The appearance of motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease PD is invariably linked to degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta.
Traditional views on PD neuropathology have been grounded in the assumption that the prime event of neurodegeneration involves neuronal cell bodies with the accumulation of metabolic products. However, this view has recently been challenged by both clinical and experimental evidence.
Neuropathological studies in human brain samples and both in vivo and in vitro models support the hypothesis that nigrostriatal synapses may indeed be affected at the earliest stages of the neurodegenerative process. The mechanisms leading to either structural or functional synaptic dysfunction are starting to be elucidated and include dysregulation of axonal transport, impairment of the exocytosis and endocytosis machinery, altered intracellular trafficking, and loss of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity.
The aim of this review is to try to integrate different lines of evidence from both pathogenic and genetic animal models that, to different extents, suggest that early synaptic impairment may represent the key event in PD pathogenesis. Understanding the molecular and cellular events underlying such synaptopathy is a fundamental step toward developing specific biomarkers of early dopaminergic dysfunction and, more importantly, designing novel therapies targeting the synaptic apparatus of selective, vulnerable synapses.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. In addition, the size of these mesencephalic DA nuclei is tremendously expanded in humans as compared to other vertebrates. Differentiation of the mesencephalic neurons during development depends on genetic mechanisms, which also differ from those of other dopamine nuclei.
Parkinson's Disease: Molecular and Therapeutic Insights From Model Systems: Medicine & Health Science Books @ uzotoqadoh.tk Molecular and Therapeutic Insights From Model Systems. Book • This chapter discusses clinical aspects of Parkinson disease (PD). PD is the type of.
In contrast, pathophysiological approaches to PD have highlighted the role of ubiquitously expressed molecules such as a-synuclein, parkin, and microtubule-associated proteins. We propose that the peculiar phenotype of the dopamine mesencephalic neurons, which has been selected during vertebrate evolution and reshaped in the human lineage, has also rendered these neurons particularly prone to oxidative stress, and thus, to the fairly specific neurodegeneration of PD.
Numerous evidence has been accumulated to demonstrate that perturbed regulation of DAT-dependent dopamine uptake, DAT-dependent accumulation of toxins, dysregulation of TH activity as well as high sensitivity of DA mesencephalic neurons to oxidants are key components of the neurodegeneration process of PD.
This view points to the contribution of nonspecific mechanisms alpha-synuclein aggregation in a highly specific cellular environment the dopamine mesencephalic neurons and provides a robust framework to develop novel and rational therapeutic schemes in PD. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Didn't get the message?
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