Berend emigrated to Italy in , where she died penniless. Already before , attacks on this diversity were an important activity for the Nazis. The local historical limited space and with the aid of micro-analysis religious, socio-economic conditions, their own historical traditions, ideological influences and political constellations will be found, which in their interdependence insights into the question of the mass success of the Nazis and the reciprocal relationships between society and make policy.
The focus is the question of the interplay between the structural peculiarities and political domination, or - in other terms - the question of the development and establishment of National Socialism inhibitory or favorable local factors. Ende der er-Jahre emigrierte er in die USA. In the late s he emigrated to the United States. In , the rabbi and Jewish scholar had called for the founding of a Jewish theological faculty to be able to devote to the Jewish tradition in the spirit of academic freedom.
In , he was appointed director general of the Jewish Restitution Successor Organization JRSO , which sought to provide evidence and force the return of Jewish property expropriated by the Nazis , on the basis of the restitution laws enacted by the American military government.
Juni im Schloss Leopoldskron. At the same time, the destruction of the free trade unions had already been decided and planned in detail. The entry has been added to your favourites. You are not signed in. Please sign in or register for free if you want to use this function. An error has occured. You can suggest improvements to this PONS entry here: Your message has now been forwarded to the PONS editorial department. How can I copy translations to the vocabulary trainer?
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Skip to content Skip to search. Language German View all editions Prev Next edition 1 of 2. Also Titled History of National socialism. Author Frank, Walter, Physical Description 35 p. Subjects Hitler, Adolf, Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter-Partei -- History. The story provides the person with a sense of unity and purpose in life—a sense that one is a whole being moving forward in a particular direction.
From the standpoint of the personal identity, therefore, the person is both historian and history—a storyteller who creates the self in the telling Cohler ; McAdams b; Sartre Only one aspect from the above cited comment should be picked out that leads directly to the next part of my elucidations: Her manuscript gives us a deep insight into her from the outside.
It is already a fascinating document of her self-construction as it is not only her own writing but also a collection of her correspondence, talks and other documents that further reflect her life. In an explanatory letter to the Harvard prize competition, she comments on her manuscript in the following way:. So the self-construction in this case lies not only in the story but additionally in the set of documents which indicates the complexity I faced with the manuscript and the additional data. In terms of theoretical speech I evaluated her self-view as being German in the first range as her "autobiographical issue" comp.
The officially outspoken nullification of citizenship for Jews e. This Loyalty considered the state, the society and the culture. There were for example as many German Jews who fought in World War I as other Germans, and they felt as enthusiastic as every other German when the war started. He went as a reserve officer into the war right in the beginning and came only out when the war was over. The problematic situation of Jews, who very late had the opportunity to become legal citizens in Germany 13 , consisted in their integration within the German society, mostly discussed around the question whether there was a Jewish-German symbiosis or not One way of integration for Jews lay in them overtaking German culture and rejecting their Jewish one.
Another can be seen in considering themselves only as Germans and not even thinking of themselves as Jews. Moreover there are cases known that built up a culturally German oriented life while simultaneously obtaining their Jewishness, e. Only the self-consideration of Jews can open the window to the influence that an outside definition like "Non-Arian" under the NS-Regime had on life, biography and identity-formation.
As I said before: The following part of her autobiography may illustrate this point and the extraordinary emphasis she put on her German roots. From there I present her portrait leading into her fight for recognition. The portrait of her may make understandable not only her way of "being German" but also of her "being non-Jewish.
Hamburg towards the end of the nineteenth century, a time of increasing Jewish emancipation and of aspiring bourgeoisie, a large city of cosmopolitan character—a Hanseatic city whose hallmark was trade. The reader is not informed about her status, her family or her religious faith at this point.
And the reader also learns that her father had been a merchant and her mother a travel writer. As a daughter of Jewish merchant resident in Hamburg, she was associated with Jewish haute bourgeoisie circles. This fact suggests a traditional marriage practice within the family However, in some passages the manuscript suggests that her father insisted on traditional role patterns and attached great importance to class affiliation.
