About the first radical change that I 75 JJmryHelvie remember of his making in oil field prac- tice after our acquaintance began was in per- fecting a device for starting large gas engines with high pressure gas. From the beginning of the use of gas engines in the oil country it was the custom to start them by pulling and tramping the fly wheels, but that way was so hard and dangerous, too, that it did not look good to Walter and as there was plenty of high pressure gas in the field he conceived the idea of harnessing it up to do the engine starting. Many of the oil men of long experience assured him of the impractic- ability of his idea but their objections did not seem well founded and he went ahead with his experiment.
It was a complete success and soon was in general use throughout the entire Mid-continent field wherever there was high gas pressure. Soon afterwards he started to work out a wire line pumping and pulling device, in which the idea was to use the same power to pull the well as was used in pumping it. It is necessary to put new cups on the valves in an oil well wherever the old ones are worn off by rubbing in the working barrel or cylin- dar and as the valves are in the bottom of the well they have to be pulled out to make the change.
This is usually done with a team ajid two men, but with Walter's device all that was necessary was to put it in gear and tiie same 76 power that pumped the well pulled it out In RemwyBelt a couple of hours and when the valves came out the machine was automatically thrown out of gear, enabling the pumper to change cups and run the valves back to bottom on a brake without extra help and in a few minutes time.
The new principle involved was the substitution of a flexible wire line for solid iron rods to carry and operate the vatom Just before he left the oil field he was working on an application of electricity to the drilling of oil wells which would do away with the use of boilers and engines, and had he stayed in the oil field I have no doubt of his doing it as he was a man of rare ability.
In less than two years time he was generally recognized as an expert in the equipment and operation of oil leases. It was only a few days after he was talk- ing to me about his electric drill that he called me by phone from Peru and said, "Well, Henry, I guess I will have to tell you good bye for a while as I am leaving this afternoon for home, and from there I will go to New York to take up my medical studies. That he did succeed, although the time was short, no one can doubt, and by the death of Walter Sutton the country loses a man of supreme usefulness and singular genius.
Early in the fall of Professor Wilson of Columbia was to give a lecture on cytology to the College of Physicians and Surgeons. Gathered outside the lecture hall stood a group of second year students discussing whether it would pay to spend the time taking in the lecture, as those were busy days and we were jealous of every hour. Among the group was a stranger who had just entered the second year class.
He argued that the subject was interesting and had a good deal to do with medicine, and that we should not miss the lecture. As nobody else knew much about the subject the stranger won and we attended the lecture. It was interesting, and we soon began to think that the single cell could put it all over the higher organisms when it came to complicated acts. At the close of his lecture Professor Wilson said that a good deal of the late work on the cell had been done during the previous year by a first year medical student in the University of Kansas, who had become a member of our 79 John Colin second year class, then he asked if Waltor Vaughan Sutton would please stand up.
In this manner Sutton was introduced to P. During that year Sutton worked hard and although I saw as much of him as of any member of the class our hours together out- side the classroom were few. In the classroom we all soon grew to respect his judgment and to admire his power of analysis. The detail with which he answered the questions put to him never ceased to fill us with wonder as it seemed impossible that anyone could cover the various subjects with such thoroughness in the time at our disposal.
In the end of the term in the spring of I shook hands with Sutton, told him to remember me to God's country, and expressed my regret that I should not see him in the fall when he would return, as I was going into the Arctic for a year. The year in the Arctic lengthened into two and it was the autumn of when I came back to New York. I went immediately to see the secretary of the college to enquire about the prospect of con- tinuing my medical course.
I found Sutton there on a similar errand, his absence having matched my own. We were told that many of the subjects had been dropped back a year while we had been away and it seemed as John Coin though we should not be permitted to enter Vaughan the third year class without conditions. We discussed this with the secretary for some time and finally our combined arguments won the day and we were entered as though we had not been away. The whole circumstance, in addition to the friendliness we had felt before brought us closer so that we decided to room together.
After a search we took pos- session of a big old-fashioned back parlor and prepared for a year of hard work. Sutton learned easily and put in very little time on the study of any one subject ; he could read a book through quickly and grasp all the important points. We took in every lecture on medical and other scientific subjects that we possibly could find time for.
