A bold counter assault, an unforeseen manoeuvre, a obdurate refusal to be crushed and the most unlikely victory is received. First in the Blue Aviation Elite Units. Prepared in January , simply because the usa was once increase army forces for its inevitable access into global conflict II, the 57th Fighter staff used to be the 1st USAAF fighter unit to enter motion in North Africa.
It went directly to identify a couple of different 'firsts' in the course of its illustrious wrestle historical past during this theatre. Perry's Patrolling the Revolution: This pioneering examine explores the function of working-class militias as forefront and mother or father of the chinese language Revolution. The booklet starts off with the origins of city militias within the overdue 19th century and follows their improvement to the current day.
Perry specializes in the establishment of employee militias as a car for reading the altering yet enduring impression of China's progressive background on next state-society relatives. Jews -- Austria -- Vienna -- Biography. Jewish businesspeople -- Austria -- Biography. Clothing trade -- Austria -- Biography. Jews -- Austria — Social conditions. University Of Chicago Press,, Harvey Lomax, with a foreword by Joseph Cropsey.
It quickly became one of the most influential works of political philosophy published and remains a classic. In , a young student of political theory named Leo Strauss published a critique of Concept and over the next two years, wrote several letters to Schmitt questioning aspects of his argument. Schmitt never answered Strauss's letters, but in his revision of the book, he changed a number of passages in response to Strauss's criticisms without even acknowledging them.
In this volume, Heinrich Meier shows what this remarkable "hidden dialogue" reveals about the development of these two seminal thinkers. At the center of the dialogue, Meier argues, was the mutual attempt to define exactly what politics is and how it relates to the philosophical tradition and to modern society. Taking Hobbes's "war of all against all" as his inspiration, Schmitt challenged contemporary liberal society's unwillingness to admit that politics was literally "a matter of life and death.
Strauss, Leo -- Correspondence. Schmitt, Carl, -- Correspondence. Schmitt, Carl, Begriff des Politischen. Strauss, Leo -- Correspondance. Schmitt, Carl, -- Correspondance. Includes bibliographical references and index. Some pages slightly creased, small stain to cover and text block. Very good in good jacket. Mendelssohn was a 19th century Romantic composer who continues to be well known up to the present day. During his own lifetime, he was the most well known composer in Central Europe.
Cloth, Large 8vo, pages. Author inscription on front page. Very good in very good Jacket. Leipzig, Hermann Mendelssohn, ?. Gilt spine title, binding tight. Light wear to leather. Staining to corner of some pages. Very Good Condition, nice copy. This short monograph depicting the lives, literature, and scholarly writings on Rabbi Loew and Comenius, in the form of short theses and a bibliography, is the work of Hugo Stransky. He emigrated to Israel in , and died in Kefar Saba on March 31, OCLC lists one copy worldwide.
Judah Loew ben Bezalel, ca. Dedicated by the author in pen on title page in Light soiling to covers, clean otherwise. Hardcover, 12mo, pages, 15 cm. Suess-Oppenheimer, Joseph, -- Fiction. Rapoport in Prague, and at Halle. In Prague he was friendly with the writer Solomon Kohn, who may have influenced Lehmann's future work as a writer. In an organ was introduced in the synagogue of Mainz and in , when the Orthodox members formed a separate congregation, Lehmann was elected their rabbi and, eventually, one of the leaders and spokesmen of modern German Orthodoxy.
In Mainz he founded a religious school which from was an elementary day school for boys and girls. Lehmann wrote polemically against Reform and founded the weekly Israelit to counter the influence of Ludwig Philippson's Reform periodical, Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums; the Israelit became the principal voice of German Orthodoxy. Lehmann was the main contributor to the Israelit and his many historical novels, including Rabbi Joselmann von Rosheim, and short stories were first published in it. His stories were collected in Aus Vergangenheit und Gegenwart, and many were translated or adapted into Hebrew, Judeo-Arabic, French, Hungarian, English, and other languages.
Lehmann's stories have no great literary merit, but as juvenile literature, they have religious and educational value. Of more scholarly importance, though also primarily intended for popular instruction, are his German edition of the Haggadah, anonymously revised and enlarged by H.
Ehrmann and translated into English, and his Sabbath lectures on Avot, collected as Die Sprueche der Vaeter in which Lehmann made use of earlier commentators, particularly of Samuel b. Lehmann also published the tractate Berakhot of the Jerusalem Talmud with the commentary of Solomon Sirillo and his own notes, Meir Nativ. Lehmann translated the Pentateuch in the Bible translation initiated by the Orthodox Bible Institute to counter the translation of Zunz and others.
As editor of the Israelit, Lehmann agreed increasingly with S. XIII, ; pages. Two volumes in one book. Bound in quarter leather with decorative boards and gilt lettering on spine, marbled endpages, and cloth bookmark. From the Estate of Varnhagen Von Ense.
Her home life was uncongenial, her father, a wealthy jeweler, being a strong-willed man and ruling his family despotically. She was very intimate with Dorothea and Henriette, daughters of Moses Mendelssohn. Together with them she knew Henriette Herz, with whom she later became most intimately associated, moving in the same intellectual sphere.
During a visit to Carlsbad in she was introduced to Goethe, whom she again saw in , at Frankfort-on-the-Main. After the death of her father in she lived successively in Paris, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Hamburg, Prague, and Dresden. This period was one of misfortune for Germany; Prussia was reduced to a small kingdom and her king was in exile. Secret societies were formed in every part of the country with the object of throwing off the tyranny of Napoleon; Rahel herself belonged to one of these societies.
At the time of their marriage, Varnhagen, who had fought in the Austrian army against the French, belonged to the Prussian diplomatic corps, and their house at Vienna became the meeting-place of the Prussian delegates to the Vienna Congress. She accompanied her husband in to Vienna, and in to Carlsruhe, where he was Prussian representative.
After she again lived in Berlin, where Varnhagen had taken up his residence after having been retired from his diplomatic position. Though not a productive writer herself, Rahel was the center of a circle of eminent writers, scholars, and artists in the Prussian capital. Her correspondence with David Veit and with Varnhagen von Ense was published in Leipsic, in and respectively.
She was the daughter of Dr. After the death of her parents she removed to Berlin to reside with her uncle Varnhagen. In she took up her residence in Florence, where she passed the rest of her life. She married a lieutenant of the Italian army, Cavaliere Grimelli, from whom she was divorced two years later Ludmilla founded in Florence a public school, in which instruction in German was compulsory.
