Anti Fraud AID 6 years ago. Foreign aid para sa mga sinalanta ng bagyo, patuloy na bumubuhos 5 years ago. Protecting Development Projects from Corruption 7 months ago. President addresses monks in effort to resolve political deadlock 3 years ago. Congressional hearing into allegations of fraud in Iraqi funds 3 years ago.
Cambodia opposition claims massive poll fraud 5 years ago. Just when you thought it. Russia 'voting fraud' caught on camera - BBC News 2 years ago. Job Fraud in Thiruvananthapuram: Brother of San Bernardino killer arrested on marriage fraud charges 2 years ago. Africa Today - "Cashgate"scandal haunting Malawi P.
Foreign Policy Explained Ep. Three simultaneous and Pellgrave MacMillan. Can J Zool delimitation of phylogenetic species. J Biomed Inform Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe. Taxonomy, species delimitation and DNA barcoding. The Barcode of Life European cyprinids using the mitochondrial control region. Mol Data System www. A biography of the continent. Cyprinidae , with the Vintage. A revision of African species of Labeo Pisces: Zool J Linnean Soc A role for barcoding in the Verlag van J.
S Afr J Sci The Great African War: Congo and Regional — A conservation assess- Roberts T. A revision of African species of Labeo ment. Reid Thys van den Audenaerde D. Review of Reid GM , a Rev Roberts T, Stewart D. An ecological and systematic survey of Zool Afr Bull Mus Tshibwabwa SM. Vol I et II. Methods Mol Biol Presses Universitaires de Namur. The Congo River, Central Africa.
Gupta A, p Tshibwabwa SM, Teugels G. Contribution to the systematic New York: J Nat Hist Description of a homeoboxes. Cyprinidae from the Lower Skelton P. East and Southern Africa. Biological diversity of African fresh and brackish water Gobiidae: A comparison of and exploitation.
The campaign to DNA Bioinformatics Assessing the utility of a nucleotide diagnostic Stiassny MLJ. Mol Ecol Resources 9: Verh Gesellsch Ichthyol 3: An overview of Labeonin DNA sequences with variable rates over sites: Approximate relationships and the phylogenetic placement of the Afro-Asian methods. A total of specimens representing 58 species belonging to 40 genera, 17 families, and 5 orders were sequenced.
The DNA barcodes discriminated all species analyzed without ambiguity. However, the Species are the fundamental unit of comparison in biology, from anatomy to behavior, development, development of molecular biology created a new set ecology, evolution, genetics, molecular biology, paleon- of useful tools to identifying species.. Since then, many studies have been published from the use of bad taxonomy in science e.
Bortolus using a diverse assemblage of molecular approaches The most recent survey of freshwater Lemer et al. Many of these species are economically fragment , bp from the 50 end of the mitochon- important, many exhibit migratory behavior, and drial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I COI gene as a some are at risk of extinction Bizerril and Primo universal standard to identify most species of animals. All specimens Ward et al. All procedures were performed according Moreno et al. Schaefer ; Vari and Malabarba ; Castro et al. This basin specimen using one of two different methods: Some sites are superimposed.
The genetic distances among overnight at C and subsequently extracted using a and within species were calculated using the Kimura membrane-based approach on a Biomek NX Labora- two-parameter K2P substitution model Kimura tory Automation Workstation using AcroPrep96 Beck- A portion bp of the software MEGA v4. The PCR assemblies generated using them did not exhibit any conditions followed the Hajibabaei et al. The overall variation was about ABI using standard methods Hajibabaei et al. A steady increase in genetic variation DNA Analyzer.
At the LBP, the cycle sequencing through increasing taxonomic levels was observed, reaction was carried out using a BigDye Terminator supporting a marked change of genetic divergence at v3. The cycle sequencing conditions included neighbor species, was carried out to analyze the initial denaturation at C for 2 min followed by 35 distribution of genetic divergence.
The analysis cycles of denaturation at C for 45 s, annealing at showed only three cases with K2P genetic divergence C for 60 s, and extension at C for 4 min. In another case, fe. Sequences have also been deposited on Geophagus proximus also displayed two subclusters GenBank accession numbers: GU — Figure 4 with 1. Although these values are relatively low, they are much higher than inter-cluster values and very Data analysis similar with average K2P divergence with Geophagus All sequences were analyzed using SeqScape software brasiliensis, its congeneric species 1.
The sequences were aligned using the DNA barcode technique. The analysis showed that A. We also compared the G. Discussion We assessed 58 out of 81 species The DNA barcode sequences were very effective, correctly discriminating all 58 species analyzed Figure 2. These values are consistent with those found in the literature. In another study, Valdez-Moreno et al. More recently, Lara et al. In parentheses are the numbers of specimens sequenced. Additionally, we compared the of the genetic variation for many species.
Graphic analysis showing the distribution of genetic divergence. Mon- Our results clearly showed the existence of a barcode toya-Burgos and Hubert et al. Perdices distance to nearest neighbor of The Trichomycterus giganteus et al.
