The abundance of homonyms in Japanese furnishes humor, also, as with the names of the two doctors in No. Homonyms are difficult to render in translation, but the ruckus between the tea peddler and the sieve peddler arbitrated by the buyer of old metal No. Japanese inventiveness with onomato- poeia also defies translation. I have retained a few of the originals. They are an important device accompanying the narrator's gestures and facial expressions.
Love of humor might be called a characteristic of the Japanese. I found that nearly one-third of the tales recited by year-old Nagashima Tsuru for Mizusawa Ken'ichi were humorous. The importance of the family is another concept shared by most Japanese, but the family in the folk tale does not reflect Confucian teachings. Women, particularly old women, share work and dangers with their men.
The wife frequently dominates her husband. A woman will arrive at a man's door and ask to be taken in. She stays on as his wife. This is contrary to the carefully arr'anged marriages in society at the samurai level and above. A younger brother may succeed in life when his older brother fails. Family life is enjoyed by animals, birds and even trees. And a demon, not to be excluded, carries off a maid and sires a child by her.
Men get ahead in life by the work of their hands.
The man who breaks sod for his garden patch in the hills is often rewarded by the unexpected discovery of treasure. The result is that he becomes a cho ja. This character belongs to the folk tale. He is not, as the lexi- cons would have it, a millionaire. There is virtue in the treasure that br ings prosper ity. And prosper ity does not make him a "big shot.
The Japanese still look upon the continuance of their family through the virtue of a good bride as the greatest blessing of all. There is some- thing refreshing about the ending of a story in which the old man or his family becomes a ch6 ja. The world of the Japanese folk tale is its land, its mountains, waterways, plants, animals, and the changes of its seasons. It is a wor Id in which man is not dominant. It is shared by all life, visible and invisible. Deities are close at hand to hear petitions. Demons with their power to transform themselves furnish thrills-the she-demon being the most terrifying!
Spirits of the dead remain close by in the mountains to watch over the needs of their families. Mountains are not just a backdrop. Trees in them furnish firewood and nuts, and other plants in them provide food to be gathered. Paths through the moun- tains are fraught with danger. Water in the tales is found in mountain spr ings or pools and in streams in little valleys. Guardian spirits in the water may be either benevolent or malevo- lent. The seashore or the sea also opens adventure to characters. I analyzed another one-narrator collection of tales made by Mizusawa, this one a total of tales furnished by Takahashi Nao, eighty-four years old.
To be sure, it takes more than setting to provide a tale. If one tr ies to board public transportation in Tokyo he is likely to conclude that everyone either works or goes to school in Japan. But men and women work in folk tales, too. Grandma Nao's tales picture men or women at sixty-five different occupations. There are a few shadowy officials and pr iests who hardly count and a couple of men who are too lazy to work.
Very few seem to be studying. This is in marked contr ast to themes in Korean and Chinese folk tales, where heroes are often studying for the civil service examinations or on their way to take them. Ancient Tales in Modern Japan xiii Some misinformation about Japanese legends and their relationship to folk tales must be corrected. Japanese never confuse the terms. Legends are brief statements of an incident said to have occurred at a specific place. The folk tale is set in a "certain place" which is not named, and a complete story takes place there.
Some narrators may incorporate local names into their tales Nos. Some folk tales come to be told as legends, such as those of Kobo Daishi in No. And while I am making corrections, I will say that it is a mistake to call a Japanese folk tale a "fairy tale. Some stories in this volume show remnants of older forms. These may be difficult to detect at first. By comparing it to his rendition of "Man-eating Mushroom" No.
Or, it may be a difference in the two narrators. But this version of "Momotaro" is particularly interesting because it has so little resem- blance to the standard version found in children's books. We see no river and no animal helpers in it. The fact is, there is a version where Momotaro was born from a chestnut. Perhaps there were no peaches where that one was told. The version of the tale in this collection says the peach rolled to the old woman's seat.
There may be a trace here of old tales in which a child is born from various parts of the body. The little chap they call Peach Boy may well have been a Thigh Boy. Another version of this tale is still transmitted on an island in the Inland Sea. In this version the woman gets a peach that was floating downstream and takes it home.