Toward the close of her life she became afflicted with brain trouble, from which she never recovered, her death occurring in the insane asylum of San Bonifazio, Florence. As a writer, Ludmilla Assing belonged to the school of Varnhagen. Her literary activity was chiefly directed toward biography. She translated from the Italian Mazzini's works Hamburg, , 2 vols. She wrote also in Italian. The posthumous works of her uncle were edited by her, and for this she was sentenced, in , to eight months', and again, in , to two years', imprisonment by the Prussian government for disrespect to the king and queen, because the works of Varnhagen that were published under her direction disclosed some scandals of the court.
As she was residing in Florence at that time, the intended punishment did not affect her. She was pardoned, however, in , but she preferred, nevertheless, to remain in Italy. Authors, German -- 19th century -- Correspondence. Intellectuals -- Germany -- Correspondence. Jewish women -- Germany -- Correspondence. Varnhagen, Rahel, -- Correspondence.
Veit, David, -- Correspondence. Germany -- Intellectual life. Light wear to covers. Pages very clean and fresh, with occasional light spotting in margin and occasional signs of aging. London, The East and West Library, Berlin-Steglitz; Officina Serpentis, Born in Frankfurt, Bamberger from to was a research fellow of the Akademie fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums and until occupied various teaching posts in Berlin.
Emigrating from Germany to the United States, he became professor of philosophy at the College for Jewish Studies, Chicago, from to , and was on the staff and later editor in chief of Coronet magazine from to He was a founder of the Society of Jewish Bibliophiles. His collection of Spinoziana was considered to be the finest private collection of its kind. Covers lightly aged and very lightly soiled. Pages lightly aged, margins lightly soiled. Heidelberg, Lothar Stiehm, Large fold-out geneaological chart of the Gebrueder Veit presen t at rear.
Bound in cloth and decorative boards. The constitution of this new community was established in the following year. At the same time the old restrictions were abolished, and full equality before the law was given to the Hamburg Jews, as to all the Jews in the French empire. He wrote on the history of the communities which he served. In this area he contributed also to other periodicals as well as to a number of Festschriften and published important studies such as Hebraeische Frauennamen — , Eigennamen des alten Testaments , and in the related field of Jewish art Holzsynagogen in Polen with others, Among Grunwald's other interests were Spinoza, on whom he had written his dissertation and a prizewinning Spinoza in Deutschland On the occasion of the international exhibition on hygiene in Dresden in he published a book on that subject, Hygiene der Juden He also edited a German prayer book for women and one for serving soldiers Gebetbuch fuer israelitische Soldaten im Kriege, On the occasion of Grunwald's 70th birthday Omanut, the publication of the Bezalel Museum in Jerusalem, issued his bibliography Jews -- Folklore -- Periodicals.
Jews -- Social life and customs -- Periodicals. OCLC lists 12 copies worldwide. Ex-Libris Community Synagogue of Breslau, with corresponding stamps on title page and covers. Front cover starting at hinge. Pages lightly aged, but fresh and clean. Covers detached but present, with chipping along edges. Goettingen, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, U. Johann Christian Senckenberg , none outside Germany. Wrappers and table of contents chipping at edges with institutional stamps; hinge repair.
Internal pages nice and clean. Wien, Verlag Der Israelitischen Paper Wrappers, Mark on cover, lacks front endpaper, Very Good Condition; 8vo; pages; Detailed self-portrait of a reborn community from the early post-war era. Frankfurt, In Kommission bei J. Volume 1 half leather, Volume 2 cloth 8vo, x, , vii, , 4 pages. Includes 4-page subscribers list at the end of volume 2. The results of his research are a series of important publications, particularly his two-volume Geschichte der Frankfurter Juden "History of the Frankfurt Jews".
Volume 1 missing most of backstrip. Cloth, 8vo; pages; Important work. Hardback, 12mo, pages. A nicely done history. Wien; Selbstverlag Der Israelitischen Kultusgemeinde, With 7 leaves of black and white photographic plates. Jews -- Austria -- Vienna -- History. Covers quite worn and shaken, with edges bumped and lightly torn.
Pages aged, and lightly foxed in margins, but clean and crisp. Wien Und Leipzig, Wilhem Braumueller, Cloth, Large 8vo, 12, pages. Full titles of sections I and II: Cloth has marks on it, otherwise very good copy. Frankfurt, Verlag Waldemar Kramer, Jews -- Germany -- Frankfurt am Main -- History. Frankfurt am Main Germany -- Ethnic relations. Cloth , Frankfurt Am Main pages. Very Good in a very good dustjacket. In English and Hebrew, with German. With sixteen pages of plates. This work covers the lost institutions, events and great personalities of the destroyed Hamburg Jewish community.
Jews -- Germany -- Hamburg. Tear to top and small crack along backstrip. Light aging to edges. With ten black and white plates of photographs of the Munich Synagogue. Leo Baerwald was rabbi of the Munich Jewish community from After serving in World War I as a military chaplain Feldrabbiner , he became a rabbi for the Jewish community in Munich.
He kept this position until his departure from Germany. From on Baerwald struggled against the Nazi regime. He was refused a travel permit to leave the country for health reasons. It was in that he was finally able to leave Germany for England, where he waited for a visa to the United States.
This congregation was made up of Jewish refugees from Munich and Nuremberg. He retired from this position in After his retirement he continued to support the congregation as well as becoming involved in the work of the Leo Baeck Institute and the American Federation of Jews from Central Europe. Leo Baerwald died in New York in at the age of Ludwig Feuchtwanger was trained as a lawyer, but worked as an author, journalist, and publisher.
In , he was imprisoned in Dachau concentration camp. Ludwig Feuchtwanger and his family managed to emigrate to Winchester in England in His papers are also housed at the Leo Baeck Institute. Jews -- Germany -- Munich. Synagoge Munich, Germany Germany; social history; 18th, 19th, 20th century; social conditions; social groups; Jews and anti-Semitism.
Covers worn and soiled, with lightly chipped edges and small torn portions to top and bottom of backstrip. First and last pages lightly foxed. Pages fresh and clean throughout. Later cloth bound with original paper wrappers pastedown on covers. His work on the history of the Jews in Nuremberg and Fuerth constituted the definitive text for over a century on the subject, and is considered the first history on the subject written to standards of contemporary historical research standards.