Sutton received reprints from most of the cytologists of tie world; he would read them over aloud, now and then stopping to say "Note that point"; he would get out the unpublished thesis which he had written in and would show me how he had worked out the same point, then would cross it out of his thesis. It made me sore to see so much of Ms research being accomplished by others and the honors going to them, and I urged him to publish his thesis even if he did not go up for his Ph.
About the middle of the winter he became interested in oil well machinery and from that time on the room overflowed with drawings for all Mnds of pumps and for electric drilling tools of many types, and with letters from the Patent Office delivered in every mail. Most of the things planned and drafted were not carried out but were put away with his thesis to be finished later.
On Sundays we would visit my people in New Jersey, taking long walks in woods and fields, and there the simpler side of Walter's nature would come out and we would talk, plan and play like boys. At the house he always liked to help with anything and made himself so useful in such a pleasant and merry way that my mother used to say he was like an- other son.
They all had the greatest admiration for him and he would do anything in his power for them; his friendships were close and sincere, and his liberal heart and generous hand helped out many boys who were hard pressed to make both ends meet. In the final year at college Walter and I promised each other that we would settle down to hard work and make the year count for a 82 good deal.
Sutton substituted for several John Cotti months at various hospitals where his ability Vaughtm and practical worth began to be noticed. His talent for inventions and for improving the form of implements began to exert itself again, and when everyone else in the class was plugging up for hospital examinations he wonld be spending his evenings planning new instruments. Still he always had his work ready and would be able to answer all ques- tions to the smallest details, proving that Hs habit of a few minntes complete concentration is worth hours of the usual style of study.
I remember the morning of the day of the Eoosevelt Hospital examinations. Walter was absorbed in rigging up a skull which he had fastened to the head of the bed; he ran a thread down behind the bed and across the floor to the window where we sat to study, and while apparently engaged with his book he could pull open the jaw of the skull and let it snap together again with a clash of the teeth. A fat old negress used to make up our room and she had always looked askance at this skull, but this morning when she was smoothing the bed she heard the snap of the teeth and glancing up saw the jaws slowly opening.
With one leap and one yell she was out of the room and never could be persuaded to make up our bed again. That afternoon Walter made the place he 83 Colin wanted on the Eoosevelt Hospital staff. I Vaugkan went on the service of the Presbyterian Hos- pital and we both deeply regretted the separa- tion. We talked over the three years in which we had worked together and of our plans for the future. We had reached a goal in onr lives and each felt safe for the time.
Since those days we have met rarely, but the affection has not waned. Everyone who has worked with Sntton always speaks of his ability for clear reasoning, the brilliance of Ms scientific achievement; to his intimate friends the memory of him always recalls fairness and loyalty, his big heart and helping hand. I first came to know Dr. Button during the period of his interneship in the Roosevelt Hospital. While still a junior 1 assistant he showed so much energy, interest and enthusiasm in the work that the members of the visiting staff were singularly attracted to him. In addition to the routine work of the hospital, which he always did to the satisfac- tion of his associates, he seemed to have time to devote to investigation and experimental research in the various problems of surgery, as well as practical work in anaesthesia and wound treatment.
It was during this period that he devel- oped a new and perfect technic for anaesthesia by colonie absorption of ether vapor. Although this method had been tried out many years before at the Boston City Hospital and ased for a time in that institution for mouth and head cases, owing to imperfections in the 86 George method of administering it, and the resulting Emerson high percentage of colitis and proctitis which Brewer followed its use, the practice was eventually abandoned.
Sutton was interested in some experimental work along these lines, carried out in the Surgical Besearch Labora- tory of the College of Physicians and Sur- geons, and was able to observe the results of the method on the human being in a few cases at the Eoosevelt and other hospitals. His acute mind, always alert and scientifically critical, saw at once the defects of the method as employed. He was also convinced that the method, if these defects in technic could be avoided, would be useful, particularly in oper- ations on the upper portion of the thorax, the neck and head.
He felt that if the method could be rendered safe and free from dis- agreeable consequences it would have an im- mense advantage over the ordinary inhalation method, in that it would enable the operator to work in the regions adjacent to the mouth and upper respiratory tract without interfer- ence from the anaesthetist or his apparatus. After months of painstaking experimental work he devised an apparatus with which he was able to administer the anaesthetic by the eolonic method without danger of accident or complication.