These values should be at 0. Ward scabripinnis and Deuterodon parahybae species and et al. The two subclusters of C. The second species that showed high consistent with the three cases reported here. Voucher numbers indicated before species name. K2P genetic divergence between subclusters obtained for C. These facts reinforce the hypothesis that the two subclusters of G. However, we must consider the and other characteristics must also be considered. In those cases, a the genus Astyanax from Mesoamerica, found that further detailed comparison between specimens from some specimens formed separate clusters and both basins will be necessary.
An alternative expla- suggested the occurrence of a species complex in this nation to the presence of the A. Our bass Lates calcarifer specimens from different localities results show a useful and promising application of the Australia and Myanmar , found genetic distance DNA barcoding technique to the Brazilian ichthyo- values of 9. This approach will The authors suggested the existence of two species.
This stands in contrast to Dipturus argentinensis Diaz de Astarloa et al. The two subclusters obtained differ by cations by the broader conservation and manage- 3. This value is consistent broad socio-economic impacts Costa and Carvalho with Hebert et al. However, the comparison of A.
This result suggests that the A. Penaeidae revealed by allozyme and listed at www. The authors alone are responsible assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes. Philos Trans R Soc for the content and writing of the paper. B Biol Sci Bol Paul Geogr Accessed on 17 July 38— DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species Botryllus niger Ascidiacea: Biochem Syst Ecol Proc Natl — Endanger Species of the Neotropical ichthyofauna.
Neotrop Ichthyol 7 2: Error cascades in the biological sciences: Mol Ecol unwanted consequences of using bad taxonomy in ecology. A lesson Paranapanema, sudeste e sul do Brasil. Biota Neotrop 3 1: Krieger J, Fuerst PA. Mol Ecol Resour Stopiglia R, Akama A. Ichthyol Explor Freshw The barcode of life initiative: Genomics Soc Policy 3: Cytochrome b barcoding, molecular systematics and geographic De Queiroz K.
C R Biol Comp Biochem Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of Physiol Loricariidae , with implications — Restriction fragment length Mol Biol Evol Probing diversity in freshwater of three new species of Leohumicola from South Africa and the United States. An Girard Actynopterigii, Characidae in Mesoamerica overview. BMC Evol Biol 8: Evolutionary history of the genus Rhamdia Teleostei: Gobinae from the western Caribbean, with the didae in Central America.
Evolutionary history pelagic larval duration. Synbranchidae in Central Ward RD. DNA barcoding discriminates spurdogs of the America and the Caribbean islands inferred from their molecular genus Squalus. Mitochondrial DNA sequences from Squalidae. A DNA barcoding approach to the p Mol Ecol Resour 9: DNA barcoding data system www.
Testimonies of the extraordinary cryptic diversity in an amphipode genus: Quaternary fault reactivation within a Neoproterozoic tectonic Implications for desert spring conservation. Urolophus kapalensis sp nov. Urolophidae off eastern Australia. Our aims were to test the performance of DNA barcoding in this biodiversity-rich region, and to compare patterns of genetic divergence with previous studies. The mean Kimura two-parameter distances within species, genera, families, orders, and classes were 0.
With the exception of Astyanax bimaculatus lacustris, Piabina argentea, and Bryconamericus stramineus, all other species yield a single, cohesive cluster of barcode sequences. We conducted an examination of COI diversity , ecology of cryptic communities Corin et al. We also test the null hypothesis of a greater esis to retention of ancestral polymorphisms e. However, the examination of species colonized freshwater habitats. All specimens were photographed and geor- cation where traditional methods cannot be applied eferenced.
More details on coordinates, collecting Ward et al. All involving marine species Hubert et al. The lack of strong genetic cations were conducted based on the literature, and structure reported in previous studies Hubert et al. Numbers of specimens per species ranged , from which 22 species are considered from 1 to 23 with a mean of 4. Also, because there is evidence that cryptic 1 mm3. FishF1, FishR1 Ward et al. Mean K2P distances within species, 50 mM , 0. The most intense and among congeneric species overlapped K2P PCR products, visualized on pre-cast agarose gels distances ranged from 0 to Sequences were determined Table I.
Synbran- bor-joining phenograms for a clear graphic represen- chus marmoratus and Gymnotus carapo had exclusive tation of the divergence values, see Appendix B. Only values over 2. The average NND was four species failed to amplify, even after trying Acestrorhynchus britskii than the mean within-species distance of around 0. Therefore, they stramineus and Piabina argentea and one subspecies were clearly differentiated by barcoding K2P tree— Astyanax bimaculatus lacustris , all species analyzed Appendix C. Only two species, P. Summary of the genetic variability K2P distances distribution at COI sequences for individuals and species.
In contrast, Hubert et al. Cryptic speciation, of the freshwater Canadian fauna. Cenozoic 90 mya; Lundberg et al. Summary of genetic divergences K2P within species, genus, order, and class. For instance, sympatric species were also assigned to one of the three clades.
