Campaigns in Missouri , A map of Missouri showing the operations in the area during the first year of the American Civil War The map shows the cities of St. Secession of the South , A map of the Southern States during Secession, showing the states which first seceded before April 15, , and those which followed after the outbreak of the American Civil War States that permitted slavery, but did not secede.
States of the Union where slavery was banned. The following 5 pages uses this file: Historical blank US map Secession Map of the United States, The following other wikis use this file: Width Height Retrieved from " https: However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty. White , 74 U. Reconstruction began during the war, with the Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, , and it continued until From the Union perspective, the goals of Reconstruction were to consolidate the Union victory on the battlefield by reuniting the Union; to guarantee a " republican form of government for the ex-Confederate states; and to permanently end slavery—and prevent semi-slavery status.
President Johnson took a lenient approach and saw the achievement of the main war goals as realized in , when each ex-rebel state repudiated secession and ratified the Thirteenth Amendment. Radical Republicans demanded proof that Confederate nationalism was dead and that the slaves were truly free. They came to the fore after the elections and undid much of Johnson's work. In the "Liberal Republicans" argued that the war goals had been achieved and that Reconstruction should end.
They ran a presidential ticket in but were decisively defeated. In , Democrats, primarily Southern, took control of Congress and opposed any more reconstruction. The Compromise of closed with a national consensus that the Civil War had finally ended. The Civil War is one of the central events in American collective memory.
There are innumerable statues, commemorations, books and archival collections. The memory includes the home front, military affairs, the treatment of soldiers, both living and dead, in the war's aftermath, depictions of the war in literature and art, evaluations of heroes and villains, and considerations of the moral and political lessons of the war.
Professional historians have paid much more attention to the causes of the war, than to the war itself. Military history has largely developed outside academe, leading to a proliferation of solid studies by non-scholars who are thoroughly familiar with the primary sources, pay close attention to battles and campaigns, and write for the large public readership, rather than the small scholarly community.
Bruce Catton and Shelby Foote are among the best-known writers. Historian Wilson Fallin has examined the sermons of white and black Baptist preachers after the War. Southern white preachers said:. God had chastised them and given them a special mission—to maintain orthodoxy, strict biblicism, personal piety, and traditional race relations. Slavery, they insisted, had not been sinful.
Rather, emancipation was a historical tragedy and the end of Reconstruction was a clear sign of God's favor. God's gift of freedom.
They appreciated opportunities to exercise their independence, to worship in their own way, to affirm their worth and dignity, and to proclaim the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man. Most of all, they could form their own churches, associations, and conventions. These institutions offered self-help and racial uplift, and provided places where the gospel of liberation could be proclaimed. As a result, black preachers continued to insist that God would protect and help him; God would be their rock in a stormy land. Memory of the war in the white South crystallized in the myth of the "Lost Cause" , shaping regional identity and race relations for generations.
Nolan notes that the Lost Cause was expressly "a rationalization, a cover-up to vindicate the name and fame" of those in rebellion. Some claims revolve around the insignificance of slavery; some appeals highlight cultural differences between North and South; the military conflict by Confederate actors is idealized; in any case, secession was said to be lawful. He also deems the Lost Cause "a caricature of the truth. This caricature wholly misrepresents and distorts the facts of the matter" in every instance.
The economic and political-power determinism forcefully presented by Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard in The Rise of American Civilization was highly influential among historians and the general public until the civil rights movement of the s and s. The Beards downplayed slavery, abolitionism, and issues of morality. They ignored constitutional issues of states' rights and even ignored American nationalism as the force that finally led to victory in the war.
Indeed, the ferocious combat itself was passed over as merely an ephemeral event. Much more important was the calculus of class conflict.
The Beards announced that the Civil War was really:. The Beards themselves abandoned their interpretation by the s and it became defunct among historians in the s, when scholars shifted to an emphasis on slavery. However, Beardian themes still echo among Lost Cause writers. The first efforts at Civil War battlefield preservation and memorialization came during the war itself with the establishment of National Cemeteries at Gettysburg, Mill Springs and Chattanooga.
Soldiers began erecting markers on battlefields beginning with the First Battle of Bull Run in July , but the oldest surviving monument is the Hazen monument, erected at Stones River near Murfreesboro, Tennessee , in the summer of by soldiers in Union Col. Hazen's brigade to mark the spot where they buried their dead in the Battle of Stones River. In , these five parks and other national monuments were transferred to the jurisdiction of the National Park Service. The modern Civil War battlefield preservation movement began in with the founding of the Association for the Preservation of Civil War Sites APCWS , a grassroots organization created by Civil War historians and others to preserve battlefield land by acquiring it.
Mint Civil War commemorative coin revenues designated for battlefield preservation. Although the two non-profit organizations joined forces on a number of battlefield acquisitions, ongoing conflicts prompted the boards of both organizations to facilitate a merger, which happened in with the creation of the Civil War Preservation Trust. After expanding its mission in to include battlefields of the Revolutionary War and War of , the non-profit became the American Battlefield Trust in May , operating with two divisions, the Civil War Trust and the Revolutionary War Trust.