In a large series of cases in which he administered the anaesthetic in this way at the Eoosevelt Hospital, there was a 86 surprising absence of the ordinary postopera- George tive complications such as prolonged vomiting, Emerson postoperative bronchitis or pneumonia, renal Brewer irritation, etc. All of the snrgeons on duty at the Roosevelt Hospital adopted the method for month operations, operations on the larynx, thyroid and neck. In fact, the method was so successful and rendered the operative technic in these regions so much simpler that its use gradually extended to operations upon the breast, thorax, upper extremity and back.
Sutton published a report of his work which was of very considerable interest to the profession. When he became house surgeon his opportunities for original investigations were limited on account of the increased re- sponsibility associated with his routine work. It was, however, the testimony of all of the visiting staff, who were associated with him, that he made one of the most capable, consci- entious and thoroughly reliable house surgeons who had ever served in the Roosevelt Hospital.
It was, however, during his service in the American Ambulance Hospital at JuiUy, France, during the spring and summer of , that Dr. Sutton achieved his greatest reputation. This hospital, founded and sup- ported by Mrs. As the result of this the hopsital was 87 kept full of the seriously wounded and eases requiring the highest degree of surgical judg- Brewer meat and skill In Ms work here he was ably assisted by a number of capable surgeons, many 0f them his colleagues in the Roosevelt Hospital and College of Physicians and Sur- geons.
The nursing staff of this institution consisted of some of the best trained and most experienced graduates of the various New York hospitals. In the position of surgeon-in-chief to this hospital, Dr. Sutton not only had to assume the entire surgical responsibility of the patients under his care, but was in addition the chief administrative officer of the hospital.
This required an immense amount of detail routine work in addition to his professional duties. After a severe battle just to the north of Juilly sixty-nine severely wounded patients were admitted in twenty-four hours, and in the two days follow- ing the admissions were such as to crowd the hospital to its fullest capacity. Had it not been for Dr.
Button's extraordinary executive ability and his wisdom in preparing in advance for just such an emergency the entire hospital would have become demoralized when such a large number of patients were admitted in so short a time. During the en- tire period the routine work of the hospital was carried on like clockwork, and members of the surgical and nursing staffs, as well as the workers in the X-ray and pathological labora- tories, were on duty continuously until the rush was over.
In the end it was found that in not a single instance had an accident oc- curred, and it was the testimony of aU that no unavoidable delay took place which in any way complicated the condition of a single patient When Dr.
Sutton graduated with a high stand- ing from the College of Physicians and Sur- geons and commenced his hospital service on my division at Roosevelt Hospital in June, He at once demonstrated his ability as a surgeon and especially his cleverness in designing surgical apparatus. At that time I was much interested in the treatment of peritonitis by irrigation of the abdomen and had devised an apparatus by which this could be accomplished without diffusing the infection in the abdomen.
The apparatus, as I had it made, was somewhat clumsy and ineffcient, and Dr. Sutton at once improved it so that it was practically automatic in its action. He then interested himself in the question of rectal anaesthesia and devised a very clever apparatus, making a great deal of it himself, by which the ether was vaporized, the vapor warmed and introduced into the rectum in known quantity, the apparatus being so ar- 90 ranged that not only was the amount given Joseph A. By his appar- atus a large number of rectal anaesthethesias were performed without any harmful results. The latter part of his service when as house surgeon he was in charge of this service and did a large number of operations, he showed a remarkable skill in operating for such a young man and also judgment which one would only have looked for in a surgeon of far greater experience.
I always felt that it was safe to let him do any operations with- out guidance and that no mistakes would be made.
His keenness and enthusiasm, coupled with marked intelligence and extreme dex- terity, made him advance with great rapidity. It was a great regret to me that he decided to quit New York and practice at his home, I had hoped that he would return to New York and become a valuable member of the surgical department at the University.
After that I saw very little of him, although I kept hearing of his promotions at home ; until he came to France to take service in the hospital at Juilly under Dr. Martin left soon after the hos- pital was opened and commenced to receive wounded, and Dr. Sutton became Medecin- Chef and conducted the hospital and the serv- 91 , A. While there he Blake devised his method of finding foreign bodies in the tissues.
This method was exceedingly simple yet very clever. It consisted of passing a trocar and a cannula into the tissues tinder the fluoroscopic screen, the cannula feeing easily kept in line with the foreign body be- cause, under the screen, if it were not in line with the foreign body, more than the end would be seen. The trocar and cannula were introduced until they touched the piece of shell or bullet, when the trocar was removed, leaving the cannula in place.