In another interesting Further integrative approaches, including nuclear case, samples of P. Among the seven specimens sites might shed some light on this issue. Well known as a problem, before a resolution could be presented. Even tool, they must be applied judiciously. Order Family Number of species ,0. BSB and Pseudopimelodus sp. However, the genus Knodus has not yet Poecilia sp. In addition, Knodus is Note: These results are also to phylogeographic history or geographic structure, as supported by morphological data Katiane M.
Our always related with phylogeographic patterns. For barcode data support the discovery of several putative instance, in I. Other highly looked species e. In one case, good models for comparative phylogeographic surveys a young specimen of B. As all commercially important Rineloricaria sp. Mol Ecol with formatting. The present study was supported Notes 7: Characiformes , based on molecular sequence Sciences and Engineering Research Council of data.
A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates Estadual de Florestas and other sponsors listed at of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide www. The authors report no Gerais. A history of tropical South American rivers. Twenty years of phylogeography: The state Entomol Mitochondrial DNA changing world.
Bernatchez L, Wilson CC. Inferring destructive, total DNA extractions of predators using arthropod historical introduction pathways with mitochondrial DNA: The barcode of life data Zealand. Taxonomy, DNA, and the barcode of life. Critical factors for Biol An London B Biol Sci The promise of DNA barcoding for taxonomy.
A comparison of B Biol Sci London B Biol Sci Partial mitochondrial COI and CytB gene sequences were obtained for 58 specimens drawn from 13 localities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed six major clusters of P. Kimura-two-parameter K2P genetic divergences among these six P. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the widely distributed P. Additionally, the geographic remain almost unexplored Langeani et al. Schaefer estimates that there may is very complex, with some species having a very be as many as species in the Neotropical region.
Two species are assigned to Piabina: Piabina argentea Reinhardt, and Piabina Materials and methods anhembi da Silva and Kaefer, These two species differ from each other by P. Additionally, two Creagrutus specimens the teeth position, head size, and mouth proportions Creagrutus meridionalis and Creagrutus paraguayensis da Silva and Kaefer Piabina differs from its from the Paraguay River Basin were used as putative sister group, Creagrutus, only by two subtle outgroup Table I.
All specimens had a fresh fragment characters: The whole cytochrome b CytB, bp the use of molecular methods. New species have X, and 1. The thermocycler Nguyen and Seifert ; Ward et al. The cycle sequencing conditions were initial denaturation at C for 2 min followed by 30 cycles of denaturation at C for 45 s, Mato Grosso do Sul Mato Grosso do Sul annealing at C for 60 s, and extension at C for 4 min.
The genetic distance among and within observed clusters was calculated using the Kimura- two-parameter K2P distance model Kimura C. A neighbor-joining NJ tree P. Bootstrap resampling Felsenstein was Cluster applied to assess the support for individual nodes using pseudo-replicates. The two methods of tree construction NJ and maximum parsimony resulted in the same topology except for some internal taxa in the subclusters; data not shown , which showed seven major clusters with high support values Figure 2.
These seven clusters are divided into two major groups, one containing Cluster A and a second group with the other clusters Figure 2. We use two different methodologies of tree construction to check the robustness of the data. Map showing the distribution of samples of Piabina. The inter-cluster K2P genetic distance values Letters correspond to P. The average intra-cluster K2P distance Swofford with heuristic searches, random ranged from 0 to 0. The parsimony trees were constructed using a 1: Cluster comparisons Cluster robustness was assessed using bootstrap pseudo-replicates Felsenstein with the same The pairwise FST index among the seven clusters parameters cited above.
The analyses were carried six representing P. The number seven observed haplotype networks. The haplotype network Results was constructed for each separate gene to check whether the same seven unconnected networks would Sequence data be obtained. Both genes displayed the same result, Sequence data for a bp fragment of COI and with COI and CytB mutational steps bp of CytB were obtained for a total of 58 necessary to connect the independent networks Piabina specimens 53 P. No sequences showed insertions, deletions, or stop-codons, and the The specimens of Piabina were divided into seven global transition — transversion ratio was 4.
A total of clusters in the phylogenetic analysis, one cluster nucleotides 72 in COI and in CytB were representing P. These variations to suggest that P. Node values represent statistic support: K2P genetic distance obtained among the seven major Piabina clusters. COI below diagonal and CytB above diagonal.
These results corro- second species. The comparison with values among borate the hypothesis of limited dispersion for Piabina congener species may be useful for the delimitation species Lowe-Mcconnell and other small of a threshold. The average intra-cluster values of the six values of 9. The authors CytB, respectively, and some inter-cluster divergences suggested the existence of two species.
The average within P. The author higher taxa and, consequently, the accumulation of suggests that if the unknown specimen is more than substitutions can vary. Hence, the threshold limit proposed explanation could relate to species ages, where by Hebert et al. In fact, Montoya-Burgos , working Squalus, observed the formation of two clusters in the with species of Hypostomus from South America, species Squalus acanthias, which showed a genetic suggested that the process of divergence and radiation divergence of just 0. Interestingly, in this genus dates back to sometime between 12 and these two groups had been considered as two species 4 million years ago.
