Worlds in Common?: Television Discourses in a Changing Europe

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This development is accelerating. This booklet brings jointly top educational researchers and commercial practitioners to deal with the problems during this rising realm and provides the reader with a finished creation to the topic of speech attractiveness in units and networks. Interviews are live exchanges between presenters and sources. The chosen interviewees include an incinerator owner, a union official, a medical journalist and an economist. In the beef story the principal discussants are Aernout van Lynden, the Europe correspondent, and Adam Boulton, the political editor.

Each of these two is produced more than once to add their own perspective on events. The synchronous relationship is vulnerable from another direction, too. Strange from EMI , [40] and by H. Although others had experimented with using a cathode ray tube as a receiver, the concept of using one as a transmitter was novel. Johnson who gave his name to the term Johnson noise and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric , and became a commercial product in The device was first described in a patent application he filed in Hungary in March for a television system he dubbed "Radioskop".

Although his breakthrough would be incorporated into the design of RCA 's " iconoscope " in , the U. The patent for his receiving tube had been granted the previous October. Both patents had been purchased by RCA prior to their approval. Takayanagi did not apply for a patent. On 7 September , American inventor Philo Farnsworth 's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image, a simple straight line, at his laboratory at Green Street in San Francisco. This is widely regarded as the first electronic television demonstration. Meanwhile, Vladimir Zworykin was also experimenting with the cathode ray tube to create and show images.

While working for Westinghouse Electric in , he began to develop an electronic camera tube. But in a demonstration, the image was dim, had low contrast, and poor definition, and was stationary.

But RCA, which acquired the Westinghouse patent, asserted that the patent for Farnsworth's image dissector was written so broadly that it would exclude any other electronic imaging device. Thus RCA, on the basis of Zworykin's patent application, filed a patent interference suit against Farnsworth.

Patent Office examiner disagreed in a decision, finding priority of invention for Farnsworth against Zworykin. Farnsworth claimed that Zworykin's system would be unable to produce an electrical image of the type to challenge his patent.

Worlds In Common?: Television Discourse In A Changing Europe

Zworykin received a patent in for a color transmission version of his patent application; [58] he also divided his original application in In , RCA introduced an improved camera tube that relied on Tihanyi's charge storage principle. Unfortunately, a problem with the multipactor was that it wore out at an unsatisfactory rate. However, Ardenne had not developed a camera tube, using the CRT instead as a flying-spot scanner to scan slides and film. On 2 November , a line broadcasting service employing the Emitron began at studios in Alexandra Palace , and transmitted from a specially built mast atop one of the Victorian building's towers.

It alternated for a short time with Baird's mechanical system in adjoining studios, but was more reliable and visibly superior. This was the world's first regular "high-definition" television service. The original American iconoscope was noisy, had a high ratio of interference to signal, and ultimately gave disappointing results, especially when compared to the high definition mechanical scanning systems then becoming available.

On the other hand, in , Zworykin shared some patent rights with the German licensee company Telefunken. This tube is essentially identical to the super-Emitron. Indeed, it was the representative of the European tradition in electronic tubes competing against the American tradition represented by the image orthicon. American television broadcasting, at the time, consisted of a variety of markets in a wide range of sizes, each competing for programming and dominance with separate technology, until deals were made and standards agreed upon in The world's first line television standard was designed in the Soviet Union in and became a national standard in The basic idea of using three monochrome images to produce a color image had been experimented with almost as soon as black-and-white televisions had first been built.

Although he gave no practical details, among the earliest published proposals for television was one by Maurice Le Blanc, in , for a color system, including the first mentions in television literature of line and frame scanning. But his system contained no means of analyzing the spectrum of colors at the transmitting end, and could not have worked as he described it.

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and attract new followers and customers. Learn more about Amazon Giveaway . This item: Worlds in Common?: Television Discourses in a Changing Europe. Television discourse has undergone significant changes at the end of the 20th century. Technological, economic and political upheavals in the European media .

Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color transmission on 3 July , using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with filters of a different primary color; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination. The first practical hybrid system was again pioneered by John Logie Baird.

In he publicly demonstrated a color television combining a traditional black-and-white display with a rotating colored disk. This device was very "deep", but was later improved with a mirror folding the light path into an entirely practical device resembling a large conventional console. The CBS field-sequential color system was partly mechanical, with a disc made of red, blue, and green filters spinning inside the television camera at 1, rpm, and a similar disc spinning in synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver set.

CBS began experimental color field tests using film as early as 28 August , and live cameras by 12 November. CBS began daily color field tests on 1 June The War Production Board halted the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from 22 April to 20 August , limiting any opportunity to introduce color television to the general public. As early as , Baird had started work on a fully electronic system he called Telechrome.

