Another way to obtain functional foods is to modify the quantity of certain components in the food to make it more suitable to the recommendations of nutrition experts [ 7 ]. In this sense, because eggs are a conventional food containing nutrients that play fundamental roles beyond basic nutrition, their promotion as functional foods should be considered [ 8 ]. Eggs are also relatively rich in fat-soluble compounds and can, therefore, be a nutritious inclusion in the diet for people of all ages and at different stages of life.
In particular, eggs may play a particularly useful role in the diets of those at risk of low-nutrient intakes such as the elderly, pregnant women and children [ 10 ]. Additionally, it must be mentioned that eggs can be consumed throughout the world, having no use restrictions on religious grounds [ 11 ].
Owing to these two characteristics, during the past 40 years, the public had been warned against frequent egg consumption due to the high cholesterol content in eggs and the potential association with CVD. This was based on the assumption that high dietary cholesterol consumption is associated with high blood cholesterol levels and CVD.
Afterwards, subsequent research suggests that, in contrast to SFA and TFA, dietary cholesterol in general and cholesterol in eggs in particular have limited effects on the blood cholesterol level and on CVD [ 4 ]. However, the volume of eggs and egg yolk used by food companies in their formulations is constantly increasing. Nowadays, egg-yolk products are largely used by the food industry as a result of three very important properties: Unfortunately, eggs and egg-derived foods are responsible for a large number of food-borne illnesses each year, mainly caused by Salmonella [ 14 ].
For this reason, as well as for their lower price and ease of handling and storing compared to shelled eggs, the food service industry and commercial food manufacturers have shown an increasing interest in the use of liquid pasteurized egg products instead of fresh whole eggs [ 15 ]. Thus, it would be of major interest to develop egg-derived products, appropriate for food companies, with a modified nutritional composition that helps maintain the health of consumers.
Nowadays, retail markets for functional eggs are available, mainly enriched with n -3 PUFAs or with low cholesterol content. In this manuscript, the possible development of functional pasteurized liquid eggs by technological methods and their advantages in the food industry and from the point of view of nutritionists are also discussed. Eggs are an inexpensive and highly nutritious food, providing 18 vitamins and minerals, the composition of which can be affected by several factors such as hen diet, age, strain as well as environmental factors [ 16 , 17 ].
Nevertheless, although different compositions have been reported by several authors [ 10 , 17 ], on average, the macronutrient content of eggs include low carbohydrates and about 12 g per g of protein and lipids, most of which are monounsaturated [ 8 , 18 , 19 ] and supply the diet with several essential nutrients Table 1. Some of these nutrients, such as zinc, selenium, retinol and tocopherols, are deficient in people consuming a western diet, and given its antioxidant activity, can protect humans from many degenerative processes, including CVD [ 10 ].
There is also scientific evidence that eggs contain other biologically active compounds that may have a role in the therapy and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases. The presence of compounds with antimicrobial, immunomodulator, antioxidant, anti-cancer or anti-hypertensive properties have been reported in eggs [ 11 ]. Lysozime, ovomucoid, ovoinhibitor and cystatin are biologically active proteins in egg albumen, and their activity prolongs the shelf life of table eggs [ 14 ].
Some of these protective substances are isolated and produced on an industrial scale as lysozymes and avidin. Additionally, eggs are an important source of lecithin and are one of the few food sources that contain high concentrations of choline [ 8 , 20 ].
Lecithin, as a polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine, is a functional and structural component of all biological membranes, which acts in the rate-limiting step of the activation of membrane enzymes such as superoxide dismutase. It has been suggested that ineffective activation of these antioxidant enzymes would lead to increased damage of membranes by reactive oxygen species.
In addition, lecithin increases the secretion of bile, preventing stagnation in the bladder and, consequently, decreases the lithogenicity [ 8 ]. However, as a component of egg lecithin, choline has numerous important physiologic functions, which include the synthesis of phospholipids, the metabolism of methyl and cholinergic neurotransmission, and it is a required nutrient that is essential for the normal development of the brain [ 21 ].
This specific structure makes phosvitin a strong metal chelator and, by this mechanism, it acts as an important melanogenesis inhibitor to control excessive melanin synthesis in the melanocytes of animal and human skin [ 21 ]. It was suggested that egg-yolk phosvitin has the potential to be used as a natural bioactive compound as a hyper-pigmentation inhibitor for human skin [ 21 ]. Other interesting egg components from the nutritional point of view are the carotenoids.
