Distribution and transportation planning in supply chains (German Edition)


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Importers spend less time dealing with the CBSA, which gives them more time to focus on their businesses. It also provides a sophisticated method for targeting high-risk shipments. Common accessorial services include advancement of charges, pickup, delivery, C.

The Food Mile: Yogurt Supply Chain, Germany

The accounts payable entry is found on a balance sheet under the heading current liabilities. Receivables usually come in the form of operating lines of credit and are usually due within a relatively short time period, ranging from a few days to a year. Duty or other charges levied on an item on the basis of its value and not on the basis of its quantity, size, weight, or other factor.

A document transmitted by courier, fax, or email to a consignee in advance of delivery detailing the contents and particulars of a shipment. The particulars may include such items as shipment date, method of transport, carrier, expected date and time of arrival and a full listing of contents. ACAS was designed to provide U. With information about inbound air shipments further back in the supply chain, CBP will be able to better identify high-risk shipments into the United States.

In addition, the program will speed the movement of lower-risk shipments while resources can focus on higher-risk shipments for additional screening. Air freight forwarders serve a dual role. The air freight forwarders are, to the shipper, an indirect carrier because they receive freight from various shippers under one tariff, usually consolidating the goods into a larger unit, which is then tendered to an airline.

To the airlines, the air freight forwarder is a shipper. An air freight forwarder is ordinarily classed as an indirect air carrier; however, many air freight forwarders operate their own aircraft. It is a contract for carriage that includes carrier conditions of carriage including such items as limits of liability and claims procedures.

The air waybill also contains shipping instructions to airlines, a description of the commodity and applicable transportation charges. We partner with communities, industries, law enforcement, and public safety agencies to safeguard the public we serve through information sharing, training, research, and use of technology. These efforts support the overall mission of USDA, which is to protect and promote food, agriculture, natural resources and related issues.

AD cases are company specific; the duty is calculated to bridge the gap back to a fair market value. Dumping is a process where a company exports a product at a price lower than the price it normally charges on its own home market. To protect local businesses and markets, many countries impose stiff duties on products they believe are being dumped in their national market.

Warehousing Solutions

By reducing the workload involved in the clearance of low-risk shipments, ACROSS enables goods to be released more efficiently and quickly. The sale of such goods adds to the producing nation's gross output. Your messages has been sent successfully. Government identify and bring to justice the major violators of U. Now the construction logistics emerged as vital part of construction.

Customs Service's Automated Commercial System that permits qualified participants to electronically file required import data with Customs. ABI is a voluntary program available to brokers, importers, carriers, port authorities, and independent service centers. ACH processes large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches. ACH credit transfers include direct deposit payroll and vendor payments. Customs and Border Protection CBP commercial trade processing system designed to automate border processing, to enhance border security and foster our Nation's economic security through lawful international trade and travel.

Customs and Border Protection to track, control, and process all commercial goods imported into the United States. Through the use of Electronic Data Interchange EDI , ACS facilitates merchandise processing, significantly cuts costs, and reduces paperwork requirements for both Customs and the importing community. This information is also shared with the Bureau of Industry and Security, the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls, and other federal agencies involved in monitoring and validating U.

Formerly, this declaration was only made on paper on the Shipper's Export Declaration form. AII contains five types of records: This linkage allows faster identification and release of low risk shipments. AMS speeds the flow of cargo and entry processing that provides participants with electronic authorization of cargo prior to arrival.

AMS facilitates the inter-modal movement and delivery of cargo by rail and trucks through the In-bond system. Sea, air and rail carriers, port authorities, service bureaus, freight forwarders, rail carriers, and container freight stations can participate in AMS. AMS reduces reliance on paper documents and speeds the processing of manifest and waybill data. As a result, cargo remains on the dock for less time, participants realize faster tracking, and Customs provides better service to the importing community.

