History Shelikhov Gulf was frequented by American whaleships hunting bowhead and gray whales between and Shelikhov or Shelikof may refer to: The Sea of Okhotsk Russian: The northeast corner is the Shelikhov Gulf. The sea is named after Okhotsk, the first Russian settlement in the Far East. It is connected to the Sea of Japan on either side of Sakhalin: In winter, navigation on much of the Sea of Okhotsk becomes difficult or Yamskaya Guba is a large bay in the northeastern Sea of Okhotsk.
It forms the southwestern portion of Shelikhov Gulf. To its southeast lie the Yam Islands. Geography and climate Yam Gulf is entered between Capes Iretsky to the north and Keytevan to the south, which are separated by The high entrance points of the gulf merge into a low shore to the west, with tundra plains beyond.
From June to the first half of August, winds in the gulf are seldom stronger than a fresh breeze, but occasionally reach gale force. Calms prevail in the latter half of August and first part of September. Northeast winds begin in late September, with storms common. Fog is fairly rare. There is ice in the gulf from October to late June or early July.
Tides are irregular, being diurnal at springs and semidiurnal at neaps. The highest spring tides reach about 6. The tidal currents are strongest in the southern part of the gulf, reaching 8 to Grigory Shelekhov was a founder of the predecessor of the Russian-American Company. Shelekhov organized voyages of merchant ships to the Kuril Islands and the Aleutian Islands starting from In —, he led an expedition to the shores of what is now known as Alaska, during which they founded the first permanent Russian settlements in North America.
Shelekhov's voyage was done under the auspices of the Shelikhov-Golikov Company, the other owner of which was Ivan Larionovich Golikov. This company was the basis for the Russian-American Company, which was founded The Kamchatka Peninsula Russian: Geography Topography of the Kamchatka Peninsula Views of Kamchatka from space in early summer left and late Retrieved 17 October The bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus is a species of the family Balaenidae, in parvorder Mysticeti, and genus Balaena, which once included the right whale.
This thick-bodied species can weigh from 75 to tonnes 74 to 98 long tons; 83 to short tons. The bowhead was also known as the Greenland right whale or Arctic whale. American whalemen called them the steeple-top, polar whale, or Russia or Russian whale. The bowhead has the largest mouth of any animal.
The population was severely reduced before a moratorium was passed to protect the species.
Of the five stocks of bowhead populations, three are listed as "endangered", one as "vulnerable", and one as "lower risk, conservation dependent" according to the IUCN R Although it lies approximately twice as far away from the Equator as from the North Pole, the 60th parallel is half as long as the Equator line. This is where the Earth bulges halfway as much as on the Equator. At this latitude, the Sun is visible for 18 hours, 52 minutes during the June solstice and 5 hours, 52 minutes during the December solstice.
The Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha is the largest species in the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. The common name refers to the Chinookan peoples. Other vernacular names for the species include king salmon, Quinnat salmon, spring salmon, chrome hog, and Tyee salmon. Chinook are anadromous fish native to the North Pacific Ocean and the river systems of western North America, ranging from California to Alaska, as well as Asian rivers ranging from northern Japan to the Palyavaam River in the Arctic north-east Siberia.
A large Chinook is a prized and sought-after catch for a sporting angler. The flesh of the salmon is also highly valued for its dietary nutritional content, which includes high levels of important omega-3 fatty acids. Some populations are endangered; however, many are healthy. It sits on a circular bay at the southwestern end of the Shelikhov Gulf, a northeastern extension of the Sea of Okhotsk. Commercial open-boat whaling by American and European ships occurred in the Sea of Okhotsk from the s to the early s.
They primarily caught right and bowhead whales. Both populations of these species declined drastically, with the latter once thought to be extinct by western historians. Peak catches were made in the s and s. It's estimated that as many as 15, bowheads and 2, rights were taken in the sea. The beluga whale or white whale Delphinapterus leucas is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean. It is 1 of 2 members of the family Monodontidae, along with the narwhal, and the only member of the genus Delphinapterus.