Carotenoids are natural pigments in hen egg yolks that confer its yellow color, which can range from very pale yellow to dark brilliant orange. The total concentration of lutein and zeaxanthin is 10 times greater than of cryptoxanthin and carotene, combined [ 23 ], and are not endogenously synthesized by the human body and tissue levels therefore depend on dietary intake. These natural compounds found in the bodies of animals, and in dietary animal products, are ultimately derived from plant sources in the diet, mainly from dark green leafy plants [ 24 ].
Lutein and zeaxanthin content of eggs depends on different factors, such as the feed given to laying hens, or the husbandry system. Additionally, a greater serum response to lutein was reported following the consumption of eggs compared with the consumption of dietary lutein supplements or vegetables [ 22 , 24 ]. This could be related with the fact that carotenoids depend on a lipophilic environment for optimal gastrointestinal uptake [ 24 ]. Consequently, eggs are a very important food source of these carotenoids, especially in the case of people that consume low amounts of vegetables with a high content of these substances as occurs in western developed countries.
These carotenoids are, perhaps, best known for their function in the neural retina, where they are found in high concentration and, along with their isomer mesozaexanthin, are termed macular pigment [ 25 ]. Lutein and zeaxanthin are known to serve light-absorbing and blue-filtering optical functions, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, and thereby, is considered to play a role reducing immune-mediated macular degeneration and age-related cataract formation [ 23 , 24 , 25 ]. Taking into account the presence of all these components, eggs can be considered a nutritious inclusion in the diet for people of all ages and at different stages of life, but they may play a particularly useful role in the diets of those at risk of low-nutrient intakes [ 10 ].
Owing to their high nutritional value, eggs are also an important food that should be included in the planning of diets for patients, and are especially valuable in feeding people with gout, because it is a source of protein that does not add purines. Additionally, for people in sports training, egg proteins may have a profound effect on the training results, because, by its inclusion in the diet, it could be possible to enhance skeletal muscles synthesis [ 8 ].
It is well established that essential amino acids stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in animal and human models, and the protein in egg has the highest biological value [ 26 ]. Fifteen grams of egg white protein contain about mg of leucine the third most common amino acid in egg, after glutamic and aspartic acids , and is also an abundant source of branched amino acids and aromatic amino acids. Recent data showed that leucine induces a maximal skeletal muscle protein anabolic response in young people, which suggests that egg white protein intake might have an important effect on body mass accretion [ 27 ].
Specifically, leucine stimulates skeletal muscle synthesis independently of all other amino acids in animal models and is a potent stimulator of the cell hypertrophy mammalian target of rapamycin complex pathway. Additionally, leucine decreases muscle protein breakdown and breakdown-associated cellular signaling and mRNA expression [ 26 ].
Despite their abovementioned nutritional benefits, egg consumption was traditionally associated with adverse factors for human health and nutrition. In this sense, egg whites contain anti-nutritional factors, among which are proteins such as ovomucoid that can inhibit trypsin or avidin, which can bind biotin. However, these factors are thermo-labile and, therefore, these compounds are usually destroyed when cooking eggs, after which they do not cause further detrimental effects.
Additionally, eggs have been the subject of numerous recommendations from nutrition experts in order to moderate egg consumption, owing to its high cholesterol and saturated-fat content. Reducing saturated-fat intake is the primary dietary strategy recommended for reducing serum cholesterol levels, and this strategy has often led to a reduction in the consumption of eggs. Nevertheless, substituting eggs for other animal-protein foods in the diet may result in small changes to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL [ 10 ] and, consequently, egg consumption should be considered in a similar way to other protein-rich foods.
Although metabolic studies have shown that dietary cholesterol is a major determinant of serum cholesterol concentrations, other studies failed to detect changes in the serum total-cholesterol concentration when eggs were added to diets that already contained moderate amounts of cholesterol [ 28 ].
In this sense, large research works, and even meta-analyses, have been conducted to investigate the effects of eggs on serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular health, with very different conclusions Table 2. Several authors state that dietary cholesterol from eggs could be an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases including CVD and diabetes [ 12 , 29 , 30 , 31 ].
Furthermore, lecithin approximately mg in a large egg yolk is converted by intestinal bacteria to trimethylamine, which is in turn oxidized by the liver to trimethylamine oxide, which is pro-atherosclerotic [ 32 ]. Nevertheless, a recent systematic review found no clear relation of egg consumption and CVD among diabetic individuals [ 33 ]. Recent works regarding effect of eggs consumption on of serum cholesterol and cardio circulatory human health.
