How would the blood circulation in the body work out? And what happens if the human falls down in mud on a rainy day?
Mud would cake the feathers So to be realistic, skin-covered wings would be better for humans. Also, the wingspan would have to be very long. About 15 feet from wingtip to wingtip for the average-height human adult. How best to connect it the body, well, it would be better if it connected directly to the spine, like all our other limbs. So maybe the wings could connect either directly in the middle of the back or spaced slightly apart but must be between shoulder blades, otherwise arm movement would be impeded.
The connecting area between the wing and the back could be from shoulder-height down to maybe mid-back or three-quarter ways down. Any less and the wings would be liable to tearing off when faced with a strong force. Blood circulation would, of course, have to include the wings.
As to hiding it on a day-to-day basis, the best way would be if you could draw out a design for your wings so that it can support the human's weight, and yet it can also fold neatly along the back. The batwing design would be a little difficult here because the long 'fingers' make it difficult to fold easily.
You can see a picture of man's arm, bird's wing, and bat's wing here. What would be ideal is the skin-covered wing of a bat, but with the bone structure of a bird. Windbreakers with special slits in the back can be used, so that the wings can be hidden while the jackets are worn, yet in an emergency, the wings can snap out of the slits.
With regards to adaptations in the human body, of course, the bones would need to be lighter. Maybe not hollow, because our skeleton would need to still support our bodies, significantly less dense. Heart compressions must come faster to support the beating of the wings which need to be very strong , and so diets would need to change too. On average, the human-bird would need maybe twice to three times as many calories as a normal person. Also, birdlike air-sacs in addition to lungs would be very useful, as well as something that may allow them to breathe in the lower-pressure atmosphere when they fly.
There are some techniques not normally used in winged flight that must be understood and used to make this wingless flight possible. Remember, the plane is very light as there are no wings. Fuselages could be built much lighter as there is no wing stress on the fuselage, and the maneuvers, excluding high rate rolls, are slow rate of turn and pitch attitude meaning g forces are much smaller and insignificant.
Pulling out of a loop at the bottom is made possible by the tail pushing the back of the fuselage downward which raises the nose upward and causes the tail to fly below the axis of flight. Some of the lift for the pull up is distributed along the hull of the aircraft as wind hitting the bottom of the aircraft creates lift. This lift distribution along the entire fuselage distributes pull up g forces along the entire fuselage.
Net very low g force concentration. The center of lift of a wing is outboard of the fuselage, the outboard location causing a bending moment on the wing at the attachment to the fuselage.
This creates a wing breaking stress under high g forces. Also, the stress is at the point of attachment of the wing and this stress is countered by the weight of the fuselage which is distributed in front of and behind. The fuselage thus must resist the front to back centralized stress to resist breaking up at the wing junction.
No such problem with the wingless aircraft. The taller the landing gear assuming a tail dragger design the higher the angle of incidence of the fuselage and axis of propeller pull. Building taller and taller main landing gear allows the plane to take off in shorter and shorter distances to the point where if the axis of the fuselage was straight up, the plane would take off straight up.
With no wing weight, the plane would climb very quickly. Right rudder turns the plane on the ground to the right but being above the fuselage axis, right rudder also induces left roll. This roll is against the turn and causes to be vary unstable, the plane susceptible to simply rolling over on its side if the width of the landing gear is not enough to counter the roll vector. It is suggested that a wingless plane have wide landing gear for this reason. This makes a steeper angle of the fuselage to the plane's direction and the prop wash as seen when a smoke screen is used on the front of the fuselage completely misses the tail sections, the wash flying over them.
The axis of roll of the plane is concentric with the prop wash. Now, when the rudder is turned to the right, the vector of the rudder turns the plane to the right on the direction of flight axis. However when turning right, the rudder being below the axis of roll, induces a roll moment on the axis of flight that roles the plane to the right. In this nose up fuselage angled below the axis of flight, the rudder performs the turning function and the roll function. If the flight speed is too fast, the axis of flight and the fuselage axis close together and the rudder behave in turn in a direction opposite the rudder input.
This flying with the nose too low causes loss of control and can result in extremely fast roll rates. It thus becomes paramount that the wingless plane be flown with very high nose up attitude. In level flight the speed building up will start leveling the fuselage and result in loss of control and stability.
To counter this leveling off as speed builds up, simply lower the power setting. This also means that the wingless plane will not straight up as the fuselage angle to flight angle will be 0 and the rudder will cause loss of control. At the top of an inside loop, the tail will pull the tail over the top maintaining the rudder's roll and turn function. The rudder in nose high attitude will swing the nose but it will also bank the plane. Initiating right rudder will bank the wingless plane to the right.
At this time, the operator simply pulls back on the elevator which causes the plane to turn similar to a winged plane, a coordinated efficient turn. A few prayers help! To lose altitude don't push the nose down with the elevator as this will cause the tail to rise up onto the prop wash creating instability and loss of control.
Views Read Edit View history. Hence, a net upward force acts on the wing. Given a particular wing and its velocity through the air, debates over which mathematical approach is the most convenient to use can be mistaken by novices as differences of opinion about the basic principles of flight. I do not know about other airplanes, but, I can say that you can remove the wings on a Yack RC aerobatic plane and make a take off, climb to altitude, level off and perform level flight, perform barrel rolls. Perhaps the most perplexing and controversial aspect of the study of flight is the study of how and why flight evolved. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. It also only had a range of ten miles
Rather, pull back on the power maintaining full up elevator. The plane will appear to hit hard on touchdown, but the front wheels and the tail wheel hit together or tail wheel first absorbing impact.
Also, remember that the weight of the wings is absent. The plane can land at a very high sink rate without destruction of landing gear or broken fuselage. I have broken many main landing gears landing planes hard with wings.
To date, I have not broken one landing gear landing many times wingless. Remember, when landing with no wings that the moment the tail and mains are on the ground, the prop wash and axis of flight are level with the rudder and the plane is prone to tipping over when rudder is actuated. Use rudder judiciously until the rolling speed has slowed down.
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