The table of contents: History of the Jews in Nuremberg, History of the Jews in Fuerth, History of the Jews in Nuremberg Modern Ages; with four appendices, on the improvement of moral conditions of the Jews in Franconia, information about the history of the Jews tolls in Nuremberg, mention of documents not included in text owing to their forthcoming printing, the Jewish orphanage in Fuerth. Jews -- Germany -- Nuremberg. Covers lightly soiled, edges worn, with slight tear at bottom of backstrip. Internal pages clean, but aged and browned, with a slight tear at edge of few pages. Wien [Vienna]; Phaidon-Verlag, Red cloth bound with gilt lettering, red ribbon page marker, frontispiece portrait of Samuel Oppenheimer, and a half dozen plates of portraits.
Vienna Austria -- Ethnic relations. Stamps of Bibliothek Des Israel Bohemia Bnai Brith on endpages and on titlepage, with pencil and pen numbering marks on endpages. Covers lightly soiled, in excellent condition. Pages clean and fresh. Abt Books ; Lanham, Md.: In very good condition, in a very good jacket. Berlin, Nicolaische Verlag, Paperback, 8vo, pages. Paper Wrappers, 8vo; Berlin: Holocaust, Jewish --Germany--Berlin. Berlin Germany --Ethnic relations. Original paper wrappers, 12mo. Frontis piece illustration of the "Tower of Jews" in Austria.
A series of "fragments" providing an overview of the rich history of Jews in Vienna. Jews -- Austria -- Vienna. OCLC lists 22 copies worldwide.
Wear and staining to covers, pages edgeworn with some light staining. On the Jewish community in Essen. Paper Wrappers, Original paper wrappers, 8vo; 97 pages. With Offenbach stamp on cover. Photograph on cover and on frontis piece. Bibliography of "Falaschen-literatur" on pages Synagogues -- Czech Republic -- Prague. Podiebrad" OCLC lists 29 copies worldwide. Pages tanned and a bit fragile. Stains to a few pages. Small chips to covers. Hardback, 12mo, 79 pages. Conference On Jewish Social Studies: Distributed By Columbia University Press, This history of the Jewish community of Kassel includes 24 pages of photographic plates depicting maps, architectural diagrams, portraits, gravestones, and manuscripts.
The Jews of Hesse-Cassel, a region in Prussia, have lived in the region since the early middle ages. After a few centuries of consistent legal and social oppression, they were emancipated in Cassel was one of the four district rabbinates "Landrabbinier" of Hesse. Hallo was born in Kassel to a prominent family of court Jews and artisans, which included Israel Aron Hammerschlag of Prague and his grandson and namesake, who was made a Court Jew in by Frederick William of Brandenburg.
The family tradition of painting, gilding, and synagogue decoration began in , when Simon Hallo became an apprentice housepainter, the medieval painters' guild having opened to Jews in the wake of the Emancipation. The firm Gebrueder Hallo was founded in and moved to Tel Aviv in Jews -- Germany -- Kassel -- History. Synagogues -- Germany -- Kassel -- History. Covers soiled, with water stains on backstrip. Outer edges lightly bumped. Pages very fresh and clean. Jews — Germany —Heilbronn. OCLC lists 10 copies worldwide. Bound in later Wrappers.
First and last page tanned, as well as margins throughout. Wien [Vienna]; Verlag Moriz Waizner, With four black and white plates. David Ritter von Gutmann; Vice President: This brochure contains the yearly report of for the Israelitischen Allianz Zu Wien, a relief society for the promotion of Jewish interests founded in Vienna in , especially committed to aiding victims of persecution throughout Eastern Europe, struggling for equal rights for Jews, and organizing educational institutions.
The Alliance was abolished by the nazis in The report from includes specific contributions on the situation in Galicia, Russia, Rumania, and Persia, lists of members by city of the Alliance, and charts and graphs on emigration from Russia and Romania, with detailed lists of financial expenditures of assistance commissions. OCLC lists 5 copies worldwide. Edges brittle and aged, many edges of the first few pages chipped.
Presentation to the sixth opening ceremony of the Jewish teaching house in Cologne. OCLC lists 19 copies worldwide. Jews - Germany - History - 17th century. Jews - Germany - History - 18th century. Jews - Germany - History - 19th century. Jews - Education - Germany. Covers soiled, pages lightly yellowed, clean. X, , pages. In German, with some Hebrew. Cloth and decorative paper boards, with original paper wrapper title pastedown.
The early 15th century was a period of rising hatred of the burghers of Vienna against the Jews, kindled in part by Jewish wealth. The Hussite heresy had widespread reverberations in Austria at the time, and it was generally held that Jews and Hussites maintained close contact. Duke Albert V, inclined to religious fanaticism and disturbed by the Hussite rebellion, was also deeply in debt to Jewish moneylenders and without the means of repayment.
At Easter a rumor was spread among the population of Vienna that a rich Jew named Israel had bought consecrated hosts from the wife of a Church sexton in Enns, and distributed them among other Jews who desecrated them. The Jews who were implicated were brought to Vienna, imprisoned, and tortured. On May 23, , the Jews were rounded up in all the cities and towns of Austria and their possessions taken from them. The wealthy were imprisoned in Vienna, while the poor were put into boats without oars on the Danube at the mercy of the stream. Some Jews were held captive in houses, others in the synagogues.
Children were separated from parents and husbands from wives, and an attempt was made to convert them to Christianity. He reacted by threatening with excommunication anyone who forced Jews to convert. Nonetheless, many of the children taken from their parents were carried off to monasteries and there forcibly converted.
A great many of those imprisoned committed suicide, including those held in the synagogues; the last one alive, R. Jonah, set fire to the corpses and died on the funeral pyre. The Jews who were left, women and 92 men, were burned at the stake on March 12, All the property of the Jews passed to Duke Albert. The stones of the synagogue were used in building the university. Some Jews escaped to Bohemia; a very few managed to maintain an illegal existence in Austria. The proud Vienna community numbering between 1, and 1, existed no longer, and the city became known in Jewish tradition as "Ir ha-Damim" "The City of Blood".
He came to England as a refugee and spent his last years at Cambridge. In he published a comprehensive and detailed study of Biblical names of ninety eight then modern nations. Backstrip shaken, edges of cover boards worn, with upper right edge on back cover absent. Endpages heavily worn, with torn corners on back endpages and bibliography, not affecting text. Pages aged, but clean, and crisp. Berlin; Verlag Von S. Two separate works bound together.