The authors suggested the revalidation of the million years ago. Both authors suggested that this Table III. Pairwise FST index obtained among the seven major Piabina clusters. COI gene below diagonal, CytB gene above diagonal. Seven unconnected haplotype networks among Piabina specimens. Numbers on lines represent the mutational steps between haplotypes. Dashed lines represent the necessary steps to connect the independent networks. The FST index showed very high values among the corroborated the same patterns for Astyanax. Consider- is under strong selection, some authors caution ing that FST values between 0 and 0.
Molecular clock strong genetic structure, and values close to 1 are approaches that infer age of the most recent common usually found among different species Wright ; ancestor tend to be overestimated using mitochondrial Hartl and Clark ; the values presented in DNA unless they correct for apparent rate differences Table III strongly suggest that our seven clusters between short and long time frames Rand The haplo- described later Smith et al.
This situation is not expected when the sis Yearsley and Last ; Brachionichthys autralis specimens represent a single species Hart and Sunday Last et al. Some pairs of P. Our data suggest that the widely their congener P. Ecologia de A and B Figure 1. Rio de Janeiro, are widely dispersed could be a cause of no prior Brazil: Biota Neotropica 3 1.
On the other hand, we believe that the Available at: Accessed on 15 July Biota Neotropica 4 1. Ichthyol Explor Freshwaters 16 3: DNA barcoding of Neotropical bats: Characidae para o names in future studies. Morphological and molecular evidence for a new species of Acknowledgements longnose skate Rajiformes: BMC Financial support for the present study was provided Bioinformatics 5: An integrated software package for population genetics data Declaration of interest: Financial support for this analysis.
Evol Bioinformatics Online 1: Hart MW, Sunday J. Biological species form unconnected parsimony networks. Principles of population genetics. Aquat Ecosyst Health Biol Sci Moenkhausia Eigenmann, Characiformes: Trends Ecol Evol 22 3: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Phylogeography of the piranha genera gene trees under neutral coalescent theory. Mol Phylogenet Evol Serrasalmus and Pygocentrus: A new species of et al.
Their philogenetic studies of Neotropicalcascudinhos Siluriformes: A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate A lesson Swofford DL. Molecular evolution in the order Acipenseriformes. A cladistic-analysis of Casatti L. Biota Neotrop 7 3: Harold A, et al. Genera Incertae Sedis in Characidae. Checklist of the Species. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology Number Porto Alegre, Washington, DC: Loricariidae , with implications Victor BC.
Coryphopteruskuna, a new goby Perciformes: Gobinae from the western Caribbean, with the — Description and DNA barcoding pelagic larval duration. DNA barcode divergence among species and United States. The integrative barcoding discriminates spurdogs of the genus Squalus. DNA barcoding reveals of the synbranchid eels Teleostei: Synbranchidae in Central a likely second species of Asian sea bass barramundi Lates America and the Caribbean islands inferred from their molecular calcarifer.
Five new species of the extraordinary cryptic diversity in an amphipod genus: Pomacen- cations for desert spring conservation. Evolution and the genetics of populations 4: Variability within and among natural populations. Mitigating mutational meltdown in mammalian University of Chicago Press.
PLoS Biology 6 2: Mol Ecol Resour 8: Therefore, the detection of species substi- Birstein ; Civera ; Marko et al. In addition, species Rasmussen and Morrissey Reliable and rapid Rasmussen and Morrissey ; Smith et al. Food and Drug Administration has compiled an online ; Espineira et al. These molecular data are also et al. All this information is on hand to ; Rubinoff et al.
Another similar initiative ; Hubert et al. This initiative biodiversity, no such initiative is yet currently ongoing led to the establishment of international research in Brazil. Not to mention the detrimental effects that of commercial fraud cases in Brazil. The effectiveness using DNA barcode data.
Among these, DNA-based P. Samples consisted GenBank accession number HM was of two types: The 25 ml PCR mixes included Successful matches varied from 10 min. Only agarose gel and selected for direct sequencing. Our results showed that only one P. The latter species sample 66 also had a Kimura AAF Yes D. Sixty-three commercial samples labeled as surubim were obtained from the markets in Belo Horizonte Brazil. Brachyplatys- toma, Netuma, and Genidens. DeSalle and Birstein ; Marko et al.
Table I — continued ; Kyle and Wilson ; Jerome et al. Common names in Portuguese and English are shown according to FishBase. Common names and price per kilogram of commercia- farms in Brazil Carvalho et al. Surprisingly, most haplotypes recovered Surubim or Pintado Whole With his remaining strength he dragged himself from the swirling waters. Jagged crags appeared to jut up into the opaqueness; he forced himself upward, hand over hand.
Gasping, his hands raw, he reached a flat place at the top. Dense jungle came down to the very edge of the cliffs. What perils that tangle of trees and underbrush might hold for him did not concern Rainsford just then. All he knew was that he was safe from his enemy, the sea, and that utter weariness was on him. He flung himself down at the jungle edge and tumbled headlong into the deepest sleep of his life. When he opened his eyes he knew from the position of the sun that it was late in the afternoon.
