability; heavy rain can make some unsurfaced roads and off-road areas impassable.
Rain and snow can greatly reduce Precipitation also adversely degrades the quality of supplies in storage. Snow accumulation of greater than 1 inch degrades trafficability and reduces the impact of mines and the blast effects of point munitions. Generally, precipitation in excess of.
Snowfall exceeding 18 inches reduces tracked vehicle speed; movement on foot is very difficult without snowshoes or skis. The type and amount of cloud cover, as well as the height of cloud bases and tops, influence friendly and enemy aviation operations. Extensive cloud cover reduces the effectiveness of air support. This effect becomes more pronounced as cloud cover increases, as cloud bases lower, and as conditions associated with clouds such as icing, turbulence, and poor visibility aloft increase.
Would you like to tell us about a lower price? Weather is critical to Army tactical operations and operational level planning.
The AirLand battlefield of today may provide additional examples of victories and defeats attributable to skillful integration of weather in military planning and execution of combat operations. Weather, enemy, and terrain are often referred to as the wet trilogy. Weather information is as much a part of combat intelligence as enemy and terrain data. It is often as significant as enemy intentions and It affects enemy actions and the decisions of both weather conditions-- trafficability.
Weather is one dynamic factor on the battlefield which commanders cannot control but which has the potential to affect every combatant, piece of equipment, and operation. Weather becomes more significant to success on the Air Land battlefield as advanced E-O weapon systems are fielded because of their vulnerability to adverse weather. Commanders must be aware of and prepare for general and specific effects of weather on enemy and friendly major weapons systems and operations.
This includes evaluating plans to minimize the adverse weather effects on friendly forces and to maximize the effects on the enemy. Warsaw Pact doctrine minimizes the effects of changing weather conditions by seizing and holding the initiative through speed, mass, and disruption.
Timely and accurate weather forecasts help our commanders exploit this Warsaw Pact vulnerability.