Since the inhabitants of the entire Bosnia and Herzegovina were influenced by war, it was not possible to have a control sample entirely unaffected by war, which could also influence the results our research. The children who survived traumatic war experiences might be more vulnerable for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression later in life Therefore, it would be interesting to perform follow up studies on the same population, to assess the impact of war on the family, social, and professional functioning of the traumatized children. The finding that a greater number of traumatic war experiences increases the level of sociability, could be used in treatment planning for adolescents, for example through group psychotherapy.
Our findings could be used in the healing process of the restoration and reconciliation of a war traumatized society 43 and as a base for future psychosocial interventions in war-affected areas.
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Acknowledgments We thank the study participants and their parents and teachers for their contribution to this research. We also thank psychologists who helped us in interpretation of psychometric tools: Declaration of authorship NK this research is a part of her master's research and she was included in research planning, defining topic, sample recuing, and discussion of results, as well as in preparation of the manuscript for publishing and correspondence with editors and reviewers.
MH was included in all phases of the research and preparation of the manuscript, including the correspondence with editors and reviewers. Competing interests All authors have completed the Unified Competing Interest form at www. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Croat Med J v. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received May 10; Accepted Feb This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Aim To examine how the experience of genocide in Srebrenica in the early childhood ages influences the psychological health in adolescence. Methods This study included school-attending adolescents, age born in who were divided in two groups according to the place of residence from Results Srebrenica adolescents experienced significantly more traumatic experiences Conclusion Srebrenica adolescents reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms and significantly greater sociability.
Participants and methods Participants The sample consisted of school attending adolescents, boys and girls, aged years, born in , who were years old during the war. Data collection The questionnaire on basic personal and socio-demographic information was designed specifically for this study and included questions on basic data age, sex, family structure, and school success. Results A total of 50 Srebrenica and 50 non-Srebrenica adolescents were investigated.
Open in a separate window. Discussion The study found that the Srebrenica group experienced more intensive traumas but it did not find significant psychopathological differences between the Srebrenica and non-Srebrenica group. This is understandable since young people have a need to convert negative experiences from early childhood and combine it with the natural process of maturing 34 A US study showed repression, denial, and reactive formation to be dominant defensive mechanisms in adolescence but did not show an expected increase in intellectualization and a decrease in projection Acknowledgments Acknowledgments We thank the study participants and their parents and teachers for their contribution to this research.
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Amazon Renewed Refurbished products with a warranty. Amazon Second Chance Pass it on, trade it in, give it a second life. Conclusion Srebrenica adolescents reported significant- ly more severe PTSD symptoms and significantly greater sociability. Our findings could be used for planning treat- ment and improving communication and overcoming Received: May 10, traumas in war-affected areas. February 11, Correspondence to: The research was conducted in the spring of siege by Serbian military forces for more than three years.
In , the International Court of Justice declared — a psychologist, psychiatrist, or teacher. The adolescents the massacre genocide 4. The bodies of the victims are were told that they could stop answering the questions at still being exhumed from the mass gravesites 5. The impact of trauma and coping skills vary according to Data collection maturity and experience of the child, especially according to the degree of reliance on parents, adult caretakers, sib- The questionnaire on basic personal and socio-demo- lings, and peers 6.
The questionnaire contains descriptions of 28 war traumatic events and participants have to answer whether they were Our aims were to examine the influence of war traumatic exposed to them with yes or no. The Posttraumatic Stress experiences from the early childhood age on psycho- Reactions Questionnaire consists of 20 items and the par- logical health during adolescence, and the relationship be- ticipants answer how frequently they experienced a certain tween traumatic experiences, development of personality, reaction: This ques- and psychological defense mechanisms that influence ad- tionnaire assessed all three PTSD symptom clusters hyper aptation and growth.
The total Participants and methods result was the average of the answers to all 20 items. Participants Self-Rating Depression Scale Zung consists of 20 items The sample consisted of school attending adolescents, scored for symptom intensity from 1 to 4. We evaluated boys and girls, aged years, born in , who the intensity of depression by adding a conversion table, were years old during the war.
The participants were di- which rated depression from euthymia score below 50 vided in two groups according to the place of residence points , minimal to mild depression points , mild to during the war — the Srebrenica group consisting of 50 developed points , and heavy to extreme depres- adolescents who were in Srebrenica and the non-Srebren- sion 70 points and more All participants lived in the Tuzla area in the be answered with yes or no.
It collects information about time of testing. The groups were selected according nine personality characteristics: Surviving genocide in Srebrenica during early childhood 57 matic complains , spontaneous aggressiveness, depres- projection, intellectualization, and displacement. The questionnaire was standardized for use in three added scales: Results are presented in a range from 1 to 9 low, average, high.
The LSQ consists tionnaire LSQ 22 are appropriate for children aged of 92 statements, which should be answered with yes or years. Statements are divided into eight categories: The average number of war trau- For variables with normal distribution, results were pre- ma experiences in the total sample was 9. To test the differences between the groups, we used 4. The level of statistical significance tions Table 1. All statistical analyses were performed brenica experienced 17 of 28 traumatic experiences than with SPSS for Windows, version A total of 50 Srebrenica and 50 non-Srebrenica adolescents were investigated.
There were no sig- in posttraumatic stress reactions scores. I have difficulties with concentration 1. There was no Non-Srebrenica group showed significantly better school significant correlation between the number of traumatic success: For more than half of For the char- used projection There was no significant correlation between the Srebrenica group showed a tendency toward having low number of traumatic experiences experienced in early values.
The Srebrenica group showed a significantly high- childhood and the defense mechanisms used. The during the war. This fact could explain the lack of psycho- mean depression score in the Srebrenica group was at the pathological differences between the groups since it has low end of the minimal to middle range The lack of differences between normal results All these factors indicate that our of traumatic experiences experienced during the war and control group was not really protected from war traumas, the level of depression Pearson r - 0.