Sleep had given him new vigor; a sharp hunger was picking at him. He looked about him, almost cheerfully. Where there are men, there is food," he thought.
But what kind of men, he wondered, in so forbidding a place? An unbroken front of snarled and ragged jungle fringed the shore. He saw no sign of a trail through the closely knit web of weeds and trees; it was easier to go along the shore, and Rainsford floundered along by the water. Not far from where he landed, he stopped. Some wounded thing--by the evidence, a large animal--had thrashed about in the underbrush; the jungle weeds were crushed down and the moss was lacerated; one patch of weeds was stained crimson.
A small, glittering object not far away caught Rainsford's eye and he picked it up. It was an empty cartridge. It must have been a fairly large animal too. The hunter had his nerve with him to tackle it with a light gun. It's clear that the brute put up a fight. I suppose the first three shots I heard was when the hunter flushed his quarry and wounded it. The last shot was when he trailed it here and finished it.
They pointed along the cliff in the direction he had been going. Eagerly he hurried along, now slipping on a rotten log or a loose stone, but making headway; night was beginning to settle down on the island. Bleak darkness was blacking out the sea and jungle when Rainsford sighted the lights. He came upon them as he turned a crook in the coast line; and his first thought was that be had come upon a village, for there were many lights. But as he forged along he saw to his great astonishment that all the lights were in one enormous building--a lofty structure with pointed towers plunging upward into the gloom.
His eyes made out the shadowy outlines of a palatial chateau; it was set on a high bluff, and on three sides of it cliffs dived down to where the sea licked greedy lips in the shadows. But it was no mirage, he found, when he opened the tall spiked iron gate. The stone steps were real enough; the massive door with a leering gargoyle for a knocker was real enough; yet above it all hung an air of unreality.
He lifted the knocker, and it creaked up stiffly, as if it had never before been used. He let it fall, and it startled him with its booming loudness. He thought he heard steps within; the door remained closed. Again Rainsford lifted the heavy knocker, and let it fall. The door opened then--opened as suddenly as if it were on a spring--and Rainsford stood blinking in the river of glaring gold light that poured out.
The first thing Rainsford's eyes discerned was the largest man Rainsford had ever seen--a gigantic creature, solidly made and black bearded to the waist. In his hand the man held a long-barreled revolver, and he was pointing it straight at Rainsford's heart. Out of the snarl of beard two small eyes regarded Rainsford. I fell off a yacht. The revolver pointing as rigidly as if the giant were a statue. He gave no sign that he understood Rainsford's words, or that he had even heard them.
He was dressed in uniform--a black uniform trimmed with gray astrakhan. Then Rainsford saw the man's free hand go to his forehead in a military salute, and he saw him click his heels together and stand at attention. Another man was coming down the broad marble steps, an erect, slender man in evening clothes. He advanced to Rainsford and held out his hand.
In a cultivated voice marked by a slight accent that gave it added precision and deliberateness, he said, "It is a very great pleasure and honor to welcome Mr. Sanger Rainsford, the celebrated hunter, to my home. He was a tall man past middle age, for his hair was a vivid white; but his thick eyebrows and pointed military mustache were as black as the night from which Rainsford had come. His eyes, too, were black and very bright.
He had high cheekbones, a sharpcut nose, a spare, dark face--the face of a man used to giving orders, the face of an aristocrat. Turning to the giant in uniform, the general made a sign. The giant put away his pistol, saluted, withdrew. A simple fellow, but, I'm afraid, like all his race, a bit of a savage. We can talk later. Now you want clothes, food, rest. You shall have them. This is a most-restful spot. Rainsford," said the general. I'll wait for you. You'll find that my clothes will fit you, I think. Ivan laid out an evening suit, and Rainsford, as he put it on, noticed that it came from a London tailor who ordinarily cut and sewed for none below the rank of duke.
The dining room to which Ivan conducted him was in many ways remarkable. There was a medieval magnificence about it; it suggested a baronial hall of feudal times with its oaken panels, its high ceiling, its vast refectory tables where twoscore men could sit down to eat. About the hall were mounted heads of many animals--lions, tigers, elephants, moose, bears; larger or more perfect specimens Rainsford had never seen.
At the great table the general was sitting, alone. The was surpassingly good; and, Rainsford noted, the table apointments were of the finest--the linen, the crystal, the silver, the china. They were eating borsch , the rich, red soup with whipped cream so dear to Russian palates. Half apologetically General Zaroff said, "We do our best to preserve the amenities of civilization here. Please forgive any lapses. We are well off the beaten track, you know. Do you think the champagne has suffered from its long ocean trip?
He was finding the general a most thoughtful and affable host, a true cosmopolite. But there was one small trait of. Whenever he looked up from his plate he found the general studying him, appraising him narrowly. You see, I read all books on hunting published in English, French, and Russian. I have but one passion in my life, Mr. Yes, he was a monster. But I got the brute.
