Quick Review: Maternal and OB-GYN Nursin (Quick Review Notes)


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So worth the money! Pretty darn convenient though I wish it had more information of drugs used in each section. The assessment portion was very helpful and walks the reader through it. I have not notice any errors in information so far. My book was missing some pages and had a duplicate of another so I'm a bit bummed about that, but at least it was just a small thing. In my last year of nursing school, and got these for quick reference while I am in clinical.

Really useful, and small enough to carry around in my pocket.

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#kindle #ebooks #donwloads #OB/GYN #nursing #medicine #medicine Quick Review: Maternal and OB-GYN Nursin (Quick Review Notes) - Kindle edition by. Maternal & Child Care Nursing Review Lecture Notes from The Royal Pentagon Review GIT – transport center, glucose transport is facilitated, diffusion more rapid from higher to lower. If mom . Obstetrical Data: nullipara – no pregnancy a .

Also helpful for studying on the go - several of my exam questions have answers that can be found in this quick reference. Would definitely buy again.

One person found this helpful. An affordable addition to add to my An affordable addition to add to my growing library. Worked great as a study resource to pass the maternity challenge exam. Easy to read and understand. This book is really handy, it is a bit bulky to carry with you on the daily I did anyway. You will need to thumb threw it before you can use it properly because the way it is set up. But it is easy to use if you know where to look. I loved having this Notebook on the floor of my Maternity Clinical. It came in handy in patient teaching and especially in my own learning.

Keep with me at work. Product arrived on time and exactly what I expected. See all 99 reviews. Most recent customer reviews. Published 4 months ago. Published 5 months ago. Published 7 months ago. Published 1 year ago. What other items do customers buy after viewing this item? Pages with related products.

How to Study for Maternity Nursing in School

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ComiXology Thousands of Digital Comics. Cytomegalovirus is the leading cause of congenital viral infection. Tocolytic therapy is indicated in premature labor , but contraindicated in fetal death, fetal distress, or severe hemorrhage. Through ultrasonography, the biophysical profile assesses fetal well-being by measuring fetal breathing movements, gross body movements, fetal tone, reactive fetal heart rate nonstress test , and qualitative amniotic fluid volume. Pica is a craving to eat nonfood items, such as dirt, crayons, chalk, glue, starch, or hair.

It may occur during pregnancy and can endanger the fetus. A pregnant patient should take folic acid because this nutrient is required for rapid cell division. A woman who is taking clomiphene Clomid to induce ovulation should be informed of the possibility of multiple births with this drug. During the first trimester, a pregnant woman should avoid all drugs unless doing so would adversely affect her health. The Food and Drug Administration has established the following five categories of drugs based on their potential for causing birth defects: A, no evidence of risk; B, no risk found in animals, but no studies have been done in women; C, animal studies have shown an adverse effect, but the drug may be beneficial to women despite the potential risk; D, evidence of risk, but its benefits may outweigh its risks; and X, fetal anomalies noted, and the risks clearly outweigh the potential benefits.

The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine is a probable sign of pregnancy. If radiography is essential, it should be performed only after 36 weeks gestation. A pregnant staff member should not be assigned to work with a patient who has cytomegalovirus infection because the virus can be transmitted to the fetus.

A pregnant patient should take an iron supplement to help prevent anemia. Nausea and vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy are caused by rising levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin. Before performing a Leopold maneuver, the nurse should ask the patient to empty her bladder. The nurse must place identification bands on both the mother and the neonate before they leave the delivery room.

Dinoprostone Cervidil is used to ripen the cervix. Because women with diabetes have a higher incidence of birth anomalies than women without diabetes, an alpha-fetoprotein level may be ordered at 15 to 17 weeks gestation. Painless vaginal bleeding during the last trimester of pregnancy may indicate placenta previa.

Methergine stimulates uterine contractions. The administration of folic acid during the early stages of gestation may prevent neural tube defects. The nurse should keep the sac of meningomyelocele moist with normal saline solution. If fundal height is at least 2 cm less than expected, the cause may be growth retardation, missed abortion , transverse lie, or false pregnancy. Fundal height that exceeds expectations by more than 2 cm may be caused by multiple gestation, polyhydramnios, uterine myomata, or a large baby. A major developmental task for a woman during the first trimester of pregnancy is accepting the pregnancy.

In the early stages of pregnancy, the finding of glucose in the urine may be related to the increased shunting of glucose to the developing placenta, without a corresponding increase in the reabsorption capability of the kidneys.

Infants of diabetic mothers are susceptible to macrosomia as a result of increased insulin production in the fetus. To prevent heat loss in the neonate, the nurse should bathe one part of his body at a time and keep the rest of the body covered. A patient who has a cesarean delivery is at greater risk for infection than the patient who gives birth vaginally. The occurrence of thrush in the neonate is probably caused by contact with the organism during delivery through the birth canal. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein is detectable at 7 weeks of gestation and peaks in the third trimester.

High levels detected between the 16th and 18th weeks are associated with neural tube defects. Low levels are associated with Down syndrome. A late sign of preeclampsia is epigastric pain as a result of severe liver edema. In the patient with preeclampsia, blood pressure returns to normal during the puerperal period. The period between contractions is referred to as the interval, or resting phase.