She and her husband eat it. Their subsequent rejuvenation makes it possible for them to have a son the natural way. I have retained them where they have been passed on, for they are a part of the tale, but I have not tried to translate them. They are usually in dialect, and any wording in English would lose the rhythm and flavor of the original. For that matter, some have very little meaning beyond calling the attention of the listener to a story about something that happened a long time ago.
The English equivalent is "once" or "once upon a time. Neither the opening nor the closing formula vouches for the story being true. It is simply the way the narrator heard it, an attitude which is not apparent in the telling of a legend. I have not attempted to unify the style of the tales Yanagita chose as examples and those I selected. Some of the tales are well told and heard in a family circle No. Such narr ators were frequently itinerate entertainers.
They would be emphasized by his shamisen or biwa, as in No. Other tales have been reported more or less in outline form as something heard at second hand, as is the case with No. The General Index shows that several contributors are greatly responsible for complete collections of tales. Sasaki Kizen and Iwakura Ichir6 were key men in this field.
But there were no Grimm Brothers in Japan, nor were the two rolled up into one. The ninety collectors whose work contributes to this anthology lived all over Japan-in thirty-seven prefectures and Osaka, to be exact. When Yanagi ta pub- lished his Guide, Iwate Prefecture furnished the greatest number of tales, but present day collecting has shifted its center to Niiga ta Pre- fecture. This may change as more and more collectors work elsewhere. We can say that the folk tale is being collected all over Japan at present. It is also widely enjoyed.
A popular program on commercial television, for example, weekly presents tasteful versions of legitimate folk tales, prepared by legitimate scholars, to large numbers of viewers. This anthology gives the reader an opportunity to sample tales shared by many collectors. If the reader will multiply their number by those who reported or recited tales and add to them the number of listeners who enjoyed them, and picture that throng reaching far back into the past generations, he will feel that he is penetrating deep into the hills and forests of Japanese culture found on all the islands that make up the land.
After year-old Onozuka Kita had recited many tales for me in Niigata, she said she would go to the Next World before me. She would await my coming and look forward to enjoying stories with me there. It is her spirit that assures us that folk tales have a future as well as a past in Japan. Fanny Hagin Mayer Footnotes 1. Nihon Hoso Shuppan Kyokai, Kojiki, completed in A. The Nihon Shoki, completed in , recorded similar events with multiple lines of transmission and commentary, but this study will utilize only Kojiki. For an English translation see Donald Philippi, transi.
Ancient Tales in Modern Japan xv 7. Konjaku monogatari shO, Bk. Kaidoki, an account of a journey taken under Imper ial command from Kyoto to Kamakura in Several full texts with annotations can be found in the Iwanami Koten Bungaku Taikei series of classical Japanese litera- ture vol. University of Arizona Press, Aston, A History of Japanese Literature I, Preface, xiii Griffis, The Mikado's Empire. Griffis, Japanese Fairy World. Griffis, Japanese Fairy Tales. Iwaya Sazanami, Nippon mukashibanashi nijDyon hen. Hanna Riddell and Tsuda Ume, transl. Kokusai Bunka Shinkokai, The Orient Cultural Service, Taipei, Mizusawa Ken'ichi, Tonto mugashi atta ge do, Oai-isshO.
Mizusawa Ken'ichi, Yukiguni no o-baba no mukashi. Takeda Akira, Sorae baku-baku. Notes by the Translator Several matters concerning the selection and translation of the tales in this anthology, and its appended material, should be explained to those who may read it. Some of the cross-references in the Cross Reference Table pp. See below for publication informa- tion on works cited in this preface. At the time Yanagita supervised the compilation of the Guide, he anticipated that more suitable or complete versions of other tales would be available in the future. These stories are not marked as "Ex.
Both Yanagita's and Seki's works are used in cross- reference today in Japan to identify a tale in a new collection to indicate that it is considered to be a genuine folk tale. Items belong- ing to traditional legends or memorabillia or fiction are bound to appear among newly gathered tales. Another item in the cross reference table that needs some com- ment here is "Jiten. Some entries give specific comments on a tale type with a specific title, but with several readings for the tale. Other titles are buried within a long discussion or background including early literary or maki e picture scroll versions.