Then he said slowly, "No. You are wrong, sir. The Cape buffalo is not the most dangerous big game. I have to stock the island. I exhausted their possibilities, you see. No thrill left in tigers, no real danger. I live for danger, Mr. I think I may say, in all modesty, that I have done a rare thing. I have invented a new sensation. May I pour you another glass of port? Some He makes kings, some beggars. Me He made a hunter. My hand was made for the trigger, my father said. He was a very rich man with a quarter of a million acres in the Crimea, and he was an ardent sportsman. When I was only five years old he gave me a little gun, specially made in Moscow for me, to shoot sparrows with.
When I shot some of his prize turkeys with it, he did not punish me; he complimented me on my marksmanship. I killed my first bear in the Caucasus when I was ten. My whole life has been one prolonged hunt. I went into the army--it was expected of noblemen's sons--and for a time commanded a division of Cossack cavalry, but my real interest was always the hunt. I have hunted every kind of game in every land. It would be impossible for me to tell you how many animals I have killed. Many noble Russians lost everything. I, luckily, had invested heavily in American securities, so I shall never have to open a tearoom in Monte Carlo or drive a taxi in Paris.
Naturally, I continued to hunt--grizzliest in your Rockies, crocodiles in the Ganges, rhinoceroses in East Africa. It was in Africa that the Cape buffalo hit me and laid me up for six months. As soon as I recovered I started for the Amazon to hunt jaguars, for I had heard they were unusually cunning. I was bitterly disappointed. I was lying in my tent with a splitting headache one night when a terrible thought pushed its way into my mind. Hunting was beginning to bore me! And hunting, remember, had been my life. I have heard that in America businessmen often go to pieces when they give up the business that has been their life.
Now, mine is an analytical mind, Mr. Doubtless that is why I enjoy the problems of the chase. You are much younger than I am, Mr. Rainsford, and have not hunted as much, but you perhaps can guess the answer. I always got my quarry. There is no greater bore than perfection. That is no boast; it is a mathematical certainty. The animal had nothing but his legs and his instinct. Instinct is no match for reason. When I thought of this it was a tragic moment for me, I can tell you. I needed a new animal. So I bought this island built this house, and here I do my hunting.
The island is perfect for my purposes--there are jungles with a maze of traits in them, hills, swamps--" "But the animal, General Zaroff? No other hunting compares with it for an instant. Every day I hunt, and I never grow bored now, for I have a quarry with which I can match my wits.
This is a grisly joke. I am speaking of hunting. Great Guns, General Zaroff, what you speak of is murder. He regarded Rainsford quizzically. Surely your experiences in the war--" "Did not make me condone cold-blooded murder," finished Rainsford stiffly. Laughter shook the general. It's like finding a snuffbox in a limousine. Ah, well, doubtless you had Puritan ancestors.
So many Americans appear to have had. I'll wager you'll forget your notions when you go hunting with me. You've a genuine new thrill in store for you, Mr. But I think I can show you that your scruples are quite ill founded. The weak of the world were put here to give the strong pleasure. Why should I not use my gift? If I wish to hunt, why should I not? I hunt the scum of the earth: It gives me pleasure. They can reason, after a fashion. So they are dangerous. Sometimes, when Providence is not so kind, I help Providence a bit. Come to the window with me.
Rainsford's eyes saw only blackness, and then, as the general pressed a button, far out to sea Rainsford saw the flash of lights. They can crush a ship as easily as I crush this nut. We try to be civilized here. And you shoot down men? I assure you I do not do the thing you suggest. That would be barbarous. I treat these visitors with every consideration. They get plenty of good food and exercise.
They get into splendid physical condition. You shall see for yourself tomorrow. I have about a dozen pupils down there now. They're from the Spanish bark San Lucar that had the bad luck to go on the rocks out there. A very inferior lot, I regret to say. Poor specimens and more accustomed to the deck than to the jungle. Rainsford, with an effort, held his tongue in check.
I give him a supply of food and an excellent hunting knife. I give him three hours' start. I am to follow, armed only with a pistol of the smallest caliber and range. If my quarry eludes me for three whole days, he wins the game. If I find him "--the general smiled--" he loses. He need not play that game if he doesn't wish to.
If he does not wish to hunt, I turn him over to Ivan. Ivan once had the honor of serving as official knouter to the Great White Czar, and he has his own ideas of sport. Rainsford, invariably they choose the hunt. Then he added, hastily: Many of them afford only the most elementary sort of problem. Occasionally I strike a tartar. One almost did win. I eventually had to use the dogs. The lights from the windows sent a flickering illumination that made grotesque patterns on the courtyard below, and Rainsford could see moving about there a dozen or so huge black shapes; as they turned toward him, their eyes glittered greenly.
If anyone should try to get into my house--or out of it--something extremely regrettable would occur to him. Will you come with me to the library? I'm really not feeling well. You need a good, restful night's sleep. Tomorrow you'll feel like a new man, I'll wager. Then we'll hunt, eh? I've one rather promising prospect--" Rainsford was hurrying from the room. He looks resourceful--Well, good night, Mr. Rainsford; I hope you have a good night's rest.
He lay, eyes wide open. Once he thought he heard stealthy steps in the corridor outside his room. He sought to throw open the door; it would not open.
