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Recent Activity Loading activity Register a free 1 month Trial Account. Download as many books as you like Personal use 3. Cancel the membership at any time if not satisfied. Lisa Doran I was suspicious at first when I got redirected to the membership site. Markus Jensen I did not think that this would work, my best friend showed me this website, and it does! Hun Tsu My friends are so mad that they do not know how I have all the high quality ebook which they do not! Tina Milan I stumbled upon Playster 2 months ago. At least two poets writing in pre-Confederation Canada were quick to recognize American tourism as a potential source of readers and sales.
Jean and, three years after its author had travelled down the St. Lawrence and the Saguenay drew on Lanman and Burr to offer tourists a similar medley of romance, scenery, and history see Bentley, Mimic Fires The better to cater to American tourists, Sangster had his poem printed and copyrighted in the United States and "[n]eatly bound in Muslin, and uniform with the American editions of the Poets" qtd.
Lawrence and the Saguenay xlvii. Moreover, as early as Sangster began augmenting The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay with a view to publishing a second edition that would be even more appealing to American tourists, a project that he again took up between and , when, as he told W. Lighthall, he had more than doubled the length of the poem with a view to collaborating with his "nephew Amos W. Bay" on the Saguenay qtd. In , Charles G. Roberts told Lighthall that he "hardly regard[ed] Sangster and [him]self as in the same boat" as writers Collected Letters 88 , but clearly he and other Confederation poets, especially William Wilfred Campbell, shared with the author of The St.
Lawrence and the Saguenay an awareness of the potential advantages of using their poetry in tourist guides aimed partly or primarily at readers outside Canada. The most ambitious, important, and controversial guide to Canada in the post-Confederation period was Picturesque Canada: Shrewdly, they arranged for it to be published under the imprint of Belden Brothers, but in Toronto.
Both the contents and the reception of Picturesque Canada were marked by this attempt to please two quite different audiences. From a literary and patriotic stand-point, George Monro Grant was well-chosen as the general editor of Picturesque Canada. As well as being "[a] well-written travel book," his account of the survey for the railway to British Columbia in Ocean to Ocean "celebrates the possibilities of the new country" and, as D.
Mack observes, "did much to promote interest in the northwest and to generate political support for the railway" To reach it, God grant us purity and faith, deliverance from the lust of personal aggrandizement, unity, and invincible steadfastness of purpose"  As he makes clear in the Preface to Picturesque Canada , Grant envisaged the project as a stimulus to patriotism more than tourism: The favour with which the work has been received is due not merely to its artistic merit, but to the growing patriotic spirit of the people" 1: The country, therefore, is under obligation to Largely typical of its genre is the section on New Brunswick that Roberts probably began in the fall of and completed in the summer of , when his enthusiasm for Canadian "Independence" was either at or near its peak see Collected Letters , 31, Prefaced by engravings of Grand Falls and St.
John, "New Brunswick" begins with an account of natural resources that can "only be gathered by the strenuous effort which breeds a sturdy and determined race" and then proceeds to a tour of the province that alternates descriptions of its physical features with vignettes from its Acadian and British history 2: Like the accompanying engravings of such scenes as the "Wharf at St.
As with the other sections of Picturesque Canada , the message is clear: New Brunswick is a picturesque and prosperous part of Canada that has much to offer residents and visitors alike, especially those who are not averse to a little "strenuous effort. Yielding to the temptation of self-promotion with understandable modesty, Roberts quotes his own sonnet "To Fredericton in May-Time" anonymously but nevertheless in its entirety, thus setting a perilous precedent for the markedly less restrained ego of William Wilfred Campbell. Some of the other sections of Picturesque Canada , notably those of accomplished poets and critics such as Agnes Maule Machar and Graham Mercer Adam, contain similar poetic components, but none puts poetry at the service of travel-writing to quite the same extent as "New Brunswick.
Jackson and Arthur Lismer, with the publicity programmes of the C. It should make, I think, about a dollar a book" Collected Letters Part of his motivation for reviving the project was to finance an escape from the "fetters" of domesticity and the "yokes" of other commitments Collected Letters I could doubtless work the C.
I also should arrange for like correspondence. This would help funds. We should thus, too, secure the C. Such a book, done well, would be no discredit! And it would sell in England, Canada, and U. As this letter makes clear, Roberts had a sophisticated understanding of the guide-book genre and its literary, political, and commercial possibilities in the s, when the C. Roberts would not be able to engineer his escape to New York until February Like other guidebooks aimed at English-speaking tourists and sportsmen, the first of these, co-authored with Ernest Ingersoll, was published both in the United States by Appleton in and in Britain by William Heinemann in c.