However, for a large number of researchers, traditional assumptions that dietary cholesterol consumption translates directly into elevated plasma cholesterol levels and the development of CVD in all individuals were deemed to be mistaken [ 10 , 34 , 35 ]. Therefore, clinical studies have clearly shown that plasma compartment changes, resulting from dietary cholesterol consumption, are influenced by several factors such as ethnicity, genetic makeup, hormonal factors and body mass index [ 36 , 37 ]. All of these characteristics determine who would hyper-respond to dietary cholesterol and those who are hypo-responsive to intake.
This suggests that, for healthy individuals, the nutritional benefits clearly outweigh the concern surrounding the dietary cholesterol provided by one large egg. In addition to the consumer individual response, there are other important factors of egg cholesterol that can play an important role in the effect on human health, such as the food matrix in which it is presented or the total diet consumed. Thus, previous studies have suggested that egg-yolk consumption raises serum cholesterol to a greater extent than crystalline cholesterol dissolved into a solution or incorporated into a diet [ 51 ].
On the other hand, another important factor in the individual response to egg cholesterol is the diet consumed. These differences are of major interest from a nutritional point of view, because an increase in serum cholesterol in response to increased egg consumption is 1. The effect may be attenuated even further in the case of overweight, insulin-resistant people [ 10 ]. In addition to nutrition-related risks, egg consumption can also represent a risk for consumers derived by other factors, such as their microbiological status.
Salmonella , and serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium are responsible for most food-borne illnesses associated with the consumption of eggs and egg products. Typhimurium are the most commonly isolated serotypes in human cases of salmonellosis, and contaminated eggs still remain the most important source of infection with S. Enteritidis for humans [ 14 ]. Additionally, to ensure their safety, egg shells must be clean, dry, fully developed, and with no cracks; although, cracked eggs can be used if they are processed as soon as possible [ 55 ]. Eggs must be broken in a manner that minimizes contamination, from the shells themselves in particular, and egg contents may not be obtained by centrifuging or crushing the eggs [ 54 ].
Despite this strict safety normative, in some countries, the use of fresh eggs to elaborate egg-derived products in restoration is not allowed. For this purpose, it is mandatory to use pasteurized egg products. Although food-service industries other than central kitchens, caterers and restaurants are not bound to use pasteurized egg products, they have shown an increasing interest in their use, because of its convenience and ease of handling and storing compared to shelled eggs [ 15 ].
Another important human-health risk related to egg consumption is the potential presence of residues of veterinary drugs, because laying hens treated with pharmaceutical products can produce contaminated eggs [ 56 ]. Certain habits can also compromise health by being a source of exposure to environmental contaminants. Many of these potentially toxic pollutants are fat soluble, and thus, any fatty foods including eggs may often contain high levels of persistent organic pollutants [ 57 ] or dioxins, that are usually present even in free-range and organic eggs [ 58 ].
Additionally, egg allergies represent one of the most common IgE-mediated food allergies in infants and young children [ 59 ]. This allergy can be influenced on several environmental or demographic factors. Thus, a recent study found that factors as female gender, preterm delivery, having older siblings, maternal smoking during pregnancy or exposure in the first year to pets inversely associated with egg allergy.
With respect to demographic origin, this work found that child with a family history of allergy and those parents born in East Asia are at increased risk of egg allergy [ 59 ]. The five major allergens identified in hens eggs are ovomucoid Gal d1 , ovalbumin Gal d2 , ovotransferrin Gal d3 , lysozyme Gal d4 and albumin Gal d5.
The majority of allergenic proteins are contained in egg white Gal d1—4 rather than in egg yolk Gal d5 [ 63 ]. Several other allergens have been identified in egg yolk, including vitellenin apovitellenin I and apoprotein B apovitellenin VI , although their role remains jet unclear [ 64 ]. However, various studies have demonstrated that a large number of egg allergic people were able to tolerate heated egg whites [ 65 ], an advantage for thermally processed eggs.
Heat treatment destroys the conformational epitopes that some individuals form IgE against, thus allowing ingestion of the egg without any adverse reaction.