Later decorative boards over cloth; with title finely written in ink on slip on spine; with decorative edges. This volume constitutes a detailed history of Jewish communities and individuals in Saxony from the tenth century on. Jews -- Germany -- Saxony. Includes special directory on the number of Jewish families living in the Kingdom in Jews -- Legal status, laws, etc -- Germany -- Westfalen. Covers lightly worn at edges. Pages lightly aged, with light soiling at endpages and the last few pages of the directory of the second volume. Ink marks on front endpages. Original paper wrappers, 8vo.
Illustrated with two photographs from the Jewish cemetery in Frankfurt. Ex-library with label on cover and institutional stamp on title page. Cover and pages tanned.
Cloth, 8vo, pages, illustrations. Jews -- Germany -- Bad Mergentheim. Very good condition in very good jacket. VIII, ,  pages. With fifteen pages of plates. An 'Aruk in 2 vols. The entire district of Stettin contains 6, Jews in a total population of 1, , The capital, Stettin, contains 3, Jews. Its present rabbi is H. The community maintains a Jewish orphan asylum; a Jewish infirmary, with which is connected an endowment society; and seven other benevolent societies. Jews -- Germany -- Stettin. Jews -- Poland -- Szczecin. OCLC lists 18 copies worldwide. Covers lightly soiled, edges lightly aged.
Bottom corner of cover creased, with a foxed corner on the endpage beneath the crease. All pages lightly aged, but fresh and clean. Paper Wrappers , 8vo. Bibliography, notes and index. Ismar Freund was a "writer, communal worker, and lawyer. From to Freund was the executive director of the Berlin Jewish community, and from a lecturer in religious community law at the Hochschule Lehranstalt fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums. He was the driving force behind the formation of the Preussischer Landesverband Juedischer Gemeinden Freund strove to achieve a nationwide Reichsverband Juedischer Gemeinden, but without success.
He bitterly opposed the separate organization of Orthodox congregations Halberstaedter Verband. Freund emigrated to Palestine in , taking with him his valuable private archives, which he presented to the General Historical Archives in Jerusalem. Jews -- Germany -- Prussia. Jews -- Politics and government. Jews -- Social conditions. Ex-library with minimal markings. Cloth, Very Good Condition; 12mo; pages; 20 cm. Original full cloth with gold lettering on front board. Rieger, the photographic images were taken with a few exceptions, by Willi Moegle.
The Jewish encyclopedia lists a number of interesting aspects to the Jewish population here, and lists the jewish population in the kingdom as twelve thousand as of the census. This volume contains over one hundred black and white photographs of the earliest to the latest Jewish cemeteries, catacombs, and synagogues throughout the Kingdom of Wurttemberg. Includes a register of places and a detailed map of Jewish communities in Wurttemberg. This beautiful volume is a thorough and illustrative volume commemorating the places of the unfortunately last remaining years of the presence of the Jewish community in the Kingdom.
Covers lightly soiled, endpages lightly foxed and spotted. Outer edges lightly soiled. Later Paper Wrappers, 8vo. Jews — Latvia — Riga. Wien Und Leipzig, Wilhelm Braumueller, Paper wrappers, Some edge chips to paper wrappers, otherwise very good; Large 8vo; 10, pages; From the private library of Dr. Illustrated, some in color. Later cloth and decorative boards, with gilt title lettering on spine. With fold out map of the Viennese Jewish ghetto in , and fold out map of plans for the Jewish ghetto of Vienna in On behalf of the Historical Commission of the Jewish community in Vienna.
The Jewish Quarter in the inner city until its abolition in , according to the registrations of the Vienna municipal land registry and other archival sources - II The Jewish town in the Lower Werd. The basic book of the Jewish Town with documentation about the history of the Jewish houses. The Jews with regard to the Municipal registrations, death certificate, The Viennese Jewish ghetto in was totally destroyed by fanatic Austrian rulers, and this history of the continued beginnings and legal oppression of the Jews of Vienna, with extensive documentation, graphs, and geneaological charts, constitutes an expert history by the respected Dr.
Ignaz Schwarz, , an Austrian Jewish physician, book dealer and antiquarian, known for his expert historical writings such as this work. Jews --Austria -- Vienna. Jews -- Social life and customs. Light wear to covers, with minor dots of paint needlessly ensconcing the front board and backstrip.
Gilt lettering slightly faded. All edges, and first and last pages, very lightly foxed. New Internet and web-based technologies lead to new chances and difficulties in teaching. This unit examines concepts of virtual learning and teaching for lectures as well as for practical courses. An interactive, multimedia-based practical course was offered for the first time in the summer term in cooperation with the RWTH Aachen. Through distributed access to learning material via the Internet the students gained more flexibility with respect to the time and place of their learning activities.
This flexibility requires an integrated organisation of students, teachers and learning material. Current research work concentrates on the support of practice-related learning with simulation-based learning material, which emulates the highly dynamic behaviour of communication networks. This learning material is offered via a web-based interface for a distributed, interactive and self organising learning.
This prize ranks as one of the highest awards for research in database systems. Modern methods in application domains such as molecular biology, astronomy, geography, etc. Since all this data can no longer be managed without the help of automated analysis tools, there is an ever increasing need for efficient and effective data mining methods to make use of the information contained implicitly in that data. One of the main tasks of data mining is clustering which is intended to help a user discovering and understanding the natural structure or grouping in a data set.
Clustering real-world data sets is often hampered by the so-called curse of dimensionality, since many real-world data sets consist of a very high dimensional feature space. In this case, traditional clustering algorithms often fail to generate meaningful results. We are currently working on subspaces clustering algorithms and advanced feature selection methods for clustering high-dimensional data.
Web content mining is the application of data mining techniques to automatically extract relevant content from the world wide web. While many established methods are targeted to retrieve relevant web pages, there are various applications which target whole web sites. A web site is a set of web pages serving a common purpose, e. We develop techniques for classification, focused crawling and clustering to enable users to query the web for specific web sites.
Another important aspect is the development of data mining algorithms for complex objects. Since representing complex objects as single feature vectors might loose vital information, we develop methods that are capable to handle sets and tuples of feature vectors. Applications of this approach are biomolecular databases and CAD-databases which provide multiple representations for the data objects.