If the tale in question has been afforded this latter type of treatment, I have marked it with the symbol "t. The geographical area represented in the tale and the name of the collector, when this information is known, follow each tale in the body of this work. In the "Notes to the Stories" pp. I have also included the name of the narrator or informant and other facts that were available.
A tale has its roots in a particular place in Japan, and the present rendition has the individuality and charm of a specific narra- tor, the one who reci ted it. Yanagita placed a line to the right of important tales in the Table of Contents of his Guide. These have been set in bold face in the alphabetical list of titles at the end of this book.
Some tales may seem very close in content to their neighbors, but usually there is some difference. I have tried to remain faithful to the Japanese story titles in my renditions, but I have made some modifications to facilitate alphabetizing the tales. Yanagita's grouping of tales and their main divisions have also been retained, although some readers may not be sa tisfied with them. One exception is the last chapter of this book, "The Fascination of Folk Tales," which is an entire "Part" in Yana- gita's work but which has been treated as a "chapter" here.
Numbers to the two German and three English translations in the cross reference table are the numbers of the tales in their collections. They account for about of the tales in the present anthology. The numbers for Seki's ShDsei are those of the tale-types in its text. They are the numbers employed in cross-reference by Japanese collectors. Cross-reference to Yanagita's Guide is done by tale-type name, because Yanagita did not number his tales.
The numbers for Hiroko Ikeda "H. A few words of evaluation should be made for the items selected for cross-reference. Fritz Rumpf whose work is designated "F. Eugen Diederichs was to include them in his famous series, Die Marchen der We1t1iteratur. Rumpf's Japanische Folksmarchen was published in Although it was among the first Western works in the field, it received little recognition in the United States.
Rumpf's source material was limited, but he recorded faithfully the geographical area represented, the published source, and even the narrator for most of his selections. Horst Hammitzsch was commisioned by Diederichs to update the work of Rumpf. His translation under the same title appeared in , and is designated "H. He retained many of Rumpf's selections and notes, but he broadened the scope of the work by using Seki's three-volume popular selection of tales.
Seki rewrote tales from many collections, but he gave only geographical designations for the tales. Fewer than half of the tales in these three volumes are the normative versions he used in his ShDsei. But Hammi tzsch frequently refers to Seki's ShDsei, by which the collected source can be identified. Both German scholars include selections which Japanese do not consider as belonging to oral tradition, but they give scholarly notes to identify them. They note themes in the tales that have been reported elsewhere in Asia, parti- cularly in Korea and in China.
The English translations are one by Robert J. Adams and two by me. For that reason, his translation gives little information beyond the geographical designation for his selections. One of my transla- tions was of Yanagita's Nihon no mukash. Yanagita touched up these selections considerably, and gave little information about the sources of his selections, but for many years it was considered by Japanese to be the representative collec- tion of folk tales.
Rumpf translated thirty-six of them for his volume. Yanagita's later work, Kaitei ban Nihon no mukash. The "ka ta numbers" Adams used in his notes and in his Index of Kata Numbers pp ff and which Ikeda listed in her Cross-Refer- ence Table, pp ff refer to numbers Seki offered in his "Types of Japanese Folktales," an English work that has never appeared in Japanese. They do not lead to the numbering in the text of Seki's ShOsei.
Both Hammi tzsch and Ikeda refer to the ShOsei by page, not the tale-type number. The I2-volume work by Seki, Nihon mukashi- banashi taisei, obviously has different pagination, but it retains the numbers in the text of the ShOsei. I had to rely upon the generous assistance of a number of libraries to obtain copies of some of the tales in this anthology. I hereby express my gratitude to all these libraries for their assistance. After I decided to translate and to publish this anthology, the question arose in my mind as to rights to the tales.
Although it might not be a problem, I could hardly use stories gathered by many collec- tors whom I had met and who were my friends without contacting them. If I bypassed other living collectors or their heirs, that would hardly be acceptable. The result was that although eventually word came to me from the Ministry of Education through the Foreign Mini- stry clearing rights to me, I had received a generous response from all those whom I had contacted and from heirs of the deceased collectors whom I could reach.