As a travel writer her mother experienced considerable private areas in her life and an independence that was not compatible with the typical image of an haute-bourgeoisie woman Raised between these two poles tradition and modernity and facing the fact that her younger brother had all educational opportunities Paula TOBIAS decided to study medicine. Compared to her brother she was refused a higher education as a female within the "societal" norm.
That means, to decide to study medicine and to become a physician forced her to fight for it rather than to stay in the pre-constructed identity of high-bourgeoisies daughters that presumed marriage and family. So the general feeling of "not being equal" first came to the surface when she faced the fact that her brother had the right to a university education whereas she was only able to study by taking a roundabout way. And this feeling accompanied her throughout her life—first during studies, later as a practicing physician and also as a wife. I find it interesting that she realized as a girl and later woman that she faced inequality in societal circumstances and therefore consciously had to act to sustain her identity—for instance to work for the goal to study medicine which was not in the traditional line of Jewish-German life in the bourgeoisie class.
After graduating from a secondary school for girls in Hamburg where she received a comprehensive education in languages and literature from to , she made the rather difficult choice to reach her personal goal by participating in access courses Realgymnasialkurse that had been established especially for women.
She passed her final examination with ten other students out of 34 at the outset in and was granted university entrance The German universities did not open up to women simultaneously. Baden had granted women access to university in whereas Prussia followed as late as This context explains why Paula TOBIAS was enrolled in Berlin for a later period of studies and no registrations can be found on her first semesters at that university At the beginning of the century it was not possible to participate in all university courses without the consent of respective professors.
But as stated by Paula TOBIAS she was able to overcome all difficulties she encountered as a woman 20 in higher education and enjoyed her student days. Paula TOBIAS took up her studies in the winter semester of and completed them in when the degree of a doctor was conferred on her. After one year of practical training at the pediatric clinic in Goettingen and at St. By the end of her studies Paula TOBIAS was 26 years old, had enjoyed a time of extensive freedom and there were no indications of severe difficulties in the quoted years.
Owing to her work at the pediatric clinic in Goettingen during her professional training, she decided to specialize in pediatrics. As a well-educated physician she wished to accompany her husband to Southwest Africa and to work at a clinic there. Since she had already traveled a lot with her mother as a school girl and had learned to adapt to new situations in new and unfamiliar places as a student as well, it is not surprising to read about her plans in her autobiographical manuscript.
The newly wed couple moved to Kreiensen in the Harz and opened a rural general practice that soon flourished. In her autobiographical manuscript she repeatedly notes that at her husband's side, she had started the life of a country doctor, desired to have a family of her own and attempted to make a good life in the country. After the couple had set up their practice and the grave years of war were over, they were always able to afford a lifestyle that was comparable to other bourgeoisie families.
Yet after completing her education, Paula TOBIAS was at the beginning of a new life as a physician and wife, and she articulated romantic visions of a family life in the country—a typical romantic vision of city dwellers of the time who hoped to escape from the machinery of urban life But her later life shows that she never really gave up her bourgeoisie German ways. And this is the dominating contradiction in her life, which she never indicated.
Once she had taken up work as the first female physician in the federal state of Braunschweig, she started to strengthen the practice together with her husband. In the subsequent years of war Paula TOBIAS ran the practice on her own as well as a military hospital that was set up at the Kreiensen railway station. She was later awarded the Iron Cross, second degree, for this work.
Working as a physician during war required commitment and devotion, qualities Paula TOBIAS developed on the grounds of her faith in her fatherland.
In her autobiography she attributed her extreme dedication to her "being German. To underline the crucial fact that she felt German, I introduce a sentence that she wrote in a letter to Dr. The war was a serious break at the beginning of her new life as a doctor and wife. Her desire to start a family had to be postponed; her married life no longer existed since Fritz TOBIAS remained in war for four years and was only permitted two weeks' home-leave per year. The period from to was crammed with effort, responsibility and an abundance of work and left traces in her life. That particularly intensified when she decided to leave Kreiensen in and to take over a practice near Delligsen, an industrial area without medical care.
In she had to handle an influenza epidemic 24 that kept her working 20 hours a day. When her husband returned from war and took over the practice again, Paula TOBIAS receded into the background and gradually withdrew from practice work. Though she had to stand professionally aside in relation to her husband she then saw her chance to fulfill her dream of a family life in the country. After long years of hard work she allowed herself time to rest and to re-organize her life.