Vessel AMS allows participants to transmit manifest data electronically prior to vessel arrival. Customs can then determine in advance whether the merchandise merits examination or immediate release. Upon receiving notification from Customs, the carrier can make decisions on staging cargo and the importer can arrange for examination, release, and distribution of the merchandise.

All of this can be accomplished before the merchandise arrives. Vessel AMS allows communication between AMS participants and other government agencies, container freight stations, and non-vessel operating common carriers. As a decision support tool, ATS compares traveler, cargo, and conveyance information against law enforcement, intelligence, and other enforcement data using risk-based targeting scenarios and assessments.

The device must meet the requirements of 49 CFR After that, the motor carrier and its drivers must use ELDs. The balanced scorecard attempts to measure and provide feedback to organizations in order to assist in implementing strategies and objectives. This management technique isolates four separate areas that need to be analyzed: Data collection is crucial to providing quantitative results, which are interpreted by managers and executives and used to make better long-term decisions.

Originally barcodes systematically represented data by varying the widths and spacing of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional 1D. Later they evolved into rectangles, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns in two dimensions 2D. Although 2D systems use a variety of symbols, they are generally referred to as barcodes as well. Like a flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source, a lens and a light sensor translating optical impulses into electrical ones.

Additionally, nearly all barcode readers contain decoder circuitry analyzing the barcode's image data provided by the sensor and sending the barcode's content to the scanner's output port. Typically route planning for the next day is then done by sending all the work in batch to the route optimization system. The term originated in the days when users entered programs on punch cards. They would give a batch of these programmed cards to the system operator, who would feed them into the computer.

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Batch jobs can be stored up during working hours and then executed during the evening or whenever the computer is idle. Batch processing is particularly useful for operations that require the computer or a peripheral device for an extended period of time. Once a batch job begins, it continues until it is done or until an error occurs.

Note that batch processing implies that there is no interaction with the user while the program is being executed. Bilateral trade agreements give preference to certain countries in commercial relationships, facilitating trade and investment between the home country and the foreign country by reducing or eliminating tariffs, import quotas, export restraints and other trade barriers.

Bilateral trade agreements can also help minimize trade deficits. Bill of Lading BOL: The bill of lading also serves as a receipt of shipment when the good is delivered to the predetermined destination. This document must accompany the shipped goods, no matter the form of transportation, and must be signed by an authorized representative from the carrier, shipper and receiver.

The regulations covered the operation of bonded warehouses is found at 19 CFR Upon entry of goods into the warehouse, the warehouse proprietor incurs a liability for the merchandise under a warehouse bond. This liability is generally cancelled when the merchandise is:. Boxcars have side doors of varying size and operation, and some include end doors and adjustable bulkheads to load very large items.

Ships that carry this sort of cargo are often called general cargo ships. The term break bulk derives from the phrase breaking bulk—the extraction of a portion of the cargo of a ship or the beginning of the unloading process from the ship's holds. These goods may not be in shipping containers. Break bulk cargo is transported in bags, boxes, crates, drums, or barrels. Unit loads of items secured to a pallet or skid are also used. However, the Broker does not assume responsibility for the cargo and usually does not take possession of the cargo.

Brokerage companies are compensated via commission after the transaction has been successfully completed. BI can handle large amounts of information to help identify and develop new opportunities. Making use of new opportunities and implementing an effective strategy can provide a competitive market advantage and long-term stability. BI technologies provide historical, current and predictive views of business operations. The CFIA, in collaboration and partnership with industry, consumers, and federal, provincial and municipal organizations, continues to work towards protecting Canadians from preventable health risks related to food and zoonotic diseases.

Cargo agents are paid commissions by the airline or shipping line. The carrier code is combined with a unique shipment number chosen by the carrier to create a cargo control number. Air carriers are usually liable under Warsaw convention, and ocean carriers under Hague convention. A certificate of origin is often required by the customs authorities of a country as part of the entry process. A certificate of origin may be required even though the commercial invoice contains the information. It is divided into 50 titles that represent broad areas subject to Federal regulation. An unbroken cold chain is an uninterrupted series of storage and distribution activities which maintain a given temperature range.