I can offer no more than my thanks to them. I have given a complete list of collectors represented in this anthology in the General Index at the end of the book. This index, incidentally, includes a large number of motifs as well as names, and makes exten- sive use of multiple listings in order to present relevant material in the same place.
Animals and plants have been listed only when they appear in an active role in the stories. All Japanese names, both in the index and throughout the work, have been rendered in the Japa- nese fashion, with family name followed by given name. The only exception is Hiroko Ikeda, who signs her name in the Western way. I am also indebted to Maruyama Hisako and Ishiwara Yasuyo for their advice in making selections for this volume and to Oshima Tate- hiko for helping me contact collectors or their heirs.
The editor of the journal, Peter Knecht, undertook the negotiations that ultimately made publi- cation of both this volume and its "sister," my translation of Yana- gita's Guide, possible, and special thanks go to Akazawa Yasuko for her heroic battles with a not-always-friendly computer and word processing program that resulted in the typing of the entire manuscript used in the production of the camera ready copy for the book.
I would also like to acknowledge the support of the Japan Foundation, whose grant aided in the publication of this book. The illustrations used in this book are photographs of Edo period printed and illustrated versions of folk tales. Mori Mutsuhiko of the library for his permission to make the photographs.
I am also grateful to Mr. Nagao Nobuyuki, who graciously took the photos and declined any fee. The photos on the cover and at the beginning of Part I are from a version of Momotaro, and those on the frontispiece and at the beginning of Part II are from "Bumbuku Chagama. Their contributions, whether full-blown tales, outlines, or brief reports, were made with sincerity.
In spite of the lack of unity of style in their writing, their work offers a great contribution to the understanding of the folk tale in Japan. I pass it on in the belief that readers in the West will welcome and enjoy their efforts. Folktales of Japan edited by Seki Keigo. University of Chicago Press, Hammi tzsch, Horst, trans!. Folklore Fellows Communication No. Mayer, Fanny Hagin, trans!. Tokyo News Service, Ltd. Translation of Yanagita Kunio, ed. The Orient Cultural Service. Translation of Yanagi ta Kunio, ed. Rumpf, Fritz Japanishche Volksmarchen. Seki Keigo Nihon mukashibanashi sh'Osei.
Three Parts 6 volumes. Nihon Hoso Kyokai, Momotaro Once upon a time an old man and an old woman went to view cherry blossoms. While they were sitting on the ground to rest and eat their lunch, a peach came rolling to the old woman's seat. She picked it up and tucked it into her bosom and went home with it. After she had wrapped it in cotton and put it into bed, it split open and a little baby boy was born from it. The old couple wondered what to name him, and decided, "Let's call him Momonoko Taro [Peach Boy], because he was born from a peach.
While he was studying one day a crow came flying up and lighted on a persimmon tree by the back door. The crow called, "I brought you a letter from Hell. Momonoko Taro asked his mother and father to make the dango, and he set out with them to Hell. When Momonoko Taro arrived at Hell and knocked at the gate, the demons came out and said, "We'll try the best dango in Japan. The demons got drunk on them and rolled over asleep. Momonoko Taro hurriedly put the Princess of Hell onto a cart and pulled it away. The demons woke up later and started to chase them on their fire-cart, but by then the couple were far out at sea and the fire-cart could not reach them.
Momonoko Taro reached home at last with the Princess of Hell. His family became choja and they prospered without difficulties. Sasaki Kizen Shiwa-gun, Iwate 2. Rikitar6 To begin with, there was a shiftless man and woman once upon a time. All year long they were covered with filth. They said, "Here we are, childless, and at this age there is little reason to think that we can have one. Let's scrape the dirt off our bodies and make a doll of it. They called him Konbitaro ["The boy from bodily filth"] and took good care of him.
But the child was a great eater. If his parents gave him one sho of rice, he would clean it up; if they gave him one to of rice, he would clean that up; and he grew until he could eat five to and three sho at a meal. The lazy man and woman complained when their boy began to eat five to and three sho at one meal. No matter how hard they tried, they could not keep up the supply.