Probably because he had more space to fill and more material upon which to draw, Roberts is much more generous in The Canadian Guide-Book than in Picturesque Canada with quotations from his own work. Since much of the sightseeing that Roberts rehearses in The Canadian Guide-Book , particularly in the sections devoted to the Maritimes, occurs during or after railway journeys, it is scarcely surprising that the advertisements at the end of the book include one for the C.
Did Roberts supply the copy for all or part of this and, if so, did he do so before or after writing "Blomidon"?
The answers may never be known, but in their very asking the questions are indicative of the symbiotic relationship that sometimes existed between Canadian poetry and the tourist industry during the Confederation period. A further aspect of that relationship comes into view when, between listing the literary and historical landmarks of Nova Scotia and mentioning the "Splendid Steamships Running in Connection to and from Boston and St.
George Miller Beard had argued in American Nervousness, its Causes and Consequences , "modern civilization" was the "predisposing cause" of all the psychosomatic symptoms ascribed to "neurasthenia" or "Americanitis" , then a restful time away from modern civilization in a park, at a cottage, or in Canada should return the sufferer, at least temporarily, to health. Since escape from "modern civilization," whether on a vacation or by means of a book, would provide relief from "Americanitis, "[h]ealth-seekers" could expect to be doubly refreshed and renewed by a trip to Nova Scotia with Evangeline , Longfellow, or, at least, The Canadian Guide-Book in hand or pocket.
While the therapeutic aspect of a trip to Canada is more acknowledged than emphasized in The Canadian Guide-Book , it is given a prominent place in the guide to Nova Scotia that Roberts wrote for the successor to the Windsor and Annapolis Railway in the winter of see Collected Letters As the words "good," "guiltless," and "ignorant" in this description suggest, Nova Scotia is more than merely a sanatorium for neurasthenic Americans in The Land of Evangeline and the Gateways Thither ; it is an earthly "paradise" within easy reach of the polluted pandemoniums of the industrial northeast on the steamer and trains of the Dominion Atlantic Railway.
What makes Nova Scotia especially attractive to native and visiting writers and artists is the combination of its abundant and fresh not to say unfallen subject-matter and the psychological and perceptual qualities of its air: Farfetched as they may seem, such ideas were probably taken very seriously by Carman, Hovey, Henrietta Russell and the other writers and artists who came from New York in the summers of and to stay with Roberts in Windsor see Collected Letters , It is my own persuasion that is bringing her and her party this way; but it will be easy to secure her influence in the future, toward inducing tourists of her class to visit this part of the world" Collected Letters The Land of Evangeline and the Gateways Thither contains excerpts from several pieces by Roberts and other Maritime writers that serve the dual purpose of promoting local talent and confirming the inspirational quality of Nova Scotia history and scenery.
As was the case with "Blomidon," "Whitewaters" apparently made its first appearance in print in the pages of a tourist guide. The charm of illusion is gently displaced by an equally seductive charm of fact" 1. When cherished illusions are to be safeguarded, the enchantment born of distance has its value, but if American tourists are to be persuaded to visit the "Land of Evangeline" on the Dominion Atlantic Railway they must be persuaded of the equal or greater attractions of "close acquaintance": In the decades surrounding the publication of The Land of Evangeline and the Gateways Thither dozens of guides to different regions of Canada and to the country as a whole were written by Canadian authors, several of whom were friends or associates of Roberts and other Confederation poets.
During the same period, the Montreal poet and philosopher William Douw Lighthall, whom Roberts had greatly assisted in the commissioning and editing of Songs of the Great Dominion , published Montreal after Years and Sights and Shrines of Montreal: With Historical and Descriptive Sketches of the Scenery and Life in Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, and Surrounding Country , were published by Belford in Chicago is an indication that by the turn of the century Canadian independence was a less sensitive issue than it had been two decades earlier.
A principal reason for this was the decline in the threat of annexation that followed the Liberal defeat in the election of and the collapse of the Continental Union League in see Warner , two events that occurred in part because of the rise in imperial sentiment that, as Carl Berger has shown, followed the foundation of the Imperial Federation League and the celebration of the centennial of the United Empire Loyalists in the summer of Studies of Canada by George Parkin, a principal spokesman for the Imperialist movement and of course, the charismatic teacher of, among others, Carman, Roberts, and Stephen Leacock.