Traditional KDD methods require full access to the data which is going to be analysed. All data has to be located on a single site. Nowadays, large amounts of heterogeneous, complex data reside on different, independently working computers which are connected to each other via local or wide area networks, e. We develop methods for analysing data in a distributed fashion.
Thus, the data is analysed locally, where it has been generated and stored. Afterwards, we combine these local models to a global one. For large data sets, scaling up the speed of the KDD process is crucial. Thus we further develop techniques for parallel knowledge discovery. The explosive growth of digital data has opened great challenges to the area of E-business. A family of technologies, summarized as "Information Filtering", emerges to assist users to find desired information from large amount of available data.
Applications include recommender systems, image retrieval, spam email filtering, news filtering, personalized web browsing and others. It has become a vivid research area that focuses on learning users' profiles of information need. Existing approaches either infer individuals' profiles by exploring their connections to other users, known as collaborative filtering, or learn the profile from the descriptive contents of examples given by the users, known as content-based filtering.
This project studies various novel statistical learning approaches to modeling user profiles, namely collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and hybrid filtering. Modern database applications are characterised by two major aspects: The focus of database users has shifted from simple queries to complex analysis of the data, known as knowledge discovery in databases. Important tasks in this area are the grouping of data objects clustering , the classification of new data objects or the detection of exceptional data objects outlier detection.
Most algorithms for solving those problems are based on similarity search in databases. On the other hand, similarity search is also directly important in many application domains. In molecular biology and pharmaceutics, finding geometrically similar or geometrically complementary molecules is essential for computer-aided drug design. In engineering, enormous cost reductions are possible by the identification of similar parts and a following reduction of part diversity. All this makes efficient similarity search in large databases of structured objects an important basic operation for modern database applications.
Consequently, similarity search plays an important role in several of our research projects and is investigated from different view points in those projects. In the past few years, we developed several successful similarity search methods for different applications. A very general approach is based on a histogram representation of objects and the use of quadratic form distance functions.
We applied this approach in such diverse application domains as image retrieval, bio informatics and CAD databases. The use of the quadratic form distance function allows the flexibility to adapt the similarity search method to the needs of different applications and users. This extends even to a point where the user is able to adapt the similarity measure between two queries without loosing interactive response times. The necessary performance is achieved through several generally applicable techniques like multi-step query processing architectures, an optimal k-nearest-neighbour algorithm, dimension reduction and efficient index structures.
We also developed efficient similarity search methods for graph- and tree-structured data. The edge matching distance for such data uses a matching between edge sets to derive a measure for the similarity of graph structures. It is characterised by a moderate computational complexity and high adaptability to user and application needs.
Additionally, a multi-step query processing architecture for this measure was created to ensure good query response times. For tree-structured data, a similar query processing architecture was developed, also showing very good performance results. All our similarity search techniques have been implemented prototypically and tested with data from various real-world applications. Additionally, several demos of the techniques are available on our web site. The most well-known method for similarity search in various application domains such as CAD databases, time sequence analysis, molecular biology etc.
This transformation associates the objects of the database with vectors of numerical features which characterise the objects. Similarity search is thus translated into a search for neighbouring vectors in a usually high-dimensional feature space. The specific advantage is that using a single methodology, i. Our extension for high-dimensional spaces, the X-tree has become one of the milestones and yardsticks for similarity search. Due to a number of effects commonly referred to as the "curse of dimensionality", even the performance of the X-tree and other specialised index structures for high dimensions deteriorates when facing feature spaces of too high dimensionality.
This cost model was then used to identify numerous parameters for optimisation. A number of optimisation techniques such as the dynamic block size optimisation, optimal dimension assignment, optimal index scan techniques, and an optimising data compression technique for index structures have been proposed. The IQ tree, into which we integrated many of these techniques, has become one of the most efficient index structures today. The development, design, manufacturing and maintenance of modern engineering products is a very expensive and complex process.
Today, thousands to millions of CAD files of a car or an air plane may occupy terabytes of distributed secondary and tertiary storage. The main objective of this project is to find techniques to manage effectively and efficiently huge enterprise-wide amounts of spatial data and to evaluate them in an industrial environment. As a main application, we focus on collision detection and within-distance queries for digital mockup and on similarity search in large CAD databases.
For an efficient query processing, conservative approximations of the CAD models are stored in a database in order to support geometric queries like collision or within-distance queries in a multi-tiered fashion. A selective and complete filtering mechanism determines only a small amount of the CAD parts to be downloaded from the database into main memory for exact geometric analysis.
The efficiency is in particular realized by index structures we developed, which can be easily integrated into industrial strength object-relational database systems. In addition, we analyse which degree of redundancy is most suitable for high resolution spatial objects. Collision detection and within-distance queries, which are very important for digital mockup DMU , can be carried out interactively using our approach, instead of running time-consuming batch jobs on the whole database overnight. Furthermore, our approach for the efficient management of spatially extended objects can be applied on many other modern database applications including geographic information systems GIS , medical imaging, computer- aided design CAD , molecular biology or time-critical virtual reality applications, e.
Modern analysis methods in molecular biology produce a tremendous amount of data. To make the full use out of this data, automatic tools for knowledge discovery and data analysis are needed. Our project "Molecular Bioinformatics" tries to address this task of supporting the automatic analysis of molecular biology data. The first sub-project aims at supporting the 1: A typical application is the prediction of the effect of specific drugs and their side effects to the human immune system. To predict the docking partners, potential docking sites are located on the surface of all proteins in a database for a given query molecule.
Specific shape descriptions of these sites enable an efficient search in the database. The second sub-project deals with the cluster analysis of gene expression data. Micro array chip technology allows monitoring the expression level of thousands of genes synchronously. From the expression level of a gene, biologists are able to make implications about the amount of the gene product, it codes for e. To analyse which genes are co-expressed under which conditions, tools for clustering are used. Since the raw data is very high-dimensional and genes typically cluster are co-expressed differently under varying conditions, the development of new clustering methods is required, for example algorithms for subspace clustering.
All offers were declined. The research and teaching unit on Programming and Software Engineering PST is focussing on practical applications and theoretical foundations of object-oriented software engineering methods, new generation CASE systems, and new programming languages. Formal methods involve making mathematical models of software and deriving properties of the software from the models. This parallels practice in other areas of engineering, but is more difficult for software, due to the extreme complexity of modern software systems, and the unfamiliarity of engineers with the complex discrete mathematics required.