Konbitaro said, "Don't worry, Grandpa, I'm going to set out on a journey to practice feats of strength. Make me a metal rod that weighs kan. He emptied his purse to get the blacksmith to make the kan rod. Konbi taro took the rod and set out twirling it gaily in one hand. He walked along thumping and clanging his rod until he came to a cross-roads on the highway called Kamaishi.
There he saw a huge man walking toward him with a red portable Fukayama Daigongen shrine on his back. Konbitaro reached out with his metal rod and barely tapped the shrine with its tip, but the red shrine splintered like tree leaves falling to the road. The strong man carrying the shrine flew into a rage at that and shouted, "Do you know who I am?
I am the strongest man in the world. My name is Midokotaro. When he started to hit him with it, Konbi- taro thought he had met a good match. He caught hold of the rod and swung the man up into the air. He waited for him to fall, but he did not come down. Instead, Midokotaro cried out overhead, "Help, save me! Have I put some fright into you?
He said to Mid6kotar6, "There's no reason to be enemies. Propitious Births 5 They went along and came to a place like the quarry at Sedona- gane Pass. A huge man was splitting stones with the palm of his hand. A chip of rock came flying toward Konbitaro, but he blew it back, and it struck the man on his forehead. The man grew red with anger. He shouted, "Who are you?
I'm Ishikotaro, the greatest in the world, and still you hit me with a rock! He turned to Midokotaro and said, "Step up and try wrestling with him. He struggled with all his might for a long time, but he could not win. Then Konbi- taro said, "I'll try! Thus Ishikotaro became the second follower of Konbitaro. The three went off together until they came to a town like Tsuchiza wa by a castle. Although it was still daylight, all the doors to the houses were strangely closed and there was no sign of anyone around.
They found a beautiful girl sobbing and crying at the house of what looked like the home of the biggest choja in town. They asked, "Why are you crying? It is my turn today, and that is why I am crying. He placed Midokotaro in the yard, Ishikotaro at the door, and he went into the house and crouched in front of the chest to wait, wondering how soon the monster would come. The monster arrived when it was growing dark. He shouted, "Is my bride there? If she has run away, I'll catch her and skin her and roast her and eat her up! First, the monster met Midokotaro in the yard and swallowed him in a gulp.
Then he confronted Ishikotaro at the door, picked him up with the tip of his fingers, and swallowed him in a gulp. Konbitaro was angry to see his first and second followers swallow- ed. He swung his kan rod around and went toward the monster, shouting, "Fine. Now I will meet you! Then he reached for the metal rod and folded it over in the middle like a cake. The struggle continued for a long time and matters looked bad for Konbitaro. He did not seem to be getting anywhere, but then he kick- ed the monster in a vital spot, which caused it to blow Midokotaro from its right nostril and Ishikotaro from the left and then die.
The people at the house, who had been watching, came flocking out, rubbing their hands in delight. They exclaimed, "With your help, our daughter and all of us have been saved. How can we repay you? They only asked for rice cooked in the big five to kettle used for boiling linen. The rice was cooked and the three ate their fill of it. Our daughters are not much to offer you, but please stay as our sons-in-law. Konbitaro sent for his mother and father from the village, and they all lived in comfort after that. Hirano Tadashi Waga-gun, Iwate 3.
Urikohimeko One day an old man went to the hills to cut firewood and his old woman went to the river to do the washing. The old woman picked up a melon that came floating downstream. When the old man and old woman cut it open to see, a beautiful little girl came out. The little girl grew bigger and wove at the loom every day. The old man and old woman went to town to buy a sedan chair so they could take their little girl to visit the Chinju Shrine, that of their local deity. While they were gone, an amanjaku came and asked the girl to open the door a little for her.
When the girl opened ita little, the amanjaku pushed it wide open. She said, "Let me pick persimmons in back for you. Then she put on the girl's clothes and sat weaving at the loom. The old man and the old woman came home with the sedan chair and said, "Now get into the chair, little maid.
The girl cried out, "Oh, you put the amanjaku into the sedan chair! He tossed it into the millet patch behind the house. The millet was stained with blood and has been red since that time. Takagi Toshio Matsue, Shimane 4. Nishiki Choja Mukashi attaji ana. Once upon a time there was a girl called Uruhimeko. While every- one at her house was w'Orking in the garden, Uruhimeko would weave at the loom, kiikarari batayara.