In addition to altering the epitopes, heating the egg protein also acting to reduce the allergenicity of the protein by affecting the digestibility of the proteins or making the IgE binding sites less accessible [ 66 ]. Guidelines from agencies as the U. Department of Health and Human Services [ 5 ] or the SENC [ 6 ] advise healthy adults to limit dietary cholesterol intake to less than mg each day. However, due to the growing body of scientific literature showing a lack of relationship between egg intake and CVD, recent dietary guidelines indicate healthy people can consume one egg a day as part of a healthy diet [ 33 ].
Other guidelines have yielded different points, ranging from no restriction to recommending regular intake of eggs [ 67 ]. For consumers, Mexico is the highest consumer per capita, reaching an average consumption of eggs per person and year, followed by China and Japan [ 68 ]. The increase in worldwide egg production and consumption is rational, because egg protein is of excellent quality and low economic cost, whereas a big demand for protein sources are needed in developing countries, in which a third of the population are under nourished [ 69 ].
Additionally, the fact that eggs are a good food alternative for the elderly plays an important role in their consumption increase, because it is expected that, by the year , the number of people worldwide over the age of 60 could reach one billion [ 8 ]. Although elevated total seric cholesterol values have been shown to predict CVD in middle-aged individuals, this parameter does not seem to be relevant for the elderly demographic.
Unfortunately, in the elderly, the restriction of fat and cholesterol from the diet often results in the subsequent inclusion of foods that are high in simple sugars. This change in diet composition can be detrimental, causing increases in seric triglycerides TG , which are generally accompanied by low HDL levels, which has been identified as the best lipoprotein indicator of CVD risk in elderly individuals. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the consumption of a low-fat diet by elderly individuals may promote insulin resistance as a consequence of increased levels of LDL and TG and decreased HDL levels in serum [ 8 ].
Furthermore, another important factor that could raise egg consumption in the near future is the fact that typical factors of modern life, such as frequent travel, busy schedules, little time to cook and eat at home and the inability to eat together as a family, play an important role in the increased consumption of pre-cooked and processed foods. As eggs are common ingredients employed by the food industry for their thickening, gelling, emulsifying, foaming, coloring, and flavoring properties, it is also expected that the worldwide consumption of eggs included in food industry formulations will increase in next years [ 13 ].
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However, in the case of pre-cooked and processed foods, the use of pasteurized liquid eggs and egg powders are more commonly used than fresh eggs [ 70 ]. Food industries chiefly make use of the liquid egg products obtained through the shelling and pasteurization of shelled eggs, and whole egg products are employed as ingredients for the manufacture of egg pasta, mayonnaise, pastry or baked foods [ 13 ].
The pasteurization process can accelerate reactions between lipids and molecular oxygen, resulting in losses of nutritional and sensory properties of the egg products. Besides the possible impact of processing on lipid oxidation, the initial composition of raw materials can impact the behavior during processing [ 70 ]. Thus, there is a large potential market for functional egg products fortified with bioactive compounds by means of technological methods. Fortification is often the more cost effective and practical way to provide micronutrients to communities in need, especially if the technology already exists and if an appropriate and equitable food-distribution system is in place.
It is usually possible to add multiple micronutrients without substantially increasing the total cost of the food product at the point of manufacture [ 69 ], especially when they manufacture large quantities of foods. The increasing demand for functional foods during recent decades can be explained by the increasing cost of healthcare, the steady increase in life expectancy and the desire for an improved quality of life in later years.
Functional foods may improve the general condition of the body, decrease the risk of some diseases and may even be used to cure some illnesses. Taking into account the progressive aging of the population of developed countries, functional foods are a good alternative for controlling health costs, because medical services for the aging population are rather expensive [ 1 ]. In most countries, there is no legislative definition for the term and drawing a line between conventional and functional foods is challenging, even for nutritionist or food experts.
The amount of intake and form of the functional food should be as it is normally expected for dietary purposes.
Experts like Sloan [ 71 ] has estimated the global functional-food market to be It should be emphasized, however, that the European market is heterogeneous, and there are large regional differences in both the use and acceptance of functional foods. In general, the interest of consumers in functional foods in the Central and Northern European countries is higher than in Mediterranean countries, where consumers have appreciated natural, fresh foods and consider them better for health [ 1 ].
Additionally, women tend to be slightly more health-oriented than men, and middle-aged and elderly consumers tend to be substantially more health-oriented than younger consumers [ 74 ]. Therefore, middle-aged and elderly consumers are more aware of health issues, simply because they, or members of their immediate social environment, are much more likely to be diagnosed with a lifestyle-related disease than younger consumers.