A piece of fine steel wire, with its end bent over like a crochet needle, was then introduced through the can- mula and the cannula withdrawn, the wire retained its position on account of its bent end catching in the tissues.
It was then a simple matter to cut down upon the foreign body, along the piece of wire, which could be readily done with a local anaesthesia. By this means he removed a large number of foreign bodies, some of them even being m the chest, without failure. His method has been used by others with great satisfaction.
In the two years Dr. Sutton worked with me at the Eoosevelt Hospital and during the time that he was here in France, I never heard a word of criticism in regard to him; he was popular with everyone, but his popularity interfered with his efficiency and his 92 power to accomplish everything he intended. His death is a great loss to me personally and, Blake in my opinion, to the Surgical Profession and to the community in general. In the last number of u Science " which I have received I read a short notice in regard to some of his work on the Mendelian theory of heredity, which was iny first intimation that he had extended his labor into the realm of pure biological research.
I wish I might be able to give a fuller account of his activity when he was under my observation, but I have absolutely no records here to work from, simply my memory. Naturally, I can only remember the things which impressed me most in regard to him. Professor of Medicine, University of Kansas. The individual personal sense of bereave- ment occasioned by the loss from our ranks of Doctor Walter Stanborough Sutton is per- haps only more keenly felt by the institutions he had contributed so much to organize and inspire. Although a man yet young in years, his career had become replete with honor and distinction and his name was a by-word for strength of character, boundless energy in the pursuit of knowledge and a magnetic person- ality that made him both loved and respected by everyone, and as a type that admitted noth- ing insurmountable.
In that phase of his life which was most productive and in which perhaps his greatest honors were achieved was the period that he devoted his greatest energies and interest to the organization, development and surgical practice of the University of Kansas, and in this institution it would seem as if one of its pillars had suddenly fallen.
It was during the last four years of this time that I became closely associated with him and received a daily inspiration from him, as 94 his knowledge extended widely beyond the Lindsay bounds of surgery and provided a source from Milne which I, as well as all his colleagues, could always benefit in the study of the problems of their particular specialties. In this time he had become a friend whose loss I personally can never replace but whose memory is a daily guide to all that is good and honorable. He had a most remarkable type of mem- ory, one that was perfectly catalogued and indexed and from which could be culled at will all the correlated facts he had ever learned or been able to acquire on any subject.
His first connection with the faculty of the University of Kansas after his return from graduation in Columbia University and in- ternship in Roosevelt Hospital, New York, was as attendant in the surgical division of the North End Dispensary, then the out-patient department of the University of Kansas.
This duty he entered on September 30, For some years he faithfully and strenuously de- veloped his work there. On June 16, , he was appointed Associate Professor of Surgery in the University of Kansas and till the time he was called from his center of activity and the greater part of his daily routine was spent at Bell Memorial Hospital. While there he was the idol of the students on account of his genial personality, unquestionable ability and his rare talent in teaching. These traits along 95 Lindsay S. His inventive and mechanical genius, which already had been expressed in his earlier career in the field of biology with Dr.
Wilson, and while an interne in New York in the elaboration of the rectal method of anaesthesia, rapidly placed him in the forefront of surgery and obtained for him early recognition in the membership of the American College of Surgeons when that or- ganization was founded. His work on plastic and orthopedic surgery not only created a wide circle of patients whose lives had as a result of Ms work, taken on a new meaning, but created the reputation for which Dr. Sut- ton was perhaps best known in his profession. Indeed, his achievements in the building up of destroyed portions of the face, particularly the nose and deformities of the mouth, were triumphs of surgical mechanical skill as also was his original work in the orthopedic field in which he devised the technique for the cellu- loid casts so much in vogue at the present time.
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Here also his organizing ability and skill proved invaluable. Since his return from the war zone with the added experience gained there his services were even more valuable and his untimely death has deprived all of us with whom he was a colleague, of a friend we could always depend on, of a surgeon whose skill and judg- ment were of the highest class, of a teacher and of a unit in all the organizations he was attached to, and of the numerous societies he was a member of, that is almost irreplaceable.
At all times and under all conditions lie was self possessed and courageous, traits which might be illustrated by a little incident I recall. While coming out from a hotel Walter noticed a man attempting to steal his car. The car had just been started and a confederate on the sidewalk was on the point of joining the thief.