One day a yamauba came slowly down from the mountain and look- ed in at the window. She asked, "Uruhimeko, what are you doing? She told Uruhimeko to cook the rice, to make riceballs, and put them in a row on the unfastened wooden door for her to eat.
Uruhimeko listened meekly and did as she was told. The yamauba sat in front of the board, took down her hair that was as coarse as a bundle of wisteria vines, and there on the top of her head was a big mouth. She tossed a riceball, pan, into that mouth on her head and chewed it up, pakuri. After she had eaten all of the riceballs, pan- pakuri pan-pakuri, she went back up the mountain. The next day while Uruhimeko was weaving, kiikarari batayara, kiikarari batayara, the yamauba came slowly down the mountain again and looked in at the window.
When Uruhimeko said, "Eat all you want," the yamauba climbed right up the tree and ate all the plums. She did not leave a single one. The next day when Uruhimeko was threading the shuttles for the pattern in her loom, the yamauba came slowly down the mountain again and looked in at the window. It makes me feel like eating it, so hand it all over to me.
The yamauba opened that big mouth on her head and ate all the thread, sucking it in and smacking her lips. When she had finished, she said, "Come and look below the window tomorrow morning, Uruhimeko. There will be something special there, so take good care of it. Uruhimeko cried because she had nothing to weave the next day after the yamauba ate all her pattern thread.
When the family came home from the garden in the evening, they asked, "Uruhimeko, why are you crying? Then you can weave it, so stop crying. Hurry and eat your supper and go to bed. When people saw them, they said, "Anything as dirty as that should be thrown into the dung vault. We must wash them and set them aside. They held their noses as they carried them on their backs to the stream behind the house and dumped them into the river. The turds melted and became five-tinted Chinese red brocade. The family was called Nishiki Choja [brocade Choja] from that time, and they were respected everywhere.
Fujiwara Sonosuke Senhoku-gun, Akita 5. Takenoko Doji Once upon a time there was a cooper's apprentice called Sankichi. He went to the bamboo thicket on the hill behind the shop to cut bam- boo to make hoops for casks. While he was cutting, he heard a voice from somewhere calling him. It answered, "Here 1 am, Sanchan.
The young man went to the center of the bamboo grove, but nobody was there. While he stood there thinking it strange, the voice came, "San- chan, let me out of the bamboo! Out came a little man.
Sanchan nearly fell over with surprise. As he looked closely, the little man who had come out of the bam- boo said, "At last, Sanchan! Then you came along, Sanchan, and 1 asked you to rescue me. Nothing could make me happier than to be saved by you. Takenoko D6ji, make me a samurai. Maruyama Manabu Tama-gun, Kumamoto 6. The family pitied her and buried her instead of cremating her. They put a one mon coin in her coffin, according to the custom at her village, and carried her out to the edge of the moor.
From that time, somebody came every evening at about the same hour to buy ame. A hand would be thrust between the same doors and the same coin was always used to pay. The storekeeper thought this strange, and he sent his clerk to follow the customer. She went as far as the garden patch, but there she turned into a flame and leaped off.
The flame went out at the grave. The clerk was sure it was a specter and ran home astonished. The next day two or three people went to the grave where the flame had gone out to investigate. They found a hole in the new grave. This seemed strange to everyone.
When they dug to see, they found a wide-eyed baby boy sitting there. He had been born after the woman had died, and he was being nourished by the ame. It seems that this child became a famous Buddhist priest later. Seki Keigo Shimabara, Nagasaki 7. The Eagle' s Foundling Once upon a time there was a widow living with her baby and a wet nurse.
When they all went to the hills one day to gather mulberry leaves, the little one was left wrapped in a kimono by the edge of the mulberry patch while the two women picked mulberry leaves. An eagle carried the child off while they were working. A charm was fastened onto the child, and the mother had a similar one, and that was all she had left. She seemed to lose her mind with grief. After the women went home, the mother asked the wet-nurse to look after things while she set out with only her charm, saying she would depend upon it.
