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First orbital launches by country NASA missions Constellation missions Timeline of private spaceflight Timeline of longest spaceflights. To broadcast the pictures to regular television, a scan conversion had to be done. The radio telescope at Parkes Observatory in Australia was able to receive the telemetry from the Moon at the time of the Apollo 11 moonwalk. This direct TV signal, along with telemetry data, was recorded onto one-inch fourteen-track analog tape at Parkes. The original SSTV transmission had better detail and contrast than the scan-converted pictures, and it is this original tape that is missing.
However, still photos of the original SSTV image are available see photos. About fifteen minutes of it were filmed by an amateur 8 mm film camera and these are also available. At least some of the telemetry tapes from the ALSEP scientific experiments left on the Moon which ran until still exist, according to Dr. Copies of those tapes have been found. Others are looking for the missing telemetry tapes for different reasons. The tapes contain the original and highest quality video feed from the Apollo 11 landing.
Some former Apollo personnel want to find the tapes for posterity while NASA engineers looking towards future Moon missions believe the tapes may be useful for their design studies. They have found that the Apollo 11 tapes were sent for storage at the U. National Archives in , but by , all the Apollo 11 tapes had been returned to the Goddard Space Flight Center at their request.
The tapes are believed to have been stored rather than re-used. One of the old tapes has been sent to NASA for analysis. The slow-scan television images were not on the tape. After a three-year search, the "inescapable conclusion" was that about 45 tapes estimated 15 tapes recorded at each of the three tracking stations of Apollo 11 video were erased and re-used, said Nafzger.
Lowry Digital president Mike Inchalik said that, "this is by far and away the lowest quality" video the company has dealt with. Nafzger praised Lowry for restoring "crispness" to the Apollo video, which will remain in black and white and contains conservative digital enhancements. Some selections of restored footage in high-definition have been made available on the NASA website. Four mission-worthy LRVs were built by Boeing.
After Apollo 18 was canceled, the other LRV was used for spare parts for the Apollos 15 to 17 missions. The page operation manual for the LRV contains some detailed drawings,  although not the blueprints. It is argued that, because the USSR was unable to do this, the United States should have also been unable to develop the technology to do so. For example, he claims that, during the Apollo program, the USSR had five times more manned hours in space than the United States, and notes that the USSR was the first to achieve many of the early milestones in space: However, most of the Soviet gains listed above were matched by the United States within a year, and sometimes within weeks.
In , the United States started to achieve many firsts such as the first successful space rendezvous , which were important steps in a mission to the Moon. Furthermore, NASA and others say that these gains by the Soviets are not as impressive as they seem; that a number of these firsts were mere stunts that did not advance the technology greatly, or at all, e.
By the time of Apollo 11, the United States had a lead much wider than that. See List of human spaceflights, — , and refer to individual flights for the length of time. Moreover, the USSR did not develop a successful rocket capable of a manned lunar mission until the s — their N1 rocket failed on all four launch attempts between and In a televised program about the moon-landing hoax allegations, Fox Entertainment Group listed the deaths of ten astronauts and two civilians related to the manned spaceflight program as part of an alleged cover-up.
All of the deaths listed besides Welch occurred at least 20 months before Apollo 11 and subsequent flights. Also, nine of the twelve Apollo astronauts who flew to the Moon without landing between and are still alive, including Michael Collins. The number of deaths within the American astronaut corps during the run-up to Apollo and during the Apollo missions is similar to the number of deaths incurred by the Russians.
During the period to , at least eight Russian serving and former cosmonauts died:. Additionally, the overall chief of their manned-spaceflight program, Sergei Korolev , died while undergoing surgery in January NASA refers to the rocks and particles collected from the Moon as being evidence of the program's legitimacy, as they claim that these rocks could not have been formed under conditions on earth. NASA also notes that all of the operations and phases of the Apollo program were closely followed and under the scrutiny of the news media, from liftoff to splashdown.