This marine mammal is commonly referred to as the beluga or sea canary due to its high-pitched twitter. It is some times also called a melonhead, though that more commonly refers to the melon-headed whale, which is an oceanic dolphin. It is adapted to life in the Arctic, so has anatomical and physiological characteristics that differentiate it from other cetaceans. Amongst these are its all-white color and the absence of a dorsal fin.
It possesses a distinctive protuberance at the front of its head which houses an echolocation organ called the melon, which in this species is large and deformable. The beluga's body size is between that of a dolphin's and a true whale's, with males growing up to 5. This whale has a stocky body. The th meridian east forms a great circle with the 25th meridian west.
Accidents and incidents involving the Ilyushin Il Data from: The th meridian east forms a great circle with the 20th meridian west. The brown bear Ursus arctos is a bear that is found across much of northern Eurasia and North America. As of , this and the American black bear are the only bear species not classified as threatened by the IUCN.
The North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica is a very large, thickset baleen whale species that is extremely rare and endangered. The Northeast Pacific population, which summers in the southeastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska, may have no more than 40 animals.
A western population that summers near the Commander Islands, the coast of Kamchatka, along the Kuril Islands and in the Sea of Okhotsk between it, is thought to number in the low hundreds. Before commercial whaling in the North Pacific i. The taking of right whales in commercial whaling has been prohibited by one or more international treaties since Nevertheless, between and , illegal Soviet whaling killed at least right whales in the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska as well as at least right whales in the Sea Okhotsk.
Map of Yakutat Bay. Glacier carved mountains near Yakutat Bay. Yakutat Bay was the epicenter of two major earthquakes on September 10, , a magnitude 7. James Cook called it "Bering Bay". A topographic map of Russia with regions labeled. The geology of Russia, the world's largest country, which extends over much of northern Eurasia, consists of several stable cratons and sedimentary platforms bounded by orogenic mountain belts. The European part of Russia is on the East European craton, at the heart of which is a complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks dating back to the Precambrian.
In the early nineteenth century, Spanish and Russian expansion met along the coast of Spanish Alta California, with Russia pushing south a The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America. Member feedback about Aeroflot accidents and incidents in the s: January 18 — Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam: United States Census Bureau.
The craton is bounded on the east by the long tract of compressed and highly deformed rock that constitutes the Ural orogen. The orogens within Russia belong to the Baltic Shield, the Timanides, the Urals, the Altai Mountains, the Ural-Mongolian epipaleozoic orogen and the northwestern part of the Pacific orogeny. The Tlingit maintained a complex hunter-gatherer culture based on semi-sedentary management of fisheries. The th meridian east forms a great circle with the 24th meridian west. The th meridian east forms a great circle with the 23rd meridian west. The th meridian east forms a great circle with the 22nd meridian west.
Actinopterygii Anguilliformes Ophichthidae Pisodonophis hypselopterus Atheriniformes Atherinidae Austromenidia gracilis Chirostoma regani Craterocephalus marianae Craterocephalus pimatuae Poblana ferdebueni Teramulus kieneri Atherinopsidae Basilichthys microlepidotus Bedotiidae Bedotia sp. The th meridian east forms a great circle with the 21st meridian west. The Russians slaughtered  or  men, women and children on Refuge Rock.
United States Census Bureau. In Being and Becom The list of shipwrecks in includes some of the ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during Three of the four crew lost their lives. She anchored between Gurnard's Head and the Three Oar Stone but was blown back out to sea, where the steamship Colon flag unknown took off all of her crew of seven, bar one man, Richard The island has a land area of There was a population of five permanent residents as of the census.
Cape Hinchinbrook Light is located on the southwest side of the island. Also on the southwest side is the abandoned village of Nuchek on Port Etches bay. This site is now abandoned, and all that remains is a trail to the former antenna site on a small hill to the southwest and several of the buildings.