Every writ of survey shall be executed by at least three of the surveyors, and unless otherwise directed by the Court, the surveyors shall act in succession in the order in which they are named in the record of their appointment, and the clerk shall indorse on the writ the names of the surveyors who are to act. They were, to all intents stationary. Distichodus sexfasciatus Boulenger, x xxx Eugnathichthys macroterolepis Boulenger, x xxx Hemigrammocharax uniocellatus Pellegrin, x xxx Ichthyborus ornatus Boulenger, x xxx Mesoborus crocodilus Pellegrin, x xxx Nannocharax elongatus Boulenger, x xx Nannocharax parvus Pellegrin, xxx Nannocharax cf. It was Saturday afternoon, when the fields were deserted. ITiere is no actual wealth except that which is created by patient toil, and it will be some time before the disturbed elements of prosperity will become settled. It is almost certain that if the boat had capsized he would have tumbled comfortably out upon the ocean as if he felt sure it was a great soft mattress.
He went to the window and looked out. His room was high up in one of the towers. The lights of the chateau were out now, and it was dark and silent; but there was a fragment of sallow moon, and by its wan light he could see, dimly, the courtyard. There, weaving in and out in the pattern of shadow, were black, noiseless forms; the hounds heard him at the window and looked up, expectantly, with their green eyes.
Rainsford went back to the bed and lay down. By many methods he tried to put himself to sleep. He had achieved a doze when, just as morning began to come, he heard, far off in the jungle, the faint report of a pistol. General Zaroff did not appear until luncheon. He was dressed faultlessly in the tweeds of a country squire. He was solicitous about the state of Rainsford's health. I am worried, Mr. Last night I detected traces of my old complaint. The fellow lost his head. He made a straight trail that offered no problems at all.
That's the trouble with these sailors; they have dull brains to begin with, and they do not know how to get about in the woods. They do excessively stupid and obvious things. Will you have another glass of Chablis , Mr. You've had no hunting--" "I wish to go today," said Rainsford. He saw the dead black eyes of the general on him, studying him. General Zaroff's face suddenly brightened. He filled Rainsford's glass with venerable Chablis from a dusty bottle. But may I not venture to suggest that you will find my idea of sport more diverting than Ivan's? This is really an inspiration.
I drink to a foeman worthy of my steel--at last. Your woodcraft against mine. Your strength and stamina against mine. And the stake is not without value, eh? Of course you, in turn, must agree to say nothing of your visit here. Three days hence we can discuss it over a bottle of Veuve Cliquot , unless--" The general sipped his wine. Then a businesslike air animated him. I suggest you wear moccasins; they leave a poorer trail.
I suggest, too, that you avoid the big swamp in the southeast corner of the island. We call it Death Swamp. One foolish fellow tried it.
The deplorable part of it was that Lazarus followed him. You can imagine my feelings, Mr. I loved Lazarus; he was the finest hound in my pack. Well, I must beg you to excuse me now. I always' take a siesta after lunch. You'll hardly have time for a nap, I fear. You'll want to start, no doubt. I shall not follow till dusk. Hunting at night is so much more exciting than by day, don't you think?
From another door came Ivan. Under one arm he carried khaki hunting clothes, a haversack of food, a leather sheath containing a long-bladed hunting knife; his right hand rested on a revolver thrust in the crimson sash about his waist. Rainsford had fought his way through the bush for two hours. I must keep my nerve," he said through tight teeth. He had not been entirely clearheaded when the chateau gates snapped shut behind him. His whole idea at first was to put distance between himself and General Zaroff; and, to this end, he had plunged along, spurred on by the sharp rowers of something very like panic.
Now he had got a grip on himself, had stopped, and was taking stock of himself and the situation. He saw that straight flight was futile; inevitably it would bring him face to face with the sea. He was in a picture with a frame of water, and his operations, clearly, must take place within that frame. He executed a series of intricate loops; he doubled on his trail again and again, recalling all the lore of the fox hunt, and all the dodges of the fox. Night found him leg-weary, with hands and face lashed by the branches, on a thickly wooded ridge. He knew it would be insane to blunder on through the dark, even if he had the strength.
His need for rest was imperative and he thought, "I have played the fox, now I must play the cat of the fable. Rest brought him new confidence and almost a feeling of security. Even so zealous a hunter as General Zaroff could not trace him there, he told himself; only the devil himself could follow that complicated trail through the jungle after dark. But perhaps the general was a devil-- An apprehensive night crawled slowly by like a wounded snake and sleep did not visit Rainsford, although the silence of a dead world was on the jungle.
Toward morning when a dingy gray was varnishing the sky, the cry of some startled bird focused Rainsford's attention in that direction. Something was coming through the bush, coming slowly, carefully, coming by the same winding way Rainsford had come. He flattened himself down on the limb and, through a screen of leaves almost as thick as tapestry, he watched. That which was approaching was a man. It was General Zaroff.
He made his way along with his eyes fixed in utmost concentration on the ground before him. He paused, almost beneath the tree, dropped to his knees and studied the ground. Rainsford's impulse was to hurl himself down like a panther, but he saw that the general's right hand held something metallic--a small automatic pistol.