Early Telechrome devices used two electron guns aimed at either side of a phosphor plate. The phosphor was patterned so the electrons from the guns only fell on one side of the patterning or the other. Using cyan and magenta phosphors, a reasonable limited-color image could be obtained. He also demonstrated the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3D image called " stereoscopic " at the time. A demonstration on 16 August was the first example of a practical color television system. Work on the Telechrome continued and plans were made to introduce a three-gun version for full color.

However, Baird's untimely death in ended development of the Telechrome system. The Geer tube was similar to Baird's concept, but used small pyramids with the phosphors deposited on their outside faces, instead of Baird's 3D patterning on a flat surface. The Penetron used three layers of phosphor on top of each other and increased the power of the beam to reach the upper layers when drawing those colors. The Chromatron used a set of focusing wires to select the colored phosphors arranged in vertical stripes on the tube.

One of the great technical challenges of introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve bandwidth , potentially three times that of the existing black-and-white standards, and not use an excessive amount of radio spectrum. In the United States, after considerable research, the National Television Systems Committee [] approved an all-electronic system developed by RCA , which encoded the color information separately from the brightness information and greatly reduced the resolution of the color information in order to conserve bandwidth.

As black-and-white TVs could receive the same transmission and display it in black-and-white, the color system adopted is [backwards] "compatible". The brightness image remained compatible with existing black-and-white television sets at slightly reduced resolution, while color televisions could decode the extra information in the signal and produce a limited-resolution color display. The higher resolution black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the brain to produce a seemingly high-resolution color image.

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The NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement. Although all-electronic color was introduced in the U. The first national color broadcast the Tournament of Roses Parade occurred on 1 January , but during the following ten years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white.

It was not until the mids that color sets started selling in large numbers, due in part to the color transition of in which it was announced that over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color that fall. The first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In , the last holdout among daytime network programs converted to color, resulting in the first completely all-color network season.

Early color sets were either floor-standing console models or tabletop versions nearly as bulky and heavy; so in practice they remained firmly anchored in one place. The introduction of GE 's relatively compact and lightweight Porta-Color set in the spring of made watching color television a more flexible and convenient proposition.

In , sales of color sets finally surpassed sales of black-and-white sets.

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Color broadcasting in Europe was not standardized on the PAL format until the s, and broadcasts did not start until By this point many of the technical problems in the early sets had been worked out, and the spread of color sets in Europe was fairly rapid.

By the mids, the only stations broadcasting in black-and-white were a few high-numbered UHF stations in small markets, and a handful of low-power repeater stations in even smaller markets such as vacation spots. By the late s even these areas switched to color sets. Digital television DTV is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signals, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog television. Due to data compression digital TV can support more than one program in the same channel bandwidth.

It was not until the s that digital TV became feasible. Until June , the Japanese MUSE standard, based on an analog system, was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration. Then, an American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.

In March , when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images.

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The final standards adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios , or lines of resolution. This compromise resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry joined by some broadcasters and the computer industry joined by the film industry and some public interest groups over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—would be best suited for the newer digital HDTV compatible display devices. In fact, interlaced scanning can be looked at as the first video compression model as it was partly designed in the s to double the image resolution to exceed the limitations of the television broadcast bandwidth.

Another reason for its adoption was to limit the flickering on early CRT screens whose phosphor coated screens could only retain the image from the electron scanning gun for a relatively short duration. Progressive scanning , the format that the computer industry had long adopted for computer display monitors, scans every line in sequence, from top to bottom. The computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not "flicker" on the new standard of display devices in the manner of interlaced scanning. It also argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the Internet, and is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice versa.

The film industry also supported progressive scanning because it offered a more efficient means of converting filmed programming into digital formats. For their part, the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the highest quality pictures then and currently feasible, i. Broadcasters also favored interlaced scanning because their vast archive of interlaced programming is not readily compatible with a progressive format.

Schreiber , who was director of the Advanced Television Research Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from until his retirement in , thought that the continued advocacy of interlaced equipment originated from consumer electronics companies that were trying to get back the substantial investments they made in the interlaced technology.

Digital television transition started in late s. All governments across the world set the deadline for analog shutdown by s. Initially the adoption rate was low, as the first digital tuner-equipped TVs were costly. But soon, as the price of digital-capable TVs dropped, more and more households were converting to digital televisions. The transition is expected to be completed worldwide by mid to late s. The advent of digital television allowed innovations like smart TVs.

A smart television, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV , is a television set or set-top box with integrated Internet and Web 2. Besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional broadcasting media , these devices can also provide Internet TV, online interactive media , over-the-top content , as well as on-demand streaming media , and home networking access. These TVs come pre-loaded with an operating system.

Internet television refers to the receiving of television content over the Internet instead of by traditional systems — terrestrial, cable and satellite although internet itself is received by these methods. IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters.

Web television WebTV is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV. A first patent was filed in [] and extended the following year [] for an "intelligent" television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network.

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Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user's demand, and process their needs. Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system , and some are autostereoscopic without the need of glasses. Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on 10 August , by John Logie Baird in his company's premises at Long Acre, London.