The American Civil War has been commemorated in many capacities ranging from the reenactment of battles, to statues and memorial halls erected, to films being produced, to stamps and coins with Civil War themes being issued, all of which helped to shape public memory. This varied advent occurred in greater proportions on the th and th anniversary.
It was digitally remastered and re-released in There were numerous technological innovations during the Civil War that had a great impact on 19th-century science. The Civil War was one of the earliest examples of an " industrial war ", in which technological might is used to achieve military supremacy in a war.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Civil War disambiguation. Civil war in the United States from to Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Sherman David Farragut George B. Jefferson Davis Robert E. Theaters of the American Civil War. Status of the states, States that seceded before April 15, States that seceded after April 15, Union states that permitted slavery. Union states that banned slavery. Slave and free states. Stephen Douglas, author of the Kansas—Nebraska Act of Crittenden, of the Crittenden Compromise.
United States presidential election, Battle of Fort Sumter. Border states American Civil War. Union territories not permitting slavery. Border Union states, permitting slavery. Union territories that permitted slavery claimed by Confederacy at the start of the war, but where slavery was outlawed in Child soldiers in the American Civil War. American Civil War prison camps. Blockade runners of the American Civil War. Diplomacy of the American Civil War. Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. Western Theater of the American Civil War.
Conclusion of the American Civil War. One in thirteen veterans were amputees. Remains of both sides were reinterred. National cemetery in Andersonville, GA. Contrabands —fugitive slaves—cooks, laundresses, laborers, teamsters, railroad repair crews—fled to the Union Army, but were not officially freed until In , the Union army accepted Freedmen.
Seen here are Black and White teen-aged soldiers. Monument to the Grand Army of the Republic , a Union veteran organization. Cherokee Confederates reunion in New Orleans, Lost Cause of the Confederacy. Commemoration of the American Civil War.
Commemoration of the American Civil War on postage stamps. Grand Army of the Republic Union. Civil War , UKR. Contrabands and after the Emancipation Proclamation freedmen, migrating into Union control on the coasts and to the advancing armies, and natural increase are excluded. It omits losses from contraband and after the Emancipation Proclamation, freedmen migrating to the Union controlled coastal ports and those joining advancing Union armies, especially in the Mississippi Valley.
By , when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general. The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor. It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production. As one Congressman put it, the slaves " As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union. From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in occupied areas like Nashville, Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in , Tennessee from on, the line of Sherman's march, etc.
So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write. Never Call Retreat , p. The American Missionary Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations. In addition, approximately , or more African-American men served as soldiers and sailors with Union troops.
Most of those were escaped slaves. Probably the most prominent of these African-American soldiers is the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. They used them as laborers to support the war effort. As Howell Cobb said, "If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong. Lee argued in favor of arming blacks late in the war, and Jefferson Davis was eventually persuaded to support plans for arming slaves to avoid military defeat. The Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox before this plan could be implemented. Winters referred to the exhilaration of the slaves when the Union Army came through Louisiana: They were 'all frantic with joy, some weeping, some blessing, and some dancing in the exuberance of their emotions.
Others cheered because they anticipated the freedom to plunder and to do as they pleased now that the Federal troops were there. This led to a breakdown of the prisoner and mail exchange program and the growth of prison camps such as Andersonville prison in Georgia, where almost 13, Union prisoners of war died of starvation and disease.
Restoration of Law in the State of Virginia. The New York Times. Retrieved December 23, Of which , were in the Navy and Marines, , were garrison troops and home defense militia, and , were in the field army. The Civil War Day by Day: The ones who died have been excluded to prevent double-counting of casualties. Archived from the original on July 11, Retrieved October 14, University of Connecticut, April 13, The surviving records only include the number of black patients whom doctors encountered; tens of thousands of other slaves who died had no contact with army doctors, leaving no records of their deaths.
Oxford University Press, April 13, As horrific as this new number is, it fails to reflect the mortality of former slaves during the war. If former slaves were included in this figure, the Civil War death toll would likely be over a million casualties Retrieved October 7, Johns Hopkins University Press, , pp. Martin's, , Williams, "Doing Less and Doing More: The Emancipation Proclamation , pp. Retrieved September 22, The Road to Disunion: Politics and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War.
Retrieved December 21, Remembering the Civil War Speech. Sesquicentennial of the Start of the Civil War. Retrieved August 29, Issues related to the institution of slavery precipitated secession It was not states' rights. It was not a tariff. It was not unhappiness with manner and customs that led to secession and eventually to war. It was a cluster of issues profoundly dividing the nation along a fault line delineated by the institution of slavery. What They Fought For — Louisiana State University Press.
For Cause and Comrades. The loyal citizenry initially gave very little thought to emancipation in their quest to save the union. Most loyal citizens, though profoundly prejudice by 21st century standards, embraced emancipation as a tool to punish slave holders, weaken the confederacy, and protect the union from future internal strife. A minority of the white populous invoked moral grounds to attack slavery, though their arguments carried far less popular weight than those presenting emancipation as a military measure necessary to defeat the rebels and restore the Union.