The hunter shook his head several times, as if he were puzzled. Then he straightened up and took from his case one of his black cigarettes; its pungent incenselike smoke floated up to Rainsford's nostrils. Rainsford held his breath. The general's eyes had left the ground and were traveling inch by inch up the tree. Rainsford froze there, every muscle tensed for a spring. But the sharp eyes of the hunter stopped before they reached the limb where Rainsford lay; a smile spread over his brown face. Very deliberately he blew a smoke ring into the air; then he turned his back on the tree and walked carelessly away, back along the trail he had come.
The swish of the underbrush against his hunting boots grew fainter and fainter. The pent-up air burst hotly from Rainsford's lungs. His first thought made him feel sick and numb. The general could follow a trail through the woods at night; he could follow an extremely difficult trail; he must have uncanny powers; only by the merest chance had the Cossack failed to see his quarry.
Rainsford's second thought was even more terrible. It sent a shudder of cold horror through his whole being. Why had the general smiled? Why had he turned back? Rainsford did not want to believe what his reason told him was true, but the truth was as evident as the sun that had by now pushed through the morning mists. The general was playing with him! The general was saving him for another day's sport! The Cossack was the cat; he was the mouse. Then it was that Rainsford knew the full meaning of terror.
His face was set and he forced the machinery of his mind to function. Three hundred yards from his hiding place he stopped where a huge dead tree leaned precariously on a smaller, living one. Throwing off his sack of food, Rainsford took his knife from its sheath and began to work with all his energy. The job was finished at last, and he threw himself down behind a fallen log a hundred feet away.
He did not have to wait long. The cat was coming again to play with the mouse. Following the trail with the sureness of a bloodhound came General Zaroff. Nothing escaped those searching black eyes, no crushed blade of grass, no bent twig, no mark, no matter how faint, in the moss. So intent was the Cossack on his stalking that he was upon the thing Rainsford had made before he saw it. His foot touched the protruding bough that was the trigger. Even as he touched it, the general sensed his danger and leaped back with the agility of an ape.
But he was not quite quick enough; the dead tree, delicately adjusted to rest on the cut living one, crashed down and struck the general a glancing blow on the shoulder as it fell; but for his alertness, he must have been smashed beneath it. He staggered, but he did not fall; nor did he drop his revolver. He stood there, rubbing his injured shoulder, and Rainsford, with fear again gripping his heart, heard the general's mocking laugh ring through the jungle.
Not many men know how to make a Malay mancatcher. Luckily for me I, too, have hunted in Malacca. You are proving interesting, Mr. I am going now to have my wound dressed; it's only a slight one. But I shall be back. I shall be back. It was flight now, a desperate, hopeless flight, that carried him on for some hours. Dusk came, then darkness, and still he pressed on. The ground grew softer under his moccasins; the vegetation grew ranker, denser; insects bit him savagely.
Then, as he stepped forward, his foot sank into the ooze. He tried to wrench it back, but the muck sucked viciously at his foot as if it were a giant leech. With a violent effort, he tore his feet loose. He knew where he was now.
Death Swamp and its quicksand. His hands were tight closed as if his nerve were something tangible that someone in the darkness was trying to tear from his grip. The softness of the earth had given him an idea. He stepped back from the quicksand a dozen feet or so and, like some huge prehistoric beaver, he began to dig. Rainsford had dug himself in in France when a second's delay meant death. That had been a placid pastime compared to his digging now.
The pit grew deeper; when it was above his shoulders, he climbed out and from some hard saplings cut stakes and sharpened them to a fine point. These stakes he planted in the bottom of the pit with the points sticking up. With flying fingers he wove a rough carpet of weeds and branches and with it he covered the mouth of the pit.
Then, wet with sweat and aching with tiredness, he crouched behind the stump of a lightning-charred tree. He knew his pursuer was coming; he heard the padding sound of feet on the soft earth, and the night breeze brought him the perfume of the general's cigarette. It seemed to Rainsford that the general was coming with unusual swiftness; he was not feeling his way along, foot by foot.
Rainsford, crouching there, could not see the general, nor could he see the pit.
He lived a year in a minute. Then he felt an impulse to cry aloud with joy, for he heard the sharp crackle of the breaking branches as the cover of the pit gave way; he heard the sharp scream of pain as the pointed stakes found their mark. He leaped up from his place of concealment. Then he cowered back.
Three feet from the pit a man was standing, with an electric torch in his hand. Rainsford, Ill see what you can do against my whole pack. I'm going home for a rest now. Thank you for a most amusing evening. It was a distant sound, faint and wavering, but he knew it. It was the baying of a pack of hounds. Rainsford knew he could do one of two things. He could stay where he was and wait. That was postponing the inevitable.
For a moment he stood there, thinking. An idea that held a wild chance came to him, and, tightening his belt, he headed away from the swamp. The baying of the hounds drew nearer, then still nearer, nearer, ever nearer. On a ridge Rainsford climbed a tree.
Down a watercourse, not a quarter of a mile away, he could see the bush moving.