It is used to help extend and ensure the shelf life of products such as fresh agricultural produce, seafood, frozen food, photographic film, chemicals and pharmaceutical drugs. It is used as a customs declaration provided by the person or corporation that is exporting an item across international borders. Although there is no standard format, the document must include a few specific pieces of information such as the parties involved in the shipping transaction, the goods being transported, the country of manufacture, and the Harmonized Tariff System codes for those goods.

A commercial invoice must also include a statement certifying that the invoice is true, and a signature. Commodities are most often used as inputs in the production of other goods or services. The quality of a given commodity may differ slightly, but it is essentially uniform across producers.

The services offered and the prices charged were published in a public tariff and these were the only prices the common carrier could charge. The same will apply to Canadian businesses exporting to the EU. Most customs duties will end as soon as CETA comes into effect. After seven years, all customs duties on industrial products will disappear. This may be done for shipping, transfer of goods to auction, or for sale in a store. Consignment goods are sent to the agent for the purpose of sale and the ownership of these goods remains with the sender.

The sender of goods is known as consignor and the agent is known as the consignee. The individual, company or entity that ships goods, or gives goods to another for care. The consignor is usually the exporter or his agent. This arrangement allows the goods to be shipped as containerized-cargo that offers greater security at lower shipping rates. At the port of destination, the consolidated shipment is separated deconsolidated or ungrouped back into the original individual consignments for delivery to their respective consignees.

We are a small agency with a large mission, and we work to ensure the safety of consumers every day. CVD cases are country specific, and the duties are calculated to duplicate the value of the subsidy. It also has a responsibility for securing the border and facilitating lawful international trade and travel while enforcing hundreds of U. A customs broker must ordinarily be authorized to act as such by the local government. The broker files the appropriate paperwork and helps ensure that the goods being imported comply with all applicable regulations.

The customs clearance is typically given to a shipping agent to prove that all applicable customs duties have been paid and the shipment has been approved. The purpose of Customs Duty is to protect each country's economy, residents, jobs, environment, etc. To take advantage of the program, CSA-approved importers and carriers must use a registered driver to carry CSA-eligible goods into Canada in the highway mode. The CSA program simplifies many of the import border requirements so that low-risk shipments can be processed more quickly and efficiently at the border, saving businesses time and money.

The partnership develops and adopts measures that add security but do not have a chilling effect on trade, a difficult balancing act. They are often subject to chemical regulations. Dangerous goods include materials that are radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiating, biohazardous, toxic, pathogenic, or allergenic.

Also included are physical conditions such as compressed gases and liquids or hot materials, including all goods containing such materials or chemicals, or may have other characteristics that render them hazardous in specific circumstances. The term most commonly applies to the trucking industry and refers to either the return trip from delivering a cargo or driving empty to a location in order to pick up cargo. Dead heading is considered a waste of resources and avoided whenever possible.

An agreement between two companies whereby goods are scheduled to arrive at a specified time and location.

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Any dealings with a party on this list that would violate the terms of its denial order are prohibited. The Department's work includes customs, border, and immigration enforcement; emergency response to natural and manmade disasters; antiterrorism work; and cybersecurity. It also sets safety regulations for all major modes of transportation.

Government views the sale, export, and re-transfer of defense articles and defense services as an integral part of safeguarding U. With vehicle dispatching, clients are matched to vehicles according to the order in which clients called and the proximity of vehicles to each client's pick-up location. With home or commercial service dispatching, customers usually schedule services in advance and the dispatching occurs the morning of the scheduled service. Depending on the type of service, workers are dispatched individually or in teams of two or more. Dispatchers have to coordinate worker availability, skill, travel time and availability of parts.