She was still searching after thirty years. In the meantime, the unusual voice of an eagle and the voice of a crying child were heard in the top of a maidenhair tree in the grounds of a temple. A novice tr ied to climb the tree to see, but the eagle attacked him and would not let him climb. When the priest tr ied, he could not get as far as the nest. He put on a wide brimmed hat and finally reached the nest. There was a human child being given good care but without a single toy.
The priest carr ied the child down and took him to the temple to care for him until he grew up. Thirty years later, the mother came to the bank of a river, still looking for her child. Only one priest was on the ferry that was wait- ing for passengers. The woman, looking like a beggar, went up and asked to get on the ferry, but she was so filthy that the ferryman refused.
The pr iest spoke up and told him to let her on. With that, she was allowed to ride. The priest and the boatman were talking about the big celebration that would be held at the temple that day. A man who had been carr ied a way by an eagle as a baby would be made a superior. The woman who looked like a beggar was very happy as she listened. When they reached the other side of the river, she went immedi- ately to the manager of the temple, but he drove her away with, "What are you here for!
He declared she was not the right sort of person and scolded her each time she came back to him. The head of the temple finally heard this and rebuked his manager. He said, "Do you think you can send anyone away without letting him in when he has come to see me! She seemed to be the mother of the man who was to become super ior that day. He asked for some sign, and she brought her charm and the garment that had been around the child.
He hurriedly had a bath heated for her to get into. The woman who had been so filthy then became so beautiful that it was hard to recognize her. The head of the temple loaned her some of his wife's clothes and in them she looked even more lovely. Then the manager arranged for her to see the high banner as it passed.
While she was looking toward the place where the procession would end, the new super ior noticed her. He asked that she remain where she was until he returned. When he came back and met her, he found that she was his mother from whom he had been parted thirty years before. The mother then went home free from anxiety. Issun B6shi Mukashi atta gena. Once upon a time there was an old man and an old woman who never had had any children in all their years.
They wanted one some- how or other, so they decided to go every day to Kannon to make their petition. Presently, the old woman's thumb began to swell. They thought at first that she might have been stung by a poisonous insect, but as it continued to grow bigger, they realized that it must be the child they were to receive from Kannon, and they were very happy. Then one day the thumb tore open with a loud bang and out came a little child no bigger than a bean. They called him Mamesuke [Bean Boy] and took good care of him.
Years passed until Mamesuke was seventeen years old, but he still was no bigger than a bean. One day he asked his parents for permis- sion to leave, declaring he would come back a rich man. He insisted upon going and finally set out. His parents worr ied for fear he would be hungry on his way, so they fixed some parched flour and put it into a box for him to take.
Mamesuke walked along carrying it until he came to a big house. It was a wine maker's place where many men were employed. He went in to get work, but he was so small that nobody noticed him. He hid under a wooden clog at the entrance and called, "How do you do? Please let me fire up the kettle.
Mamesuke said, "I'm willing to tend the fire under the kettle. He was very good at that, and everyone petted him. There were three daughters in that family, but the middle one seemed the nicest. Mamesuke wanted her very much. He went secretly into the room where the three girls slept one night and smeared parch- ed flour that his mother had given him all over the mouth of the middle girl.
Then he threw what was left into the stream behind the house. The next morning, he was crying in front of the kettle when his master, the first one up, found him.
A woman uses sesame seed buns to turn people into cows. For example, tori street is written as E fo 0. Konbitaro said, "Don't worry, Grandpa, I'm going to set out on a journey to practice feats of strength. I cleaned your room as a help! Sushi rice is prepared with short-grain Japanese rice, which has a consistency that differs from long-grain strains such as those from India , Sri Lanka , Bangladesh , Thailand , and Vietnam. After the battle between the Heike and the Genji, a young girl finds a conch shell on the beach that she feeds to her mom.
He asked, "What are you crying about? Mamesuke was not satisfied. He said, "If it isn't what my mother made, I don't want it. Please find out who ate it. Finally, the three daughters were left. The oldest was called first. She was angry when she was questioned and declared she didn't remember eating such a thing.
