Despite the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie , which guaranteed the Sioux peoples exclusive possession of the land west of the Missouri River, miners swarmed the area. This section of the Great Plains includes the Badlands, which extend along the White and Cheyenne rivers for more…. Built at the base of the steep wooded inclines of Deadwood Gulch and extending up the hillsides, it was named for the dead trees found in the canyon. It lies in the southern Black Hills on French Creek, 5, feet 1, metres above sea level.
Custer is about 40 miles 65 km southwest of Rapid City. Settlement and gold rush In South Dakota: External Websites Britannica Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered.
Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. At the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context. Its pine forests and granite peaks are an oasis born of silent centuries. The Black Hills is one of the oldest mountain ranges in North America, its once-towering peaks eroded to perhaps half their original height.
The result is spectacular beauty on an intimate scale. The mountains here are accessible and welcoming, the scenic attractions just minutes apart. Hike our trails — Harney Peak is the highest point between the Rockies and the French Pyrenees — or bike the mile Mickelson Trail, a reclaimed rail bed that meanders through prairie and pine vistas. Fly fish our blue-ribbon trout streams or ski our back country. See Mount Rushmore, drive through the barren beauty of the Badlands , or take the family to legendary local attractions such as Reptile Gardens and Bear Country.
The Lakota Indians called this place Paha Sapa , or Black Hills, because its pine-covered slopes appear black from a distance. The Lakota viewed this as the center of the universe, home to spiritually significant sites such as Wind Cave and Bear Butte, where the Lakota still seek visions and guidance. The Black Hills were forever changed when gold was discovered in Deadwood Gulch in , prompting a gold rush that drew legendary characters such as Wild Bill Hickok and Calamity Jane to the area.
Gambling returned to the gulch in when gaming was legalized in Deadwood, bringing a new wave of people to seek their fortunes in the National Historic Landmark town. A portion of the money wagered there helps fund historic preservation in Deadwood and the state.
Low gold prices led to the closure of the Homestake Mine in Lead, long a major employer in the Northern Black Hills. Today the former gold mine is being transformed into the Sanford Underground Research Facility, where scientists can study dark matter and neutrinos. In wintertime, outdoor enthusiasts can hit the slopes at Terry Peak and Mystic Miner resorts near Lead, head for the backcountry on a snowmobile, or explore the trails at Eagle Cliff and Big Hill on alpine skis.
The Northern Hills are also home to Spearfish and Spearfish Canyon, where locals and tourists alike flock in autumn to view the brilliant golds of the aspen forests. Fly fishermen can try casting a line in the cold clear waters of Spearfish Creek, one of several blue-ribbon trout streams in the Hills. Farther north, near the agricultural town of Belle Fourche , the Belle Fourche Reservoir — known locally as Orman Dam — is popular for walleye fishing.
Belle Fourche is renowned for being the Center of the Nation and for its annual Black Hills Roundup, an All-American Independence Day party that includes rodeos, parades, carnivals and fireworks. Sturgis is world-famous for its annual Sturgis Motorcycle Rally. The event began in and now draws hundreds of thousands of bikers to the area during the first full week of August.
Rock concerts and celebrity sightings add to the party atmosphere. Both the Sioux and Cheyenne also claimed rights to the land, saying that in their cultures, it was considered the axis mundi , or sacred center of the world. An official announcement of gold was made by the newspaper reporters accompanying the expedition. The surveyor for the party, Dr. This highest point in the Black Hills is 7, feet above sea level.
During the — gold rush , thousands of miners went to the Black Hills; in , the area was the most densely populated part of the Dakota Territory. Three large towns developed in the Northern Hills: Deadwood , Central City , and Lead. Around these were groups of smaller gold camps, towns, and villages. Railroads were quickly constructed to the previously remote area. Following the defeat of the Lakota and their Cheyenne and Arapaho allies in , the United States took control of the Black Hills and another strip of land, in violation of the Treaty of Fort Laramie.
The Lakota never accepted the validity of the US appropriation in They have continued to try to reclaim the property  and filed a suit against the federal government.
In , the United States dismantled the Great Sioux Reservation , forcing the peoples on to five smaller reservations west of the Missouri River. It made available 9 million acres throughout this area for purchase for ranching or homesteading, in the same year that North Dakota and South Dakota were admitted to the Union. Many of the early farms established by homesteaders in the 20th century failed, as they were too small for farming in the arid regions.
People made many mistakes and plowed the grasses holding the earth on the plains, causing the Dust Bowl of the s. On July 23, , in United States v. The Lakota refused the settlement, as they wanted the Black Hills returned to them. They believe that accepting the settlement would allow the US government to justify taking ownership of the Black Hills. Anaya met with tribes in seven states on reservations and in urban areas as well as with members of the Obama administration and the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.
Anaya tentatively recommended the return of lands to some tribes, including the Black Hills to the Lakota Sioux.
In , the U. The Minnelusa Formation is next and is composed of highly variable sandstones and limestones followed by the Opeche shale and the Minnekahta limestone. The Black Hills also have a 'skirt' of gravel covering them in areas, which are called pediments. Wildlife is both diverse and plentiful. The hills lie between the Cheyenne and Belle Fourche rivers and rise about 3, feet metres above the surrounding plains. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. In , a 7-year-old girl visiting Badlands National Park found a rare saber tooth cat fossil.
His full official report with recommendations was due in September The geology of the Black Hills is complex. A Tertiary mountain-building episode is responsible for the uplift and current topography of the Black Hills region.
This uplift was marked by volcanic activity in the northern Black Hills. The southern Black Hills are characterized by Precambrian granite , pegmatite , and metamorphic rocks that comprise the core of the entire Black Hills uplift. This core is rimmed by Paleozoic , Mesozoic , and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks.
The stratigraphy of the Black Hills is laid out like a target, as it is an oval dome , with rings of different rock types dipping away from the center.
The 'bulls eye' of this target is called the granite core. The granite of the Black Hills was emplaced by magma generated during the Trans-Hudson orogeny and contains abundant pegmatite. The core of the Black Hills has been dated to 1. There are other localized deposits that have been dated to around 2.
One of these is located in the northern hills. It is called French Creek Granite although it has been metamorphosed into gneiss. The other is called the Bear Mountain complex, and it is located in the west central part of the hills. The rocks in this ring are all very old, as much as 2 billion years and older. This zone is very complex, filled with many diverse rock types. The rocks were originally sedimentary , until there was a collision between the North American continent and a terrane. This collision, called the Trans-Hudson Orogeny, caused the original rocks to fold and twist into a vast mountain range.
Over the millions of years, these tilted rocks, which in many areas are tilted to 90 degrees or more, eroded. Today we see the evidence of this erosion in the Black Hills, where the metamorphic rocks end in an angular unconformity below the younger sedimentary layers. The final layers of the Black Hills consist of sedimentary rocks. The oldest lie on top of the metamorphic layers at a much shallower angle.
This rock called the Deadwood Formation is mostly sandstone and was the original source of gold found in the Deadwood area. The Minnelusa Formation is next and is composed of highly variable sandstones and limestones followed by the Opeche shale and the Minnekahta limestone. The next rock layer, the Spearfish Formation , forms a valley around the hills called the Red Valley and is often referred to as the Race Track.
These shale and gypsum beds as well as the nearby limestone beds of the Minnekahta are used in the manufacture of cement at a cement plant in Rapid City. Next is the shale and sandstone Sundance Formation , which is topped by the Morrison Formation and the Unkpapa sandstone.
The outermost feature of the dome stands out as a hogback ridge.