After all, she was already 32 years of age and still had not started her family. In their son Johannes was born and their second son Gerd followed in Life in Delligsen seemed to unfold unspectacularly, at least, in terms of everyday life. The only event that indicates she had not completely withdrawn from professional life was when she set up infant-welfare services in Delligsen.
Besides that, she had a special liking for English landscape gardening and cultivated her garden. Paula TOBIAS mentioned her garden several times in her autobiography and attached great importance to its value in her life. Subsequently, her appreciation for garden architecture constituted an essential component of her life in the country and needs to be addressed.
Paula TOBIAS' style when she described the early years of the s conveys harmony—a climate that certainly reflects her private life. She did not involve herself as much in social life as some others but seems completely absorbed by motherhood and happiness and her dream of a family come true. Even though there were revolutionary worker revolts 25 in and around Delligsen and inflation had reached its height, there are no indications in the manuscript that would reveal difficulties or survival problems.
On the contrary, Paula TOBIAS reported that her work was paid in groceries and that they had enough to eat and to entertain and serve meals to guests. The idyllic setting in Kreiensen was ended by war and the idyllic life in Delligsen by a tragic break.
The first born son Johannes injured his leg and later died from blood-poisoning, a manifestation that was not curable at the time. Deeply shaken by their son's death, the couple decided to leave Delligsen and to take over a brother-in-law's practice in Bevern In the summer of , they left Delligsen and moved to Bevern, a place 30 miles from Delligsen and at the time a parish-township of inhabitants. Basically, their life in Bevern was similar to their life in Delligsen. Thus it can be sketched as an idyllic German life. The family lived in a stately house and its location on the periphery of a village symbolized their special status as physicians, bourgeoisie citizens and also as Jews.
In her autobiography the death of her child is not mentioned again. But it seems obvious that the loss of her son cast its "shadow" over her life. A portrait of her with her son Gerd makes these shadows visible.
An analysis of the portrait—that is taken around —with objective hermeneutics 27 gave a deep insight into a her relationship to her son Gerd but b also into her personality as I will explore in a few sentences. Assuming that this picture was taken to hold mother and son in memory for those who would receive the picture, it had to be a composition. In virtue of the date they would have gone to a photographer to have the picture taken. They both wear casual clothing what is an indication of a more private than official reason for the picture.
Both faces appear with a completely different expression: Gerd is open, friendly, smiling and very powerful in contrast to his mother who looks serious, unconcerned and absent, not even looking at the camera. Although they are close together, there seems to be no connection other than: And even in this very usual positioning, the boy gets all the attention of the observer because he is the "little one. And this also—analytically—can be of importance for an understanding of her biography. Her expression reflects her grief that rises from the before mentioned experiences and likewise from her knowledge about the uncertain and frightening future for herself and her son.
In allusion to the events to come she stated: The old castle in the center of Bevern was used as a college of physical e ducation for storm troopers SA Maenner in late or early The presence of this small "national socialist army" resulted in violent attacks on village inhabitants who were Jews there were two other Jewish families , social democrats or communists. The entire village was under control of the storm troopers' division. Beyond that, several "stiff" teachers took advantage of their influence and tormented their pupils.
To underline the historical circumstances that not only had an influence on her identity in the way of falling back on resources as I will show in the last part of this article but even influenced her everyday life and brought up the consciousness of real endangerment, I would like to present what Paula TOBIAS wrote about that special day:.
Her desire to start a family had to be postponed; her married life no longer existed since Fritz TOBIAS remained in war for four years and was only permitted two weeks' home-leave per year. Finally I will conclude by arguing that the single case study on Paula TOBIAS gives us insight, on the one hand, into the subversive functioning of the National Socialistic System, and on the other hand, into the impact of misrecognition on human beings. On the contrary, Paula TOBIAS reported that her work was paid in groceries and that they had enough to eat and to entertain and serve meals to guests. Shopbop Designer Fashion Brands. And this is the dominating contradiction in her life, which she never indicated. He died on 5 November
From across the road there came two young fellows in full array and told me in the most embarrassed manner that they were supposed to stand in front of our property and not leave any patient in.