However, other recent research based on surveys did not find clear differences in the acceptance of functional foods between ages, gender or the country of origin of consumers [ 75 ]. Moreover, it is beyond doubt that persuading people to make healthier food choices would provide substantial health effects; therefore, it is in common economic and public interest [ 77 ]. This increasing consumer awareness, in combination with advances in various scientific domains, provides companies with unique opportunities to develop a large variety of new functional-food concepts [ 76 ].
It should also be considered that functional foods are sold at higher prices, thus containing larger profit margins than conventional foods, which obviously make the sector attractive for the players in the supply chain [ 73 ]. Taking into account that eggs and egg-derived products are largely accepted by consumers, owing to their great culinary versatility and low economic cost, the development of functional eggs and egg-derived products could be an important way to value the products and to gain profitability for egg producers and the food industry [ 8 ].
Nevertheless, as previously reported [ 75 ], functional eggs are still rarely consumed in Europe. Recent polls revealed that consumers mentioned the consumption of functional eggs in only two countries. In Sweden, only 3. Consumers in all other surveyed European countries reported using no eggs or functional egg products [ 75 ]. Although the possibility of using other bioactive compounds to obtain functional eggs, such as lycopene [ 78 ], was investigated, the most common bioactive compounds used for this purpose were n -3 PUFAs [ 16 ]. These fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahesaenoic acid DHA , have received great attention from nutritionists and the medical community, because it is considered that a clear relationship exists between the consumption of EPA and DHA and the maintenance of normal cardiac function.
Thus, n -3 PUFA-fortified products such as eggs provide a means to achieve desired biochemical effects of these nutrients, without the ingestion of dietary supplements, medications or the need for a major change in dietary habits [ 19 ]. The content of n -3 fatty acids in eggs and egg-derived products can be increased, either through feed modifications for hens or through technological methods in the case of egg-derived products. Thus, if we want to increase the content of ALA, we can use plant oils as a source.
Various plants, such as canola, soybean, walnuts and flaxseed, produce ALA, with the latter being the most concentrated source [ 80 ]. Consequently, flaxseed is the most employed matter for the supplementation of hens when aiming to obtain n- 3 PUFA-enriched eggs by means of increasing the ALA content [ 16 ]. However, one of the disadvantages of flaxseed supplementation is that, when the hens feed under such production parameters, the egg characteristics are very contradictory in terms of feed consumption, egg production or egg weight [ 16 ].
When using fish oil as source of n -3 PUFA, it is highly recommended to include an antioxidant substance to prevent sensorial hurdles that are mainly caused by oxidized n -3 PUFA in eggs [ 16 ]. In this sense, recent research has shown that, when seaweed is used as source of n- 3 PUFA, it can also act as an antioxidant, as seaweed naturally contains antioxidants such as carotenoids, polyphenols, and vitamins E and C [ 81 ].
Similarly, feed supplementation with microencapsulated fish oil, which is expected to have greater oxidative stability, still had a negative impact on egg sensory attributes [ 83 ]. Oxidative damage in egg yolks fat results only from direct deposition of oxidized lipids from the feed, as lipids are not further oxidized during storage [ 16 , 80 ].
For autotrophic microalgae, despite being an excellent source of n- 3 PUFA and other important bioactive compounds such as carotenoids [ 84 ], the high price of production restricts its application in relatively low-value products such as eggs [ 16 ]. Oils obtained of two microalgae, sources of n- 3 PUFA, has yet obtained authorization by the European Commission to be employed as novel food ingredients, Schizochytrium sp.
Eggs from hens fed heterotrophic microalgae typically show similar PUFA profiles to eggs from hens fed fish oil, yielding eggs with DHA contents up to mg per egg, while maintaining consumer acceptability [ 16 ]. Given the relatively limited conversion of ALA into EPA and DHA by the human metabolism, feed supplementation with long chain n -3 PUFA in the form of fish oil or microalgae is much more interesting compared to supplementation with their precursor ALA through the addition of flaxseed.
In any case, the obtained enriched eggs by supplementation of hens diet does not affect the cholesterol content of the eggs [ 87 ] and, consequently, consumers could be reluctant to consume eggs as a source of n -3 PUFA, owing to their high cholesterol content [ 29 , 34 ]. Therefore, one way to diversify the supply and to possibly enlarge the market of egg products is to produce n -3 PUFA-enriched pasteurized liquid eggs and egg powders.