The skills required of a dispatcher are greatly enhanced with the use of computer dispatching software. A distribution center is a principal part, the order processing element, of the entire order fulfillment process. Some research defines it specifically as "a truck pickup from or delivery to a seaport, border point, inland port, or intermodal terminal with both the trip origin and destination in the same urban area. The wholesaler, however, is compensated for taking the order. Import-duty must be paid on these goods if they are released in the local market.

Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange EDI , inventory management systems, and automated data collection systems. This electronic document can also be audited by regulators at any point in the supply-chain and printed from electronic records. This is the electronic data information from an entity exporting from the United States. This allows for easier, more accurate HOS recordkeeping. An ELD monitors a vehicle's engine to capture data on whether the engine is running, whether the vehicle is moving, miles driven, and duration of the engine operation engine hours.

This is similar to the tachograph, and is the American equivalent of the digital tachograph used in Europe. EPA works to ensure that: Americans have clean air, land and water; National efforts to reduce environmental risks are based on the best available scientific information; Federal laws protecting human health and the environment are administered and enforced fairly, effectively and as Congress intended; Environmental stewardship is integral to U.

Consolidation Concepts

Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland. In certain cases, EU intervention can take the form of restrictive measures or 'sanctions'. The sale of such goods adds to the producing nation's gross output. If used for trade, exports are exchanged for other products or services. Exports are one of the oldest forms of economic transfer, and occur on a large scale between nations that have fewer restrictions on trade, such as tariffs or subsidies.

The above map shows direct, first order, relations between the manufacturer with its suppliers and customers second tier relations, such as for the supplier of a supplier, are not depicted. It may indicate that the supply chain is environmentally damaging because of the distances involved and that these distance should be shorted to achieve greener logistics. However, statements in the line that supply chains should be more locally and regionally focused can be misleading.

The following nuances should be considered:. Consequently, the example of the yogurt pot as an environmentally damaging supply chain is mostly inaccurate and misleading. Yogurt Supply Chain, Germany Source: The following nuances should be considered: In the past few years construction logistics has emerged as a different field of knowledge and study within the subject of supply chain management and logistics.

Digital logistics is driven by a new generation of web-based, enterprise logistics applications that enable collaboration and optimization, leveraging a central logistics information backbone that provides visibility across the enterprise and extended supply chain. In military science, maintaining one's supply lines while disrupting those of the enemy is a crucial—some would say the most crucial—element of military strategy , since an armed force without resources and transportation is defenseless. The historical leaders Hannibal , Alexander the Great , and the Duke of Wellington are considered to have been logistical geniuses: Alexander's expedition benefited considerably from his meticulous attention to the provisioning of his army, [12] Hannibal is credited to have "taught logistics" to the Romans during the Punic Wars [13] and the success of the Anglo-Portuguese army in the Peninsula War was the due to the effectiveness of Wellington's supply system, despite the numerical disadvantage.

Militaries have a significant need for logistics solutions and so have developed advanced implementations. Integrated Logistics Support ILS is a discipline used in military industries to ensure an easily supportable system with a robust customer service logistic concept at the lowest cost and in line with often high reliability, availability, maintainability, and other requirements, as defined for the project. In military logistics , logistics officers manage how and when to move resources to the places they are needed.

VV 30 - Business English Vocabulary for Supply Chain Management 1

Supply chain management in military logistics often deals with a number of variables in predicting cost, deterioration, consumption , and future demand. The United States Armed Forces ' categorical supply classification was developed in such a way that categories of supply with similar consumption variables are grouped together for planning purposes. For instance, peacetime consumption of ammunition and fuel will be considerably lower than wartime consumption of these items, whereas other classes of supply such as subsistence and clothing have a relatively consistent consumption rate regardless of war or peace.

Some classes of supply have a linear demand relationship: Other classes of supply must consider a third variable besides usage and quantity: As equipment ages, more and more repair parts are needed over time, even when usage and quantity stays consistent. By recording and analyzing these trends over time and applying them to future scenarios, the US Armed Forces can accurately supply troops with the items necessary at the precise moment they are needed. The lack thereof can lead to a clunky, slow, and ill-equipped force with too much or too little supply.