NASA responds to Bill Kaysing's book, We Never Went to the Moon , by identifying one of his claims of fraud regarding the lack of a crater left on the Moon's surface by the landing of the lunar module, and refuting it with facts about the soil and cohesive nature of the surface of the Moon. The fact sheet was reissued on February 14, , the day before Fox television's broadcast of Conspiracy Theory: The documentary reinvigorated the public's interest in conspiracy theories and the possibility that the Moon landings were faked, which has provoked NASA to once again defend its name.
Filmmaker Stanley Kubrick is accused of having produced much of the footage for Apollos 11 and 12, presumably because he had just directed A Space Odyssey , which is partly set on the Moon and featured advanced special effects.
The launch and splashdown would be real but the spacecraft would stay in Earth orbit and fake footage broadcast as "live from the Moon. For example, was released before the first Apollo landing and Kubrick's depiction of the Moon's surface differs greatly from its appearance in the Apollo footage. Several scenes in show dust billowing as spacecraft landed, something that would not happen in the vacuum environment of the Moon.
However, Kubrick only got this lens for Barry Lyndon The lens was originally a still photo lens and needed changes to be used for motion filming. The mockumentary based on this idea, Dark Side of the Moon , could have fueled the conspiracy theory. It parodies conspiracy theories with faked interviews, stories of assassinations of Stanley Kubrick's assistants by the CIA, and a variety of conspicuous mistakes, puns, and references to old movie characters, inserted through the film as clues for the viewer. An article entitled "Stanley Kubrick and the Moon Hoax" appeared on Usenet in , in the newsgroup "alt.
One passage — on how Kubrick was supposedly coerced into the conspiracy — reads:. NASA further leveraged their position by threatening to publicly reveal the heavy involvement of Mr. Kubrick's younger brother, Raul, with the American Communist Party. This would have been an intolerable embarrassment to Mr. Kubrick, especially since the release of Dr. Kubrick had no such brother — the article was a spoof, complete with a giveaway sentence describing Kubrick shooting the moonwalk "on location" on the Moon.
Nevertheless, the claim was taken up in earnest;  Clyde Lewis used it almost word-for-word,  whereas Jay Weidner gave the brother a more senior status within the party:. No one knows how the powers-that-be convinced Kubrick to direct the Apollo landings. Maybe they had compromised Kubrick in some way. The fact that his brother, Raul Kubrick, was the head of the American Communist Party may have been one of the avenues pursued by the government to get Stanley to cooperate.
In July , Weidner posted on his webpage "Secrets of the Shining", where he states that Kubrick's The Shining is a veiled confession of his role in the scam project. In December , a video surfaced which allegedly shows Kubrick being interviewed shortly before his death; the video purportedly shows the director confessing to T.
Patrick Murray that the Apollo Moon landings had been faked. However, NASA canceled the commission later that year, after complaints that the book would dignify the accusations. An episode of MythBusters in August was dedicated to the Moon landings. The MythBusters crew tested many of the conspiracists' claims. Some of the testings were done in a NASA training facility.
All of the conspiracists' claims examined on the show were labeled as having been "Busted", meaning that the conspiracists' claims were not true. Moon-landing conspiracists claim that observatories and the Hubble Space Telescope should be able to photograph the landing sites. This implies that the world's major observatories as well as the Hubble Program are complicit in the hoax by refusing to take photos of the landing sites.
Photos of the Moon have been taken by Hubble, including at least two Apollo landing sites, but the Hubble resolution limits viewing of lunar objects to sizes no smaller than 60—75 yards 55—69 meters , which is insufficient resolution to see any landing site features. In April , Leonard David published an article on space. In , Alex R. Blackwell of the University of Hawaii pointed out that some photos taken by Apollo astronauts  while in orbit around the Moon show the landing sites.
According to the article, Dr. Richard West said that his team would take "a high-resolution image of one of the Apollo landing sites. Such photos, if and when they become available, would be the first non-NASA-produced photos of the sites at that definition. On July 17, , NASA released low-resolution engineering test photos of the Apollo 11, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 landing sites that have been photographed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as part of the process of starting its primary mission.