A very pointed and highly entertaining conversation with the thief followed after which Walter Ifet the man out, to that individual's very consid- erable surprise. In the winter of we were engaged in looking for a surgeon of experience and abil- ity to go to France to take up the work of Hospital B, American Ambulance. We were very anxious to secure a young man who would represent the best type of American surgery. After considering the possible men whose work and personality were known to us we concluded that we would try to obtain Sutton of Kansas City.
No mention was made of the fact that he was to succeed me in charge of the hospital. He was simply asked to come and help. The time allotted was short. He answered, "I will make the boat on the 13th. This was typical of the man no hesitancy he had made his decision and he was going to see it through. We met for the first time on the deck of the Philadelphia on the morning of February 13 t When we set sail for France with hopes 98 and hearts high we little thought that before Henry ML two years had passed generous, big-hearted Lyle Walter would be the second of this little company to pass to the great unknown, but we always knew, come what might, he would face it unafraid.
When we arrived at Juilly we found that the hospital had been receiving wounded for about three weeks. Here we were, Americans, all of us with general surgical experience, none of us with an experience in war surgery. We were here to do what we could to help the wounded, and to try to repay, to the best of our ability, a small portion of the debt we, as Americans, owed to France.
We were met with kindness on every side, yet we felt that we were here to prove our worth, and knew that if we failed we would be judged, not as individuals, but as Americans. In the eyes of the French military authorities we were. It is hard for one in civil life to understand the respon- sibilities and anxieties connected with such a position of trust. Walter was quick to see and understand the condition, and to his loyal and efficient aid much of the success in winning the approval of the military authorities is due.
In talking the situation over and discussing new problems with him he was always quick to grasp the essential points, and when we had decided upon a plan he saw to it that it was 99 Henry M.
He hated all affectation Lyle and sham. His guiding principles were cheer- fulness, directness and thoroughness. Walter had always before him onr two-fold mission: With a cheerful personality and a splendid executive ability be combined a rare degree of operative skill. He had the gentle touch that marks the master surgeon, a wonderful mechanical ex- cellency, a resourcefulness and a courage that on many occasions carried us through the most trying of all moments, those moments when life hangs in the balance.
It is times like these amidst stress and strain that the true worth of a man comes forward. As I look back on those happy days at Juilly when we were all together and the time for leaving was drawing near, I felt ex- tremely sad to go, yet I was happy for I knew that the work which we all loved so well would go on and improve. My faith in Walter, or "Bill Taft," as the French soldiers affection- ately called him, was amply justified. When Walter laid down the direction of Juilly to return home after his six months of faithful service, Hospital B was the most effi- cient American Unit in France.
When I recall that simple but beautiful service that France gives to those who have fallen for her, a service we two had often Henry M. Tour coun- try salutes you. Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Canada. In this fast moving age the passing of a great man scarcely causes a ripple upon the sea of the nations, but the loss of a friend is as keenly felt and as truly mourned as in any day. Our beloved friend, Dr. Sutton, has "gone before" and we mourn him, but yet he is not gone for his spirit lives on in the lives of his students, his fellows in the profession and his patients.
We cannot by sorrowing call him back we cannot be with him yet but we can, as those among the last of his students to sit in his classroom, remem- ber him always as a teacher who added much to our lives. We can recognize genius in him. We can testify that the great underlying motives of his life were right, that he worked hard for small material rewards, that his professional ideals were worthy of emulation, and that his personality was free from guile and deception. His ironic wit of ttimes fixed Nelse F.
Ockerblad The mistakes you made before him you never made again. He had the viewpoint of a student because he never ceased to be a student him- self. He anticipated your difficulties because the same difficulties had assailed him. Outside the classroom or clinic he was a most likeable friend and genial companion. We respected him for his gift of skill and his learning, we loved him as a teacher and fellow student, we mourn with our Alma Mater the loss of one who promised so much for the future of medical education in Kansas.
A perusal of tlie preceding pages will show that Walter Sutton was fortunate enough to be afforded unusual educational advantages, both academic and professional, and he took full advantage of these favors of fortune. He further was able to cultivate a natural mechan- ical bent. This last was of very great value to form in his surgical work, enabling him to carry out with ease and confidence many of the ideas which arose in his active mind. Soon after Sutton returned to Kansas City he became closely associated with me both in my public and private work. This association was continued during the years which elapsed before my connection with the Clinical Department of University of Kansas was interrupted.