The key for this task is to integrate semiformal engineering methods and notations, such as UML, with formal methods in order to provide a basis for mathematical analysis, validation, maintenance and verification of requirements, design specifications and software systems. A second central theme is the development of new techniques for object-oriented, constraint based, functional programming. This includes the study of foundational aspects of programming languages, such as semantics, correctness, specification construction, and design and development calculi as well as the application of these methods and principles to the design and implementation of software systems.
Actual application areas are concurrent and distributed programming, global computing, Internet programming and multimedia systems. PST has particular competence in object-oriented software development of mobile systems, in Java programming and the design of web based software systems. PST researchers have developed the first formal semantics for multi-threading in Java and the first provably correct code generation algorithm, generating concurrent Java programs from UML designs.
Model checking is an established technique for fully automatic proving temporal properties of reactive systems. The main limitation of model checking applications is its restriction to finite state systems. By using abstraction techniques, this limitation can be ameliorated to a certain degree.
Consequently, model checking techniques have also been applied more recently to checking software and programs. In our research, we aim at applying model checking to software designs rather than implementations. On the one hand, software models in the early design phases tend to be more abstract and thus more amenable to model checking. On the other hand, development costs can be greatly reduced by finding errors as early as possible. Moreover, UML interactions can be viewed as defining desired or forbidden runs of collaborating UML state machines, thus defining properties in an easy-to-use language.
Development of the application-oriented tool HUGO is complemented by theoretical research in abstraction techniques. Predicate diagrams pave the way for specifying and proving abstractions of infinite state systems diagrammatically and thus directly lend themselves for inclusion in the UML-based model checking tool HUGO. Work in the area of Temporal Logic of Actions TLA investigates a diagram-based formalism to verify temporal properties of reactive systems.
Diagrams integrate deductive and algorithmic verification techniques for the verification of finite and infinite-state systems, thus combining the expressive power and flexibility of deduction with the automation provided by algorithmic methods. We show that the concept of predicate diagrams can be used to verify not only discrete systems, but also some more complex classes of reactive systems such as real-time systems and parametrised systems.
We prove the completeness of predicate diagrams and study an approach for the generation of predicate diagrams. We develop prototype tools that can be used for supporting the generation of diagrams semi-automatically. We have proposed an extension of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions by spatial modalities for the specification and verification of systems involving mobile code. Similar as in the Ambient Calculus due to Cardelli and Gordon, we model the topological structure of a mobile system as a tree whose edges are labelled by names.
The mobility of objects is reflected in the dynamical reconfiguration of this tree. The main novelty of our approach is a study of notions of refinement appropriate for mobile systems that guide the selection of the spatial modalities of the logic. Specifically, we use names to refer to locations at arbitrary nesting depth rather than just below the current node. In this way, a single agent may be decomposed into a hierarchy of sub objects during a refinement step. A first paper on the logic and its use for the specification and refinement of mobile systems has been published at FASE The logic has meanwhile been applied to the specification of an active traceroute protocol, and we have proved the decidability of its satisfiability and model checking problems.
Work in the area of theoretical foundations of systems specifications centres around the mathematical theory of formal models for systems specification, development, transformation and verification. We investigate the algebraic and coalgebraic foundations of specifications and their relationships. An interesting application is the use of domain theory for computing provably correct solutions of ordinary differential equations.
In the area of algebraic specifications and term rewriting we have designed Timed Rewriting Logic and the language Timed Maude for specifying real-time object-oriented systems and we have developed techniques for extracting programs from proofs of structured specifications. Timed Rewriting Logic TRL is a new variant of Rewriting Logic, an algebraic formalism which allows the dynamic behaviour of systems to be axiomatised using rewrite rules. In TRL rewrite rules can be labelled with time constraints and this provides a means of reasoning about time elapse in real-time systems.
Timed Maude has been successfully applied to the specification of several pragmatic modeling languages including Message Sequence Charts and SDL. Extraction of Structured Programs Our technique for obtaining correct programs from proofs produces correct high-level programs from parameterised specifications written in a subset of CASL. The technique is based on a combination of standard constructive mathematical proof methods due to Curry and Howard together with structural modifications deriving from the proof calculi for structured specifications.
Although programs extracted by the Curry-Howard process can be very cumbersome, we use a number of simplifications that ensure that the programs extracted are in a language close to SML. The notion of coalgebras for a functor on a concrete category provides a general framework which captures various types of state transition systems and process calculi. On this level of generality, we are interested in formal logics, which can be used to specify and reason about coalgebraically modeled systems. Our line of research follows three main threads, detailed below:.
Duality Theory This branch exploits the fact that coalgebras are the formal duals of algebras, and tries to build bridges between both areas. Therefore, the goals are the formulation of coalgebras and their logics in a category-independent manner, and use this description to dualise results which are already known in the algebraic setting, e. Formal Systems for Coalgebraic Logics Here, we are investigating proof systems which can be used along with coalgebraic logic.
This requires that the logic is equipped with a concrete syntax, and that the relevant proof rules are isolated. The focus of research here is soundness, completeness, and the expressiveness of the logics. Specification Logics The portion of the research concerned with specification logics tries to apply the general results obtained in the other two branches to the problem of specifying properties of concretely presented state based systems.
Apart from providing denotational semantics for programming languages, domain theory can also be used as a foundation for exact computation in analysis. The translation of classical theorems of analysis into domain theory then provides exact and provably correct algorithms for computations in analysis. This general paradigm is substantiated with case studies in several areas, including the provably correct solution of ordinary differential equations and the implicit function theorem. The programming language Java combines the object-oriented programming paradigm with the concurrent programming paradigm through tightly integrated support for multi-threaded programming.
In particular, Java features a full-fledged memory consistency protocol for synchronising the local working memories of threads and the main memory. Java thus poses the challenge to integrate the low-level description of the memory model with the high-level language constructs into a modular, operational semantics which is parameterised in the details of the memory protocol.
We defined a mathematical structure, called event spaces, that declaratively captures the memory model specification. An operational semantics for the Java language constructs is combined with the event spaces by memory action primitives. In fact, the parameterisability of the approach has been proved by showing that an optimisation by so-called prescient store action is correct with respect to the original memory model.