Perhaps because he viewed imperialism only as a necessary ally of nationalism in the battle against annexation, Roberts admired and advocated the position articulated by Parkin in The Great Dominion, Imperial Federation , and several earlier articles see Collected Letters 86, , but did not allow it to colour either The Canadian Guide-Book or The Land of Evangeline and the Gateways Thither.
He was also much too canny to allow tourist guides aimed primarily at Americans to be touched by the anti-Americanism implicit in both Canadian nationalism and Canadian imperialism. No such considerations prevented William Wilfred Campbell from lacing both Canada , his "description of the Country and People," 9 and The Canadian Lake Region , his account of The Beauty, History, Romance and Mystery of the northern Great Lakes, with imperial sentiments so fulsome as to border on sycophancy.
Mower Martin, a "transplanted Englishm[a]n" whose style, not surprisingly or even inappropriately, is "a popular variation on the great tradition of English landscape painting" Reid, Concise History Numerous quotations from other nineteenth-century poets such as Longfellow Evangeline and Moore "Canadian Boat Song" assist in giving Canada the flavour of a bygone age. In the opening paragraphs of his Introduction, Campbell envisages Canada as a country poised between extremes of climate and destiny:.
The only predecessor of the work was the compendium of Major, and as it was written in a flowing and pleasing style it became very popular, and led to ecclesiastical preferment and Royal favour. He has, however, the credit of having contributed a new idea of history and the method of writing it. In the latter year he was invited to become a prof. His chief poem, The Fall of Nineveh , consisting of thirty books, appeared at intervals from to Sproat, Gilbert Malcolm Nootka: The plays contain many very beautiful lyrics, but are often stained by gross indelicacy.
And of a similar strange mixture are its people, at once the saddest-fated and yet most promising of any people upon earth. Canada promises either to be the theatre of one of the greatest national entities earth has ever seen, or else, failing this, to be the spot where the race has died out in a crude, vulgar cosmopolitanism, where patriotism has been destroyed by a decadent party system, and all idealism crushed out in a hard materialism. The "race" to which Campbell refers is the British race and the "idealism" that he sees under threat resides in the rural population of northern European and, especially, northern British descent that has made Canada the "Scotland of America" and may yet succeed "in establishing as strong and as elevated a civilisation on this continent as Britain has in the old" 2, In attributing the "northern" qualities that are "needful to make a people really great" to both "climate" and "heredity" 4 , Campbell aligns himself with a tradition of thinking about Canada as an extension of northern British virtues and an alternative to southern American vices that, of course, received one of its earliest and most influential formulations in R.
Drummond, "the gifted author of The Habitant " 85 over any other contemporary Canadian poet Roberts, Carman, Lampman, and Duncan Campbell Scott are not so much as mentioned in Canada 10 is his fondness for the work of writers who shared his imperialist sentiments: Smith has, however, of late admitted his mistake. He is a delightful and dignified host quite after the aristocratic and old-time manner. Not only is the book prefaced by a Campbell poem as was Canada but so also are most of its ten chapters, and quotations from Lake Lyrics and Other Poems are so frequent that the reader comes fully to accept his contention that "there is no portion of the globe more fit" than "the lake region of Canada" for "the mood and dream of the poet and lover of nature" All that spirit of the sea-faring soul, the daring of the navigator, the love of the open, the search for adventure, is here met and satisfied" Lake Michigan is "off the main track of the great waterway from the St.
Yet there is no Canadian lake which has a more interesting history, and the past of Canada and the early discovery and exploration of the West would be incomplete without the story of this remarkable and beautiful body of water" As his remarks on Lake Huron and Lake Michigan suggest, Campbell conceives of the Great Lakes as a region whose natural amenities, historical associations, and spiritual resonances will continue to exercise a positive influence on Canadians as individuals and on Canada as a nation within the Empire.
For these as well as natural reasons, the Great Lakes have potent spiritual and therapeutic properties: Here man can, if he sanely chooses, renew his life for a season, and forget that he is a serf or a hireling" Of course, Campbell was not alone in making such claims for "the Canadian Lake region" but merely one of a chorus of writers whose advocacy of the therapeutic benefits of a season away from the "awful business" of the modern city, be it New York, Chicago, or Toronto, led to the construction of the countless summer cottages that now line almost every lake in Canada and the United States.