Sutton was made responsible for the teaching of several important depart- ments of surgery notably fractures and dis- locations. In these subjects his inclination to and training in mechanics made it easy for him to explain and demonstrate the mode in John chapter he described fully a most ingenious Fairbairn method devised by himself for the easy ex- Binnie posnre and extraction of bullets under guid- ance of the X-ray. The utter simplicity of Sutton's method renders it almost 'fool proof and marks its author a genius, In this chap- ter there is a vast amount of good material clearly exposed but compressed into a small space.
The material is drawn from a very great number of sources English, French, German, but much of it is from his own expe- rience gained during his service with the American Ambulance in France. In June, , the American Committee of Military Boentgenolgy adopted "the Sutton Localizing Method" as the standard for the fluoroscopic process for localizing foreign bod- ies in the deep tissues and it will be taught in the Government schools fox?
The instruments devised and used by Dr. Sutton in Prance have been furnished by his father to the U. Government as a pattern from which to manufacture them for use in the schools and hospitals. The College of Surgeons has for its aim tie elevation of surgery and the defeat of commercialism in its practice. A man who John professed and practiced the highest profes- Fdrbairn sional ideals as did Sutton and who was gifted Binnie with his great executive and organizing talent could not have failed to become a powerful agent in promoting the beneficent aims of the college.
To the College of Surgeons Button's untimely death will be a great loss. Owing to his residence in Kansas Dr. Sutton was ineligible for membership in the Jackson County Medical Society but he was made an associate member of that organiza- tion. This in itself tells the opinion of him held by his colleagues in Missouri. When the Christian Chureh Hospital opened its new hospital in Kansas City early in Sutton and I again became associated in one of the two surgical services of that institution.
Our association was, to me at least, most pleasant and profitable but all too short. My last impression of my friend, Walter Sutton, was that of courageous cheer- fulness exhibited while the hand of the grim reaper was too evidently upon him. Sutton was a good surgeon an ingenious and conscientious investigator, a cheerful, loyal friend, a man of very marked attain- ments and ability, but above all one blessed with the highest ideals and the courage to stand by and fight for them.
Perry, who had but recently come from St.
While living in St. Perry had taken a most vital interest in the Orphan's Home of the church located there and as a business man was imbued with spiritual zeal for the prac- tical application of the principles of Chris- tianity to the service of man. After an hour or more of delightful com- radeship over an excellent dinner Mr. Perry arose to state the purpose of the meeting. In a most enthusiastic talk he recalled the principles and history of the Christian church in its development and growth.
Hence it ap- pealed to him that here in Kansas City, Mis- souri, the center of the greatest numerical strength and material wealth of the Christian church in America, should be builded a great Jabez N. Christian hospital, dedicated to Christian Jackson service of afflicted mankind, "For I was sick and yon visited me. Long, a wealthy lumber man, who had long since proven him- self one of those, nnfortunately rare, men of wealth who appreciated the sacredness of his stewardship and had spent liberally of his substance in advancing every good canse and especially those in the service of Christianity and of the Christian church.
Following the discussion a practical move to materialize the idea was made by the ap- pointment of a committee to further consider the subject and to present concrete plans for adoption. A few weeks later a larger dinner was given at the Baltimore Hotel, attended by over one hundred guests, mostly members of the Christian church and among them many women. The subscription was opened by an offer on the part of Messrs. This act revealed the intense interest in the hospital idea and assured the success of the enterprise. At the same time Mr. Long, Jabez N. Accordingly the matter was allowed to rest on oars, so to speak, for some time.
Finally, in January, , a large dinner was given in the Sunday school rooms of the Independence Boulevard Christian Church, at which more than five hundred people were present, including sev- eral distinguished representatives of the Christian church from elsewhere, all the min- isters of the various Christian churches of Kansas City and various church officials.
Again the subject of a Christian Church Hospital was eloquently presented and en- thusiastically endorsed. Long arose amidst much applause and presented a formally prepared proposition. This was in brief that if the sum of one hundred fifty thousand dollars could be secured by outside contributions for the nucleus of an endowment fund he himself would give two hundred thou- sand dollars for the purchase of grounds and the erection of a building. He further pledged himself to the gift upon the completion, of the hospital of the sum of fifty thousand dollars a year for four years on condition that a similar amount be raised by other contribu- tions.
