Understanding 3D Printing: Refining your Prints

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fiapophorader.ga/map15.php The team also looks at the relevant speeds, wall thickness, line widths, infill, and acceleration to help set up the right material profile. Finally, a series of test prints are made to check issues like layer splitting, warping and oozing. Ultimaker Cura offers over possible settings. For our preconfigured profiles, these settings have been designed to take the guesswork out for you, so you can print reliably without the need for a lot of experimentation and manual configuration. For dual extrusion prints, there are also setting options for both extruders in Ultimaker Cura, so you can adjust these individually.

With a dual extrusion printer like the Ultimaker S5 , you can print items using two materials.

How we test 3D printing material combinations

This is particularly useful when it comes to support materials like Breakaway and PVA. This diagram shows officially supported, experimental, and not supported material combinations. Officially supported materials can be used together reliably without problems. Experimental materials can be used together, but may not give reliable results that meet our quality standards. Materials that are not supported cannot be used together. One of the most commonly used materials, ABS, is not recommended to print with PVA as it has a tendency to warp at the point between the two materials.

So if you need to support an overhang on an ABS print, you can use our removable Breakaway support material instead.

  • Post Processing.
  • Post Processing 3D Printing - Finishing 3D Printed Objects.
  • His Woman (MacGruder Brothers).
  • How we test 3D printing material combinations;
  • Oliver Flower.
  • Going South (Discovery Book 1).

Some material combinations experienced more oozing than others. These are marked as unsupported, rather than experimental. PP, while a useful material due to its fatigue-resistant properties and widespread use in manufacturing, struggles to stick to anything other than itself so it is not recommended in dual extrusion prints. Another factor to consider with dual extrusion prints is the nozzle size that is used. For instance, printing Breakaway with a 0.

When in doubt, always refer to the compatibility tables. While some material combinations are technically printable, due to a lack of practical applications not all combinations have been fully explored, which is why some of our combinations are marked as not supported. Trying out new materials and discovering how different settings work can be useful if you are working on a unique or unusual project.

These methods not only affect a print in post-production, but can often change the way we think about a digital model back in the initial design stages. In researching my upcoming book Design for 3D Printing Make: In turn I hope that those of you refining new methods and sourcing better, safer, and cheaper products and techniques will also share.

Post your ideas and thoughts in the comments section. Friction welding involves the use of high-speed rotating tools and should not be attempted without ANSI-approved safety glasses. Welding and other operations that heat, soften, and melt plastic may release hazardous chemical vapors and should not be attempted without proper ventilation.

Sanding and other dust-producing operations should not be attempted without a NIOSH Napproved particulate respirator. Acetone and other volatile solvents should not be handled without proper ventilation, safety goggles, protective clothing, and latex or nitrile gloves. With the Spin Welder toy, children assembled the frames of helicopters, motorcycles, and other projects by fusing together beams and struts, then used plastic rivets to fasten the outer shell.

Skill Builder — Finishing and Post-Processing Your 3D Printed Objects

Unlike adhesives or traditional welding, friction welding fuses metal or thermoplastic objects together by quickly spinning or vibrating one piece against another. Mechanical friction creates a melt zone shared by both parts, fusing them into one solid piece. In friction surfacing — a variant of friction welding — a piece rotated at high speeds is moved across an edge or surface under gentle pressure to weld seams, patch gaps, or smooth surfaces. These techniques are common for plastics and aluminum in the automotive and aerospace industries, but the tools are expensive.

Sophisticated spin welders can spin parts at hundreds of thousands of RPMs for short bursts of even single-digit rotations, parking the fused part at a precise orientation.


Where are the cheap, hand-tool equivalents? As it turns out, many of us already have the equipment to experiment with friction welding. These tools can also spin-weld 3D-printed rivets. And while it takes them a second or two to spin down again, the melting points are comparatively low, allowing for some manipulation after the fact to reposition the joined part. I spent some time with Chris Hackett from the Madagascar Institute learning how ideas from traditional metal welding might apply to friction-welding 3D-printed parts.

We are all makers

We experimented with the rotary tools in his workshop and came up with the following approach for creating a nice welded seam in plastic, similar to a traditional metal weld. It works with PLA too. Insert a short length of filament into the collet jaws and tighten down the collet nut to secure it in place.