During this phase, the uterus and placenta fill with blood and allow for the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nutrients. As a result, the fetus may experience hypoxia or rapid delivery may occur. Two qualities of the myometrium are elasticity, which allows it to stretch yet maintain its tone, and contractility, which allows it to shorten and lengthen in a synchronized pattern. During crowning, the presenting part of the fetus remains visible during the interval between contractions. If the mother wishes to breast-feed, the neonate should be nursed as soon as possible after delivery.

Before feeding is initiated, an infant should be burped to expel air from the stomach. Most authorities strongly encourage the continuation of breastfeeding on both the affected and the unaffected breast of patients with mastitis. Full-term delivery at 38 weeks or longer P: Preterm delivery between 20 and 37 weeks A: Abortion or loss of fetus before 20 weeks L: Number of children living if a child has died, further explanation is needed to clarify the discrepancy in numbers.

Women who are carrying more than one fetus should be encouraged to gain 35 to 45 lb Drinking six alcoholic beverages a day or a single episode of binge drinking in the first trimester can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. Chorionic villus sampling is performed at 8 to 12 weeks of pregnancy for early identification of genetic defects.

In percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, a blood sample is obtained from the umbilical cord to detect anemia , genetic defects, and blood incompatibility as well as to assess the need for blood transfusions.

Maternal and OB-GYN Nursing Review

Hemodilution of pregnancy is the increase in blood volume that occurs during pregnancy. The increased volume consists of plasma and causes an imbalance between the ratio of red blood cells to plasma and a resultant decrease in hematocrit.

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Mean arterial pressure of greater than mm Hg after 20 weeks of pregnancy is considered hypertension. During pregnancy, the abdominal line from the symphysis pubis to the umbilicus changes from linea alba to linea nigra. The treatment for supine hypotension syndrome a condition that sometimes occurs in pregnancy is to have the patient lie on her left side.

A contributing factor in dependent edema in the pregnant patient is the increase of femoral venous pressure from 10 mm Hg normal to 18 mm Hg high. The hormone relaxin, which is secreted first by the corpus luteum and later by the placenta, relaxes the connective tissue and cartilage of the symphysis pubis and the sacroiliac joint to facilitate passage of the fetus during delivery. During labor, to relieve supine hypotension manifested by nausea and vomiting and paleness, turn the patient on her left side. During the transition phase of the first stage of labor , the cervix is dilated 8 to 10 cm and contractions usually occur 2 to 3 minutes apart and last for 60 seconds.

The first stage of labor begins with the onset of labor and ends with full cervical dilation at 10 cm. The fourth stage of labor postpartum stabilization lasts up to 4 hours after the placenta is delivered. Unlike false labor, true labor produces regular rhythmic contractions, abdominal discomfort, progressive descent of the fetus, bloody show, and progressive effacement and dilation of the cervix.

When used to describe the degree of fetal descent during labor, floating means the presenting part is not engaged in the pelvic inlet, but is freely movable ballotable above the pelvic inlet. When used to describe the degree of fetal descent, engagement means when the largest diameter of the presenting part has passed through the pelvic inlet.

Fetal stations indicate the location of the presenting part in relation to the ischial spine.

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Any vaginal bleeding during pregnancy should be considered a complication until proven otherwise. During the first stage of labor, the side-lying position usually provides the greatest degree of comfort, although the patient may assume any comfortable position. Amniotomy is artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes. Intensity is graded as mild uterine muscle is somewhat tense , moderate uterine muscle is moderately tense , or strong uterine muscle is boardlike.

The frequency of uterine contractions , which is measured in minutes, is the time from the beginning of one contraction to the beginning of the next. Teenage mothers are more likely to have low-birth-weight neonates because they seek prenatal care late in pregnancy as a result of denial and are more likely than older mothers to have nutritional deficiencies. The narrowest diameter of the pelvic inlet is the anteroposterior diagonal conjugate.

To estimate the true conjugate the smallest inlet measurement of the pelvis , deduct 1. A true conjugate of The smallest outlet measurement of the pelvis is the intertuberous diameter, which is the transverse diameter between the ischial tuberosities. Electronic fetal monitoring is used to assess fetal well-being during labor. If compromised fetal status is suspected, fetal blood pH may be evaluated by obtaining a scalp sample.

Nitrazine paper is used to test the pH of vaginal discharge to determine the presence of amniotic fluid. A pregnant patient normally gains 2 to 5 lb 1 to 2. Precipitate labor lasts for approximately 3 hours and ends with delivery of the neonate. As emergency treatment for excessive uterine bleeding, 0. True labor contractions are felt in the front of the abdomen and back and lead to progressive cervical dilation and effacement.

If a fetus has late decelerations a sign of fetal hypoxia , the nurse should instruct the mother to lie on her left side and then administer 8 to 10 L of oxygen per minute by mask or cannula. The nurse should notify the physician. The side-lying position removes pressure on the inferior vena cava. Because oxytocin Pitocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions during labor, it must be administered under close observation to help prevent maternal and fetal distress.