Using technological methods, it is possible to fortify these by-products with n -3 PUFAs at the same time as reducing cholesterol content. Moreover, their use as ingredients in a wide range of processed foods could contribute to increased consumption of n -3 PUFA among the population [ 70 ]. Another important potential advantage of egg-derived products enriched with n- 3 PUFA is that the lipid profile is better preserved at refrigeration temperatures, because storage at room temperature results in a loss of PUFAs [ 9 ].
In some countries, such as those in the EU, it is established that fresh eggs must be stored and transported at a constant temperature and should, in general, not be refrigerated before sale to the final consumer with the exception of French overseas departments [ 88 ]. However, some egg-derived products, such as pasteurized liquid eggs, are required to be conserved by refrigeration. Eggs represent the major excretory route of the sterol in hens [ 89 ], which is almost entirely contained in the yolk.
Different strategies were employed in order to obtain eggs with lower amounts in cholesterol. The relatively poor effectiveness of strategies carried out for reducing yolk cholesterol content was probably due to the relative resistance of yolk cholesterol content to manipulation by genetic selection. On the other hand, the use of atorvastatin in laying hens elicited favorable changes in egg nutrient composition in addition to the reduction in egg-yolk cholesterol.
Thus, eggs obtained from hens treated with atorvastatin were lower in fat and higher in high-quality proteins that control the eggs [ 90 ]. Other effective approaches to egg cholesterol reduction include feeding hens garlic paste [ 95 ]. In addition to strategies based hen genetic selection or on the modification of the feeding conditions of laying hens, it is also possible to produce eggs that are low in cholesterol by technological methods Table 3. Another strategy is the removal of cholesterol from egg yolks using organic acids such as acetone [ 97 ]. However, the use of organic acid reduces the emulsifying capacity of the egg yolk, so detracts technological potential as an ingredient, and could potentially leave residues of these acids in the egg.
Another option is the use of supercritical CO 2 , an extremely potent solvent for removing cholesterol from egg yolk [ 98 ]. This methodology has obtained very promising results, but despite its potential, it is not used a lot on the industrial level because of its high price. Other recent methodology described for this purpose includes the selective degradation of cholesterol in egg yolks using the enzyme cholesterol oxidase together with ultrasound [ 99 ] or using different species of microorganisms [ , , , ]. Different strategies employed to obtain egg-derived foods with lower amounts in cholesterol by technological methods.
Eggs represent a very important food source, especially for some populations such as the elderly, pregnant women, children, convalescents and people who are sports training. The volume of both fresh eggs and eggs used by food companies in their formulations increases constantly. Owing to their higher security, lower price and easier handing and storing properties, food manufacturers prefer to use pasteurized egg products rather than fresh eggs. Additionally, the number of functional-food markets has also increased in recent decades and, owing to some factors such as the progressive aging of the population of developing countries, are expected to continue to increase in the coming years.
Nevertheless, the presence of functional eggs in the market and knowledge of such products by the consumers are lower than other groups of foods. Consequently, the development of functional egg-derived foods through technological methods could be an interesting way to gain profitability for egg producers and the food industry, in addition to improving the general conditions of public health.
This could be especially interesting for the addition of bioactive compounds that need to be stored at refrigeration temperatures, because egg-derived products such as pasteurized liquid eggs must be stored under refrigeration during the commercialization process. Additionally, these products are safer from the microbiological point of view, cheaper, easier to hand and store, and because of the heat treatment applied, in some cases are less allergenic than fresh eggs. Thus, functional egg-derived products obtained through technological methods are a very interesting option for food manufacturers.
Cepeda designed the review. Lamas participated in the process of scientific literature search. Rodriguez made the tables and formatted the manuscript. Miranda wrote the manuscript, whereas C. Franco contributed in the revision process. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Nutrients v. Published online Jan Rodriguez , 3 Alexandre Lamas , 1 Carlos M. Franco , 1 and Alberto Cepeda 1. Find articles by Jose M. Xaquin Anton 2 Clavo congelados, S. Find articles by Celia Redondo-Valbuena. Find articles by Paula Roca-Saavedra.
Find articles by Alexandre Lamas. Find articles by Carlos M. Find articles by Alberto Cepeda. Received Nov 11; Accepted Jan Enjoy bountiful harvests and abundant flavor straight from a Frederick County farm all while supporting a local farmer. Full Cellar Farm grows fresh vegetables, herbs and cut flowers and sells pastured chicken, pork and eggs.
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