The first 3D TV was produced in The advent of digital television in the s greatly improved 3D TVs.

Worlds In Common?: Television Discourse In A Changing Europe 1999

Although 3D TV sets are quite popular for watching 3D home media such as on Blu-ray discs, 3D programming has largely failed to make inroads with the public. Many 3D television channels which started in the early s were shut down by the mids. According to DisplaySearch 3D televisions shipments totaled Programming is broadcast by television stations, sometimes called "channels", as stations are licensed by their governments to broadcast only over assigned channels in the television band. At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed, and because bandwidth was limited, i.

By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television license fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC , which had public service as part of its Royal Charter. WRGB claims to be the world's oldest television station, tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on 13 January , broadcasting from the General Electric factory in Schenectady, NY , under the call letters W2XB.

The two stations were experimental in nature and had no regular programming, as receivers were operated by engineers within the company. The image of a Felix the Cat doll rotating on a turntable was broadcast for 2 hours every day for several years as new technology was being tested by the engineers. On 2 November , the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular high-definition service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London. All other countries around the world are also in the process of either shutting down analog terrestrial television or switching over to digital terrestrial television.

Cable television is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency RF signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with traditional terrestrial television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. In the s, FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables.

The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. It originally stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in Earlier cable television was analog, but since the s, all cable operators have switched to, or are in the process of switching to, digital cable television. Satellite television is a system of supplying television programming using broadcast signals relayed from communication satellites.

The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite dish and a low-noise block downconverter LNB. A satellite receiver then decodes the desired television program for viewing on a television set. Receivers can be external set-top boxes , or a built-in television tuner.

Satellite television provides a wide range of channels and services, especially to geographic areas without terrestrial television or cable television. These systems received analog signals transmitted in the C-band spectrum from FSS type satellites, and required the use of large dishes. Consequently, these systems were nicknamed "big dish" systems, and were more expensive and less popular. The direct-broadcast satellite television signals were earlier analog signals and later digital signals, both of which require a compatible receiver.

Digital signals may include high-definition television HDTV. Some transmissions and channels are free-to-air or free-to-view , while many other channels are pay television requiring a subscription. Clarke proposed a worldwide communications system which would function by means of three satellites equally spaced apart in earth orbit. The first satellite television signals from Europe to North America were relayed via the Telstar satellite over the Atlantic ocean on 23 July The world's first commercial communications satellite, called Intelsat I and nicknamed "Early Bird", was launched into geosynchronous orbit on 6 April The transmissions were focused on the Indian subcontinent but experimenters were able to receive the signal in Western Europe using home constructed equipment that drew on UHF television design techniques already in use.

The first in a series of Soviet geostationary satellites to carry Direct-To-Home television, Ekran 1, was launched on 26 October Internet television Internet TV or online television is the digital distribution of television content via the Internet as opposed to traditional systems like terrestrial, cable, and satellite, although the Internet itself is received by terrestrial, cable, or satellite methods. Internet television is a general term that covers the delivery of television shows, and other video content, over the Internet by video streaming technology, typically by major traditional television broadcasters.

Smart television refers to the TV set which has a built-in operating system. Internet Protocol television IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters. Web television is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV. A television set, also called a television receiver, television, TV set, TV, or "telly", is a device that combines a tuner, display, an amplifier, and speakers for the purpose of viewing television and hearing its audio components.

Introduced in late 's in mechanical form, television sets became a popular consumer product after World War II in electronic form, using cathode ray tubes. The addition of color to broadcast television after further increased the popularity of television sets and an outdoor antenna became a common feature of suburban homes. The ubiquitous television set became the display device for recorded media in the s, such as Betamax and VHS , which enabled viewers to record TV shows and watch prerecorded movies.

Televisions since s mostly use LEDs. The earliest systems employed a spinning disk to create and reproduce images. The cathode ray tube CRT is a vacuum tube containing one or more electron guns a source of electrons or electron emitter and a fluorescent screen used to view images. The images may represent electrical waveforms oscilloscope , pictures television, computer monitor , radar targets or others. The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep i. As a matter of safety, the face is typically made of thick lead glass so as to be highly shatter-resistant and to block most X-ray emissions, particularly if the CRT is used in a consumer product.

In television sets and computer monitors , the entire front area of the tube is scanned repetitively and systematically in a fixed pattern called a raster. An image is produced by controlling the intensity of each of the three electron beams , one for each additive primary color red, green, and blue with a video signal as a reference.

Digital Light Processing DLP is a type of video projector technology that uses a digital micromirror device. It was originally developed in by Dr. Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments. DLP is used in a variety of display applications from traditional static displays to interactive displays and also non-traditional embedded applications including medical, security, and industrial uses.

DLP technology is used in DLP front projectors standalone projection units for classrooms and business primarily , but also in private homes; in these cases, the image is projected onto a projection screen. They are called " plasma " displays because the technology utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases , or what are in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent lamps.

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