Moreover, event spaces have been demonstrated to provide a rich mathematical structure, viz. The event-based, operational semantics of Java does not answer the question for specifying and proving properties of Java programs directly and sufficiently. On the side of event spaces the logic of configuration theories, which is currently under thorough investigation, can be used to reason on the properties of memory models.
For object-orientation itself, object specifications define rules for recursive object behaviour generalising the approach by Abadi and Leino. Architecture-based approaches have been promoted as a means of controlling the complexity of system construction and evolution, namely for providing systems with the agility required to operate in turbulent environments and adapt very quickly to changes in the enterprise world. Recent technological advances in communication and distribution have made mobility an additional factor of complexity, one for which current architectural concepts and techniques are not prepared for.
In a first step an extension of UML activity diagrams was defined to model the location of objects and how mobility primitives change the location of objects. How the thread of control is affected by objects changing their location is visualised by using the extension of UML sequence diagrams. To model the dynamic evolution of the interaction structure between multiple objects, UML state charts were extended by multiple input queues and by the notion of localities.
A new logic, extending the Temporal Logic of Actions TLA by Lamport, has been proposed for considering spatio-temporal issues in the specification and the analysis of the behaviour of mobile systems. The logic extends TLA by providing operators for the description of properties of trees, as well as changes in their structure, intuitively representing the hierarchical structure of administrative domains.
In the research area of Agent-Technology we have introduced an new approach AgentComponent that integrates software component features into agent technology. Component concepts like encapsulation, interfaces, parametrisation have been found useful for integration. Using this technology combination agents grow up to be reusable and parametrisable in different contexts.
According to this approach a visual editor AgentComponent Tool for AgentComponents has been developed and is still in development. Moreover AgentComponent-Systems can be visually parametrised and changed during runtime. This is a very useful feature to test the designed AgentComponent-Systems without having to stop the whole application.
Also in the research area of Agent-Technology we have designed and implemented BABSy, an accounting system that helps automate payment in an agent-based electronic commerce environment. Web-Engineering is a new upcoming discipline that focuses on systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to the cost-effective development and evolution of high-quality Web-based systems and applications.
The discipline of Web Engineering tries to prevent a new software crisis that may occur due to the omnipresence of Web applications and their strong cross-dependency. Web Engineering incorporates some of the well-known and successful traditional software engineering principles and practices, adapting them to the particular requirements of Web applications. But Web Engineering is inherently different from software engineering in that it must also take many aspects of other disciplines into account, such as:.
In our research, we aim at supporting the modeling of Web applications and the model-driven implementation of Web systems. The UWE profile includes stereotypes and tagged values defined for the modeling elements needed to model the different aspects of Web applications, such as navigation, presentation, Web processes and adaptation aspects.
The UWE design approach for workflow-based Web applications consists of introducing specific process classes that are part of a separate process model with a clear interface to the navigation model. An instance of Smex Web has been implemented to give students the possibility to practice and deepen their knowledge in a time- and local independent fashion.
The aim of the MMiSS project is to set up a multimedia Internet-based adaptive educational system, covering the whole subject of Safe Systems. The area of "Safe Systems" has in the last few years become increasingly important. Software is increasingly used to control security-critical embedded systems, in aeroplanes, spaceships, and cars; and electronic trading over the Internet, with its associated security risks, is rapidly expanding.
All this requires qualitatively and quantitatively better training in Safe Systems. To go with the planned deployment at universities, a number of well-known German companies have already expressed, through the various industrial contacts of the project partners, an interest in measures for further training in their own workforce. An important issue of global climate change concerns changes in the hydrological cycle and the investigation of ways for sustainable future water use. To improve the quality of predictions and global change simulations one has to take into account that many processes of various fields are involved and influence each other.
Hence, a key challenge for integrative simulation and analysis is the integration of the various simulation models of the different disciplines ranging from natural sciences, such as meteorology, hydrology, remote sensing, ground- and surface water management, glaciology, and plant ecology, to social sciences, such as environmental psychology and economy, agriculture and tourism. Many water-related conflicts arise in this area of almost The development of DANUBIA is based on object-oriented software engineering and Web engineering methods and on the Unified Modeling Language UML which is used by all partners as a common graphical notation for modeling the integrative aspects of the system.
The crucial concepts behind the design of DANUBIA concern the network and interface structure, the modeling of space and layered simulation areas and the temporal coordination of local models by a global time controller which constitutes the heart of any integrative DANUBIA simulation. The architecture of a software system is now widely recognised as the key success factor when it comes to devising, maintaining, and reusing software components, and evolving large scale software systems.
One important part of software architecture is the communication between all stakeholders of a software system. Another is to achieve a sound fundament for the software in order to achieve maintainability for the system and re-usability for its parts.
Our research is based on two main strands: Modeling of software systems, especially in the early development phases, involves much effort in communicating with the stakeholders to investigate all requirements and needs the stakeholders have. To communicate results the Unified Modeling Language UML is a first choice, as it is the current de facto standard modeling language for software.
The technical realisation aspect is another crucial step to achieve a software that meets all stakeholders' needs and is maintainable and yet extensible. In this way we achieve a smooth crossover from architectural models to an implementation by providing architectural concepts as fundamental parts in a programming language. Lately agile software development processes gained a lot of attention. In contrast to traditional software development processes, these processes promise to provide business value faster than traditional processes and to better cope with changes coming from changing and unclear requirements.
We have successfully applied these processes in the context of the EU project CARUSO, whose objective was the design and implementation of a framework for customised customer relationship management CRM applications. Further, we have started to integrate formal methods with these processes. Performance assessment of software from the early design phase through the implementation has been subject to a great variety of approaches in the past.
Performance aspects have to be considered and laid down in certain documents. Thus typical artifacts are created and have to be integrated in the software design as well as in the software development process. We use UML diagrams to describe all essential aspects of a software and its environment. Dynamic properties of a software are laid down in activity diagrams. The environment that will execute the software is modeled by class diagrams. Finally a simulating software configured by the environment description rates the software model. Constraint Programming is an established paradigm for solving a wide class of problems.
Constraint Programming languages allow the programmer to specify a set of relations constraints that hold between entities; a constraint solver computes possible values for those entities that satisfy all constraints. One focus of our work was the declarative specification of constraint solvers. This can be achieved with Constraint Handling Rules CHR , a programming language based on a committed-choice rewriting system with guarded rules.