One definition of business logistics speaks of "having the right item in the right quantity at the right time at the right place for the right price in the right condition to the right customer". The term " business logistics" has evolved since the s [18] due to the increasing complexity of supplying businesses with materials and shipping out products in an increasingly globalized supply chain, leading to a call for professionals called "supply chain logisticians".

In business, logistics may have either an internal focus inbound logistics or an external focus outbound logistics , covering the flow and storage of materials from point of origin to point of consumption see supply-chain management. The main functions of a qualified logistician include inventory management , purchasing , transportation , warehousing , consultation, and the organizing and planning of these activities.

Logisticians combine a professional knowledge of each of these functions to coordinate resources in an organization. There are two fundamentally different forms of logistics: There may be some intermediaries operating for representative matters between nodes such as sales agents or brokers. A logistic family is a set of products which share a common characteristic: The following metrics may be used by the company to organize its products in different families: Other metrics may present themselves in both physical or monetary form, such as the standard Inventory turnover.

Unit loads are combinations of individual items which are moved by handling systems, usually employing a pallet of normed dimensions. Order processing is a sequential process involving: Picking can be both manual or automated. Manual picking can be both man to goods, i. Automatic picking is done either with dispensers or depalletizing robots. Sorting can be done manually through carts or conveyor belts, or automatically through sorters.

Unit loads are usually assembled into higher standardized units such as: ISO containers , swap bodies or semi-trailers. Especially for very long distances, product transportation will likely benefit from using different transportation means: When moving cargo, typical constraints are maximum weight and volume. Operators involved in transportation include: Merchandise being transported internationally is usually subject to the Incoterms standards issued by the International Chamber of Commerce.

Similarly to production systems, logistic systems need to be properly configured and managed. Actually a number of methodologies have been directly borrowed from operations management such as using Economic Order Quantity models for managing inventory in the nodes of the network. Traditionally in logistics configuration may be at the level of the warehouse node or at level of the distribution system network.

Regarding a single warehouse, besides the issue of designing and building the warehouse, configuration means solving a number of interrelated technical-economic problems: Some important constraints have to be satisfied: Although picking is more of a tactical planning decision than a configuration problem, it is important to take it into account when deciding the racks layout inside the warehouse and buying tools such as handlers and motorized carts since once those decisions are taken they will work as constraints when managing the warehouse, same reasoning for sorting when designing the conveyor system or installing automatic dispensers.

Configuration at the level of the distribution system concerns primarily the problem of location of the nodes in a geographic space and distribution of capacity among the nodes. The first may be referred to as facility location with the special case of site selection while the latter to as capacity allocation. The problem of outsourcing typically arises at this level: Distribution networks can be characterized by numbers of levels, namely the number of intermediary nodes between supplier and consumer:.

This distinction is more useful for modeling purposes, but it relates also to a tactical decision regarding safety stocks: Although configuring a distribution network from zero is possible, logisticians usually have to deal with restructuring existing networks due to presence of an array of factors: Once a logistic system is configured, management , meaning tactical decisions, takes place, once again, at the level of the warehouse and of the distribution network.

Decisions have to be made under a set of constraints: At the warehouse level, the logistician must decide how to distribute merchandise over the racks. Three basic situations are traditionally considered: Picking efficiency varies greatly depending on the situation.

A number of tactical decisions regarding picking must be made:. At the level of the distribution network, tactical decisions involve mainly inventory control and delivery path optimization. Note that the logistician may be required to manage the reverse flow along with the forward flow. Although there is some overlap in functionality, warehouse management systems WMS can differ significantly from warehouse control systems WCS. Simply put, a WMS plans a weekly activity forecast based on such factors as statistics and trends , whereas a WCS acts like a floor supervisor, working in real time to get the job done by the most effective means.