He further stipulated that when the hospital was opened at least one-third of the service should be charity. This most gen- erous Christian offer was received with wild ]abez N.
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Multidisciplinary and Multiethnic Perspectives Sponsor: Dorsey Armstrong, Purdue Univ. Teaching Crusader Art Jens T. A Land War in Asia: Evans, Central Michigan Univ. A Rhymed Translation Walter A. Cooper, Brigham Young Univ. Song, Dance, and the Divine Monika M. Kirsten Yri, Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Twomey, Ithaca College Presider: Norako and Michael W. Baker, California State Polytechnic Univ. Jordan, Kent State Univ. Reynolds, Clermont College, Univ. Thomas, Brigham Young Univ. Kalamazoo Sessions 2 of 4 Friday. Influences and Influence Organizer: John Heywood as Poet: Roberta Davidson, Whitman College Presider: Harty, La Salle Univ.
The inhabitants of the commune are known as Bannards or Bannardes. The village is at the top of a hill and seems cut in half with Le Fort to the north and L'Eglise to the south and a tangle of streets, stairways, and terraced gardens. It is an old mining town with coal deposits of high quality coke. Access to the commune is by the D from Les Vans in the north which passes through the heart of the commune east of the village and continues south to Saint-Paul-le-Jeune. The D branches off the D in the south of the commune and goes north-east to Berrias-et-Casteljau.
The D comes from the south and passes along the western edge of the c Skip School is a French adventure film directed by Nicolas Vanier. Plot Alongside Totoche, Paul will make a school out of life, out of nature's secrets, and learn to glean fish and everything there is to know about game, mushrooms, and plants. Cast Director and lead actors at a premiere, October Neilz, Claire 13 August The village was founded in Water from these rivers come from the granitic areas and is very pure.
Their patent rights have been recognized for several centuries with the rise of paper mills. The paper mills of Annonay by Montgolfier-Canson formed only two groups in the 18th century from Vidalon and Faya-Largeau. Paper production was a large contributor to the rise of the commune and was the main industry for a long period of time.
The employees of paper mills were called les usines, French for factory and formed the integral part of their culture and life. The small commune formed only industrial and is residential today, the magnificent buildings mixed with modern buildings. Russian icon with Saint Symeon Metaphrastes Symeon the Metaphrast also referred to as Simon or Symeon the Logothete, in classicizing usage Symeon Metaphrastes was the author of the 10 volume medieval Greek menologion, or collection of saint's lives. He lived in the second half of the 10th century. About his life we know only very few details.
A service composed in his honour is found in the Menaion. Also numerous prayers which have been attributed to him are found in various Orthodox liturgical books. Life and works Metaphrastes was the most renowned of the Byzantine hagiographers. Scholars have been very much divided as to the period in which he lived, dates ranging from the 9th century to the 14th having been suggested; but it is now generally agreed that he flourished in the second half of the 10th century.
Still greater divergences of opinion have existed as to the lives of saints coming from his pen, a It is housed in the former Gare d'Orsay, a Beaux-Arts railway station built between and The museum holds mainly French art dating from to , including paintings, sculptures, furniture, and photography. Many of these works were held at the Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume prior to the museum's opening in It is one of the largest art museums in Europe. Population Culture Protestantism is strong in the town, with the town having both a Protestant temple and a Roman Catholic church. Economy Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut had quite a large textile industry, but in modern times there are hardly any factories left.
However, a medium-sized plant nursery now exists, along with a nursing home, a mineral water producer, a comprehensive school and one of the best ice-cream factories in France http: The village is a tourist haven in summer; a traditional market is held every Saturday morning. A night-time craft market is held on summer Tuesdays at the Place de la Fontaine.
Many activities are available in the vicinity of Les Vans: The town became Protestant in the 16th century; in it returned to Catholicism, and its fortifications were dis The inhabitants of the commune are known as Assionais or Assionaises. Access to the village is by a country road Le Village branching north from the DA in the south of the commune. The commune east of the Salindres rive Kick, Raoul, la moto, les jeunes et les autres is a French television series. It premiered on May 15, on TF1 and 6 episodes lasting 52 minutes each were broadcast.