CHR allow the introduction of user defined constraints into the language. Recent work focused on automatic analysis of properties of CHR programs like termination or complexity. A further area of research was the integration of soft constraint propagation into CHR. We also built several applications using CHR, for example a rent advisor or a program to compute the optimal placement of base stations in wireless indoor communication networks. Constraint Languages are usually integrated into a logic programming language, giving rise to Constraint Logic Programming languages CLPs.
In recent years there has been interest in combining constraint languages with other programming paradigms to address insufficiencies of CLPs for certain problem domains. We have developed a family of formal calculi the Constraint Lambda Calculi that provide a foundation for integrating functional programming languages and constraint solvers, proved confluence properties for the constraint lambda calculi and introduced a denotational semantics.
The constraint lambda calculi are parametric in the constraint domain over which they operate and allow the meta-level specification of search and result strategies. They provide most of the facilities of CLPs but can also address problems that are difficult to solve in logic programming languages like the interaction of side effects and constraint solving. Furthermore they allow new advanced programming techniques like hierarchical constraint solver determination.
In View-Oriented Programming , we look at a software system from several angles which has the benefit of aiding construction and comprehension of such a system. Each such angle represents an aspect or view of a system and is expressed in a formal language visual or other. This allows one to perform consistency checks between the views or to query them for further information. We have taken three approaches towards solutions in this area: The first one is to model-check consistency in UML state machines and interactions see section on model-checking, project Hugo.
The second one is algebraic and formalises views as sentences in a language. We allow views to be expressed in different languages and semantics and compare them for consistency using a heterogeneous pull-back construction. The third approach is an extension of Hyperspaces that allows individual methods to be partially distributed into several different Hyper-slices.
Generative Programming is about improving programmer productivity by raising the level of abstraction: Programming usually means translating a specification from a problem domain which can be expressed in human language or in a notation used by domain experts to one in the solution domain usually an executable program expressed in a programming language.
Generative programming aids abstraction and communication between domain experts and programmers by letting the latter develop in a notation that is close to the problem domain and by translating it to a language in the solution domain. Very often, one needs to produce a family of software systems that are very similar. SPLs is a technique for constructing this family from a common set of base resources. Work in this area started with a diploma thesis on an editor for a generative programming infrastructure that would later be named AHEAD.
AHEAD automatically synthesises members of a product line that can contain a wide array of artifacts written in human language, domain expert notation, programming language etc. Furthermore, we developed a formal foundation for AHEAD, Graft to more precisely define its concepts and to analyse software systems developed with it. An analysis can check for semantic and formal correctness and provide information about the system to the programmer.
A deductive Web query language, called Xcerpt, is under development    . Xcerpt is based on a novel form of unification, called "simulation unification" . A first prototype has been completed and is used with an original visual programming interface  . Elements for a formalisation of the declarative semantics of Xcerpt are given in . The procedural semantics and the run time system of Xcerpt are based on constraint reasoning . Temporal types and operations for Xcerpt are discussed in . First experiments with Xcerpt point to the conciseness and simplicity of Xcerpt programs compared to e.
XQuery programs and suggest that Xcerpt might considerably ease the implementation of adaptive Web systems. The notion aims at sharing subparts common to the various answers to a same query. A prototype system has been developed that computes complete answer aggregates to queries expressed in an XPath-like language and using which a user can "browse" aggregated answers.
The prototype, its application to test beds, and its visual user interface are described in . The approach first translates general XPath queries into equivalent XPath queries without so-called reverse axes such as "parent" or "ancestor" . Then, such XPath expressions are translated into networks of push-down automata.
The method has a polynomial combined complexity. A prototype and its evaluation on bench marks are reported about in . The method, its implementation, and its performances on bench marks are described in . Logic provides with a convenient basis for declarative languages such as Xcerpt. However, pure logics provide little means for modeling real world notions and objects. The focus is on the modeling of "common sense" time and calendric and location notions . These notions are becoming more and more important on the Web with the emergence of mobile Web applications.
A related project is devoted to integrating elementary arithmetics in description logics and ontology languages . The goal of both projects is to enrich logics and logic-based languages with numerical aspects of sets such as price, age, duration, etc. The implementation of adaptive Web systems using Web query languages is investigated   . First investigations suggest that the approach should considerably simplify the implementation of adaptive Web systems.
The analysis, integration, optimisation, and automatic generation of rule-based constraint solvers has been investigated focusing on constraint solvers implemented in the rule-based language CHR. Methods for the analysis and optimisation of constraint solvers are presented in  . Methods for an automatic generation of constraint solvers from complete, incomplete, and intentional specifications are described in        .
The integration of constraint solvers is addressed in . Related results and constraint programming tools tools are presented in      . Various applications of logic, e. A formalisation of a refinement of the stable model theory in terms of a is given in . The salient aspect of this formalisation is that it is expressed in the manner of classical model theory in terms of a truth-function function defined recursively on the structure of formulas. This definition makes it possible to evaluates logic programs according to the refined stable model semantics using standard proof methods such as resolution.
A deduction method complete for both refutation and finite satisfiability is presented in  . The generation of minimal models, an issue of importance for artificial intelligence applications such as planning, is addressed in the framework of the SATCHMO theorem prover in . The application of a model generation prover to problem solving and to the specification of database integrity constraints is addressed in   .
Implementations of provers are described in  . Further reports on related issues are . Timetabling issues have been investigated in various contexts, e. Timetabling systems have been developed using constraint logic programming and extensively tested on benchmarks        . Constraint logic programming has been applied for implementing a 'rent advisor' according to German city office regulations fixing upper bounds to apartment rents.
Knowledge assimilation in deductive databases has been investigated in . The interactive analysis of high-dimensional association structures has been investigated in . An overview of current Bioinformatics databases is given in .
An approach to Web-based co-operative work has been specified, implemented, and tested. Web services for teaching are addressed in . Proposals for an enhanced modeling of electronic books are made in . In addition, members of the Unit have contributed to several additional conferences as program committee members or as reviewers. Two former members of the Unit, Tim Geisler and Dr.
REWERSE will start in and last over 4 years, involves about researchers from about 30 institutions, and has an overall budget of 5,5 Million Euro of which 1,6 Millions are assigned to the Unit "Programming and Modelling Languages". This report covers the period from September because the chair holder, Professor Martin Hofmann took up his position only then. Publications of those current members who have been employed before September are included as are publications of Martin Hofmann in case they are of importance for the current activities of the unit.