Short pieces are easier to control, and they spin on a tighter axis. With experience you can use longer pieces, pressed gently at an angle, to make longer welds. You may need to straighten them by reforming them with a heat gun. After scraping and sanding, these 2 watch body cases meet with a gap that varies between 0. Use a deburring tool or razor blade to bevel the top edges of the seam where the parts meet, forming a narrow, V-shaped channel.

Your goal is to create enough room for 3 welding layers, from the bottom of the bevel up to just above the surface of the 2 parts. This method gives a stronger bond than a weld that sits just on the surface. Warm both parts with low heat from a heat gun. This helps them receive the weld to the same depth. If one part is much larger than the other, focus extra attention on warming the larger piece. Spin up the rotary tool, and lower it until the spinning filament grazes both surfaces of the seam.

When the tip of the filament begins to deform, apply a little pressure. Tack in 3 or more places along the seam and let the parts cool. They should be tacked tight, difficult to separate by hand. Gaps that are wider than half the width of your welding filament should be filled before welding a clean seam. Press the softened filament into the widest gaps between the 2 parts, making quick tack-welds if necessary to pin it in place. In this idealized diagram, we weld one bead at the bottom of the seam, 2 beads on a second layer, and 3 on a third top layer, fusing the parts through their entire thickness.

Now weld the whole seam in 2 or 3 layers, as shown in the diagram. A single weld would probably bond the parts at the surface only, allowing the seam to be broken if the parts are torqued. Solvents such as acetone have little effect. ABS glue or super glue merely cement the parts by surface tension, rather than offering a chemical weld — meaning that the seam can easily be rebroken.

Too much pressure can create a puncture.

It takes a bit of practice. Move around the seam, changing direction as necessary for handling and control. For prettier welds, take frequent breaks to let the parts cool.

This method works well for attaching plastic panels to the outside of objects when access to the interior is awkward or impossible. It also lets you construct massive objects from multiple panels, each panel printed close to the bed of the printer for optimal printing.

Friction Welding

Shown here are two 3D-printed blind rivets, next to a brass solid rivet and 3 aluminum blind rivets. To print your own rivets, get the 3D files at thingiverse. Drill or design in mounting holes in your panel to provide clearance for the shaft of the rivet to pass through to the base part where it will be fixed. Pre-drilling or designing a pilot hole in the base part can help prevent your rivet from mounting off target. Spin up the rotary tool and gently insert the shaft of the rivet through the mounting hole until it contacts the mounting position.

Continue spinning until the shaft of the rivet begins to melt and deform — then press it gently down into place. Stop the rotary tool and hold it steady in a fixed position at a right angle to the work, while applying a little downward pressure. It can help to use a piece of cardboard or foam as a friction brake to stop the rotation quickly.

Unlike a professional spin-welding tool, most rotary tools need a second or two to spin down. Loosen the collet nut and slip the mandrel of the blind rivet out of the rotary tool. If the rivet head protrudes too far, has a sharp ridge, or seems too narrow to secure the panel in place, warm it with a heat gun and use the head of a steel nail to press it flat.

Behind preconfigured material profiles

Just recently, 3D artist and instructor Jason Welsh demonstrated a method for building his DIY electronics cases that promises to become a new power technique. His Folding Arduino Lab thingiverse. Essentially, Welsh uses heat to reform pieces of filament into straight rivets, flattening one head before inserting the rivet and the other head after the rivet is firmly in place.

Creating the perfect profile

UNDERSTANDING 3D PRINTING REFINING YOUR PRINTS KINDLE EDITION - In this site isn`t the same as a solution manual you buy in a book store. Ever wonder how makers get those beautifully smooth prints? Wonder no more! Here is your guide to post processing PLA and ABS 3D printed parts.

As with any solid rivet, you need access to both sides of the assembly, but the advantage of this method is the creation of strong fastenings that can be completely removed later using a flush cutter. PLA is easier to soften and work with a heat gun, and 3mm spikes remain straighter and more rigid than 1.

Several minutes on a heated build platform works, too. While the filament is still hot, straighten it by rolling it on a table, or better yet, on a piece of glass that will quickly cool it.