The photo of the Apollo 14 landing site also shows tracks made by an astronaut between a science experiment ALSEP and the lander. While the LRO images have been enjoyed by the scientific community as a whole, they have not done anything to convince conspiracists that the landings happened. On September 1, , India 's lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 took photos of the Apollo 15 landing site and tracks of the lunar rovers. The photos were taken by a hyperspectral camera fitted as part of the mission's image payload. China 's second lunar probe, Chang'e 2 , which was launched in , can photograph the lunar surface with a resolution of up to 1.
It spotted traces of the Apollo landings. Analyses by scientists worldwide all agree that these rocks came from the Moon — no published accounts in peer-reviewed scientific journals exist that dispute this claim. The Apollo samples are easily distinguishable from both meteorites and Earth rocks  in that they show a lack of hydrous alteration products, they show evidence of having undergone impact events on an airless body, and they have unique geochemical traits. Furthermore, most are more than million years older than the oldest Earth rocks.
The Moon rocks also share the same traits as Soviet samples. Conspiracists argue that Marshall Space Flight Center Director Wernher von Braun 's trip to Antarctica in about two years before the Apollo 11 launch was to gather lunar meteorites to be used as fake Moon rocks. NASA said that von Braun's mission was "to look into environmental and logistic factors that might relate to the planning of future space missions, and hardware.
It is now accepted by the scientific community that rocks have been blasted from both the Martian and lunar surface during impact events , and that some of these have landed on the Earth as meteorites. Only about 30 kilograms of lunar meteorites have been found on Earth thus far, despite private collectors and governmental agencies worldwide searching for more than 20 years. On the makeup of the Moon rocks, Kaysing asked: Wasn't this a viable consideration? Why was this fact never dicussed [ sic ] in the press or by the astronauts?
Since in water was believed to be absent on the Moon, no geologist would bother discussing the possibility of finding these on the Moon in any great amount. On later missions, NASA released information to the public explaining where and when the spacecraft could be sighted. Their flight paths were tracked using radar and they were sighted and photographed using telescopes.
Also, radio transmissions between the astronauts on the surface and in orbit were independently recorded. The presence of retroreflectors mirrors used as targets for Earth-based tracking lasers from the Laser Ranging Retroreflector Experiment LRRR is evidence that there were landings. The Apollo 15 retroreflector was deployed on July 31, , and was detected by McDonald Observatory within a few days. There are subcultures worldwide which advocate the belief that the Moon landings were faked. By the Hare Krishna magazine Back to Godhead called the landings a hoax, claiming that, since the Sun is 93,, miles away, and "according to Hindu mythology the Moon is , miles farther away than that", the Moon would be nearly 94,, miles away; to travel that span in 91 hours would require a speed of more than a million miles per hour, "a patently impossible feat even by the scientists' calculations.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Examination of Apollo Moon photographs. Enlargement of a higher-quality scan — crosshair and red stripe visible. Original photo of Buzz Aldrin during Apollo Apollo 8 launch through the first stage separation. Apollo 11 missing tapes. Space Race and List of space exploration milestones, — Third-party evidence for Apollo Moon landings.
Apollo missions tracked by independent parties. Moon landing conspiracy theories in popular culture. Spaceflight portal Moon portal. A Space Odyssey , which realistically portrayed a Moon mission. These three missions account for only six additional astronauts because James Lovell orbited the Moon twice Apollos 8 and 13 and John Young and Gene Cernan orbited on Apollo 10 both later landed on the Moon. A transcript of the appropriate section from the show is available at " Sputnik's Impact on America.
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Fishers Landing (Images of America: Washington [Richenda Fairhurst] on uzotoqadoh.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Fishers Landing boasted many of. Huletts Landing on Lake George (Images of America) [George T. Kapusinski] on uzotoqadoh.tk *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Huletts Landing is located.
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