Nearby Boswell Bay Airport is the landing strip that formerly served this site. A few houses comprise the hamlet of Boswell Bay across the bay to the south. Location of Penzhin Bay in the Sea of Okhotsk. It is bounded on the east by the Kamchatka Peninsula and on the west by the Taygonos Peninsula, which separates it from Gizhigin Bay. There is ice in the bay from October to May. It has the highest tides of any bay on the Pacific Ocean: Its basin is very thinly populated.
The Penzhina River flows into the head of the bay. History The rugged coast of the bay. The town of Penzhina was located on the middle Penzhina River and was v Alaska in Rand McNally. The boundary of southeastern Alaska shown is that claimed by the United States prior to the conclusion of the Alaska boundary dispute. The history of Alaska dates back to the Upper Paleolithic period around 14, BC , when wanderer groups crossed the Bering land bridge into what is now western Alaska.
At the time of European contact by the Russian explorers, the area was populated by Alaska Native groups. The name "Alaska" derives from the Aleut word Alaxsxaq also spelled Alyeska , meaning "mainland" literally, "the object toward which the action of the sea is directed". In the s, gold rushes in Alaska and the nearby Yukon Territory brought thousands of miners and settlers to Alaska. Alaska was granted territorial status in by the United States of America. Qutalleq is an incorporated home rule city in Alaska, United States.
Located on Resurrection Bay, a fjord of the Gulf of Alaska on the Kenai Peninsula, Seward is situated on Alaska's southern coast, approximately miles by road from Alaska's largest city, Anchorage, and nearly 1, miles from the closest point in the contiguous United States at Cape Flattery, Washington.
With an estimated permanent population of 2, people as of , Seward is the fourth-largest city in the Kenai Peninsula Borough, behind Kenai, Homer, and the borough seat of Soldotna. Given the cultural, ecological, and economic importance of the region, the likely consequences of an accident are considerable. The increasing activity makes this a critical moment for the United States to develop appropriate standards of care for vessel traffic in the Arctic.
Local communities should play a leadership role with other stakeholders in this effort. Standards of care may include:. Increased energy exploration Today there is an increased push to drill offshore into ever deeper and riskier frontier waters of the Arctic.
Those waters are ice-covered for eight to nine months of the year and in almost complete darkness for nearly three of those months. Even during the summer, when the ice pack has mostly receded, the Arctic experiences high seas, wind, freezing temperatures, dense fog, and floating ice hazards. Even more challenging, the major highways, airports, and ports that most Americans take for granted do not exist in the Arctic.
The nearest Coast Guard base is more than air miles away, and the closest major port is over 1, miles away. Technology for extraction has far outstripped the quality of oil spill prevention and response capabilities.
As we saw with the BP Deepwater Horizon spill, the response technology of skimmers, booms, dispersants, and burning has improved little in the 25 years since the Exxon Valdez disaster. To protect the unique Arctic environment, the United States should adopt specific Artic standards to guide energy exploration, including: Pew is not opposed to offshore drilling, but a balance must be achieved between responsible energy development and protection of the environment.
It is essential that appropriate standards be in place for safety and for oil spill prevention and response in the Arctic. Press Releases and Statements March 21, Topics: Protecting Life in the Arctic Read time: Devastated the lives and livelihoods of many of the region's residents. Killed an estimated , seabirds, 2, sea otters, harbor seals, bald eagles, 15 to 22 killer whales, and billions of salmon and herring eggs. Required roughly 10, workers, 1, boats, and airplanes and helicopters for the cleanup effort. Devastated Pacific herring and pigeon guillemot populations so much that they have not yet recovered.
Affected sea otters, Barrow's goldeneyes, and more than a dozen other species, which are still recovering. Standards of care may include: Vessel traffic lanes telling ships where to go. Areas to be avoided to keep ships away from sensitive marine habitat or hazardous areas. Speed limits to reduce the risk of striking slow-moving marine mammals, such as bowhead, gray, and humpback whales.