Molding is the process by which the fetal head changes shape to facilitate movement through the birth canal. If a woman suddenly becomes hypotensive during labor, the nurse should increase the infusion rate of I. During fetal heart monitoring, early deceleration is caused by compression of the head during labor.

If needed, cervical suturing is usually done between 14 and 18 weeks gestation to reinforce an incompetent cervix and maintain pregnancy. The suturing is typically removed by 35 weeks gestation. The mechanics of delivery are engagement, descent and flexion , internal rotation, extension, external rotation, restitution, and expulsion.

The duration of a contraction is timed from the moment that the uterine muscle begins to tense to the moment that it reaches full relaxation. The most common method of inducing labor after artificial rupture of the membranes is oxytocin Pitocin infusion. After the amniotic membranes rupture, the initial nursing action is to assess the fetal heart rate. The most common reasons for cesarean birth are malpresentation, fetal distress, cephalopelvic disproportion, pregnancy-induced hypertension , previous cesarean birth, and inadequate progress in labor.

Amniocentesis increases the risk of spontaneous abortion, trauma to the fetus or placenta, premature labor, infection, and Rh sensitization of the fetus. After amniocentesis, abdominal cramping or spontaneous vaginal bleeding may indicate complications. For an extramural delivery one that takes place outside of a normal delivery center , the priorities for care of the neonate include maintaining a patent airway, supporting efforts to breathe, monitoring vital signs, and maintaining adequate body temperature.

The administration of oxytocin Pitocin is stopped if the contractions are 90 seconds or longer. Lochia rubra is the vaginal discharge of almost pure blood that occurs during the first few days after childbirth. It occurs 7 to 10 days after childbirth. After delivery, a multiparous woman is more susceptible to bleeding than a primiparous woman because her uterine muscles may be overstretched and may not contract efficiently.

Methylergonovine Methergine is an oxytocic agent used to prevent and treat postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony or subinvolution. After a stillbirth, the mother should be allowed to hold the neonate to help her come to terms with the death. A postpartum patient may resume sexual intercourse after the perineal or uterine wounds heal usually within 4 weeks after delivery.

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The fundus of a postpartum patient is massaged to stimulate contraction of the uterus and prevent hemorrhage. Laceration of the vagina, cervix, or perineum produces bright red bleeding that often comes in spurts. The bleeding is continuous, even when the fundus is firm. To avoid puncturing the placenta, a vaginal examination should not be performed on a pregnant patient who is bleeding.

350 Nursing Bullets: Maternity and Newborn Nursing Reviewer

A patient who has postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony should be given oxytocin as prescribed. After delivery, if the fundus is boggy and deviated to the right side, the patient should empty her bladder. An ectopic pregnancy is one that implants abnormally, outside the uterus. A habitual aborter is a woman who has had three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. Hydramnios polyhydramnios is excessive amniotic fluid of more than 2, ml in the third trimester.

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In an incomplete abortion , the fetus is expelled, but parts of the placenta and membrane remain in the uterus. When a pregnant patient has undiagnosed vaginal bleeding , vaginal examination should be avoided until ultrasonography rules out placenta previa.

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A patient with a ruptured ectopic pregnancy commonly has sharp pain in the lower abdomen, with spotting and cramping. She may have abdominal rigidity; rapid, shallow respirations; tachycardia; and shock. The vaccine can be administered after delivery, but the patient should be instructed to avoid becoming pregnant for 3 months. Placenta previa is abnormally low implantation of the placenta so that it encroaches on or covers the cervical os.

In complete total placenta previa , the placenta completely covers the cervical os. In partial incomplete or marginal placenta previa , the placenta covers only a portion of the cervical os. Abruptio placentae is premature separation of a normally implanted placenta. It may be partial or complete, and usually causes abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and a boardlike abdomen.

In placenta previa , bleeding is painless and seldom fatal on the first occasion, but it becomes heavier with each subsequent episode. Nursing interventions for a patient with placenta previa include positioning the patient on her left side for maximum fetal perfusion, monitoring fetal heart tones, and administering I. A classic difference between abruptio placentae and placenta previa is the degree of pain. Abruptio placentae causes pain, whereas placenta previa causes painless bleeding. Because a major role of the placenta is to function as a fetal lung, any condition that interrupts normal blood flow to or from the placenta increases fetal partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide and decreases fetal pH.

Pregnancy-induced hypertension is a leading cause of maternal death in the United States. The classic triad of symptoms of preeclampsia are hypertension, edema, and proteinuria. Additional symptoms of severe preeclampsia include hyperreflexia, cerebral and vision disturbances, and epigastric pain.

After administering magnesium sulfate to a pregnant patient for hypertension or preterm labor, the nurse should monitor the respiratory rate and deep tendon reflexes. In a patient with preeclampsia, epigastric pain is a late symptom and requires immediate medical intervention. In a pregnant patient, preeclampsia may progress to eclampsia, which is characterized by seizures and may lead to coma.

HELLP hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome is an unusual variation of pregnancy-induced hypertension. The failure rate of a contraceptive is determined by the experience of women for 1 year.