Why 'this cruel war'? Archived from the original on February 1, Retrieved January 29, Causes of the civil war, — p. A Disease in the Public Mind: American Law and the Constitutional Order: University of Kansas and Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved July 10, Imperium in Imperio, — Sydnor, The Development of Southern Sectionalism — Stampp, The Imperiled Union: Essays on the Background of the Civil War , p.
Turner, Beard, Parrington The Washington Peace Conference of Southern Pamphlets on Secession, November — April Vann Woodward , American Counterpoint: Slavery and Racism in the North-South Dialogue , p. Honor, Grace, and War, s—s Porter, and Donald Bruce Johnson, eds. A New Birth of Freedom: Abraham Lincoln and the Coming of the Civil War. Retrieved November 28, Retrieved July 16, The Improvised War — , pp. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri.
Proclamation 83 — Increasing the Size of the Army and Navy". Retrieved November 3, Retrieved May 28, Arrest of the Maryland Legislature, ". Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved February 6, Harris, Lincoln and the Border States: Preserving the Union University Press of Kansas, , p.
Fourteen Months in American Bastiles. Retrieved August 18, Retrieved April 20, Over 10, military engagements took place during the war, 40 percent of them in Virginia and Tennessee.
See Gabor Boritt, ed. War Comes Again , p. The Confederate States of America, A History of the South. In his message of April 29 to the rebel Congress, Jefferson Davis proposed to organize for instant action an army of , Conscription and Conflict in the Confederacy online edition.
The German Element in the United States: The railroads and banks grew rapidly. See Oberholtzer, Ellis Paxson. Financier Of The Civil War. See also Oberholtzer, Ellis Parson A history of the United States since the Civil War. Bearman, "Desertion as localism: Army unit solidarity and group norms in the U. The Civil War Prisons of the Confederacy. University of Alabama Press. Smith, Tinclads in the Civil War: Wise, Lifeline of the Confederacy: Naval War College Review. Doyle, The Cause of All Nations: Oates , The Approaching Fury: Voices of the Storm — , p.
Noyalas December 3, Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Army War College 21 3, pp. See also, Michael Fellman, Inside War: Missouri alone was the scene of over 1, engagements between regular units, and uncounted numbers of guerrilla attacks and raids by informal pro-Confederate bands, especially in the recently settled western counties.
Order Number 11 and the Evacuation of Western Missouri". Confederate Recruitment in Indian Territory". Confederate General in the Cherokee Nation". Personal Memoirs of U. The Flight to Appomattox , pp. Ghost Towns of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press. Census and Carter, Susan B. The Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition 5 vols , At the beginning of , the Confederacy controlled one-third of its congressional districts, which were apportioned by population. The major slave-populations found in Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama were effectively under Union control by the end of The First Hundred Days".
Retrieved October 16, Bordewich, "The World Was Watching: America's Civil War slowly came to be seen as part of a global struggle against oppressive privilege" , Wall Street Journal February 7—8, Explorations in Economic History. David September 20, The New York Times Company. Art of Restoring What's Missing". American Civil War Fortifications 2: Land and Field Fortifications. Finally Passing ", April 2, , pp. Browning, September 22, Sentiment among German Americans was largely anti-slavery especially among Forty-Eighters , resulting in hundreds of thousands of German Americans volunteering to fight for the Union.
University of Pennsylvania press. Keller, "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Letters They Wrote Home Retrieved July 29, When the draft began in the summer of , they launched a major riot in New York City that was suppressed by the military, as well as much smaller protests in other cities. Many Catholics in the North had volunteered to fight in , sending thousands of soldiers to the front and taking high casualties, especially at Fredericksburg ; their volunteering fell off after Lincoln, the War President , pp.
The War Between the States was America's bloodiest war, and now in John Carl Nelson's fascinating Atlas of the American Civil War: Secession, this major. The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the their secession from the country and formed the Confederate States of America. Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress:
The Man Behind the Myths , p. Hodges, April 4, Archived from the original on October 16, Trefousse, Historical Dictionary of Reconstruction Greenwood, covers all the main events and leaders. Vann Woodward, Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of and the End of Reconstruction 2nd edn Gallagher, eds , Wars within a War: Blight, Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research.
Ritter and Jon L. Three Centuries of Black Baptists in Alabama , pp. Foster , Ghosts of the Confederacy: Beard, The Rise of American Civilization , 2: Accessed May 30, The American Pageant , p. Arno Press, vol. Air Power in the Age of Total War. The American Civil War.
Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. Bibliography of the American Civil War. A Religious History of the American People. By Sea and By River: The naval history of the Civil War. New York, New York: Asante, Molefi Kete; Mazama, Ama Encyclopedia of Black Studies. The Ships, Men and Organization, — American Heritage Distributed by Houghton Mifflin. Stand in the Day of Battle: Garden City, New York: A History of the Confederate States of America. Donald, David; Baker, Jean H.