When the second girl got up, a lot of flour was around her mouth. She began to scream, "I can't remember eating it!
He demanded that the middle daughter be given him to make up for it. His master could not settle it any other way, so he decided to give Mamesuke the girl. Mamesuke set out in delight with the girl to take her home. It did not help matters to just be angry, so the girl thought that she would find some way to kill him.
He walked ahead briskly, and she could not catch up with him. When she would drop behind on purpose and wait, he would say, "Hurry up, Lady, hurry up! They reached Mamesuke's home at last. His parents were happy to see him home safe and with his master's daughter as his bride. They prepared a bath for them and said, "You must be tired.
Please enjoy the bath. He said, "Lady, come and scrub the dirt off me. She picked up the bamboo broom and stirred and beat the water with it. There was a big noise as Mamesuke's body tore open, and out stepped a handsome youth. His parents were surpr ised at the noise and came running. He said, "I am Mamesuke and I have been deeply obliged to you for a long time. Now I have turned into this form.
This girl and I will take good care of you together, so please don't worry any more. Suzuki T6z6 Sado, Niigata 9. The Gift Child of the Gods Once there was a childless couple. They wanted a child, but no matter how much they wished for one, they did not receive one. Since there seemed nothing else to do, they decided to put their faith in the kami. They received a revelation because they believed earnestly and were devoutly united in their faith.
They were told, "If you sleep with a hatchet by your pillow, you will have a child. Although one of its hands was normal, the other was a hatchet. The parents could not help worrying even though their child was one especially granted to them, for as he grew bigger and they put him out in the yard to play, he would only fight with his friends and injure them with his ax hand. The parents could not let matters stand even though their child had been given them by the kami because of their fai tho They talked it over and decided to take him to the hills and abandon him. One day the father took his child with him to the hills.
The mul- berry trees were loaded with ripe red berries. After that a demon came to eat the boy, but the boy killed him. The rest of the story is forgotten. The Snake Son Once upon a time there was an old man and an old woman who were very lonely because they had no child. One day the old man pick- ed up a snake and brought it home from the mountains. He gathered straw and bird feathers to make a bed for it and took good care of it. The old couple gave the snake the name Shidoko and petted him.
When they went near and called him, "Shidoko, Shidoko," the snake soon began to come crawling out right away. In the meantime, Shidoko grew gradually until it was about six feet long and as big as a bamboo. It would eat a wild boar or a small bird every day. That was all it did and otherwise it was very gentle. The old man and woman were happy with it. Then one day the villagers came to them and said, "Shidoko has grown too big, and he might harm children in our village.
Please drive him away soon. The old couple called Shidoko, weeping, and ex- plained that he had to go away. Shidoko grieved and shed tears of blood, but it could not be helped. He left his home and went right up the hill behind the house. The old man and old woman wondered where Shidoko would go and they followed him. He crossed the back hill and went to a big rice field where he began to dig up the dirt. They thought it strange and went the next day to see, but in place of the rice field, a lake had suddenly appeared there.
They went with their lunches to see it. One day the daughter of the ch6 ja in the village lost her footing by the lake and fell into it. The sightseers from the village milled around in excitement, trying to save her, but the lake was too deep for them. They could not rescue her. Then Shidoko appeared suddenly and crawled into the water. He brought the girl up to the surface in his mouth, much to the delight and astonishment of the villagers. The girl started to breathe immediately.
Her maid who had accompanied her was sent to tell her master the good news. The ch6ja gave Shidoko many treasures and thanks for saving his daughter, and, beyond that, he took charge of the old man and old woman so they could live comfortably wherever they wished. Shidoko went away somewhere happy. The old couple went to live with the ch6 ja and lived happy for the rest of their lives. Maruyama Manabu Kamoto-gun, Kumamoto The Mudsnail Ch6ja Once there was an old man and an old woman. While they were weeding in their rice paddy, a voice from somewhere said, "Grandpa and Grandma, please rest.
They started to weed once more, but somebody said again, "Grandpa and Grandma, please rest. As they sat on the border of their rice paddy, a mudsnail came rolling along and crawled onto the old man's knee. It said, "Please take me as your son, Grandpa. The next day the mudsnail said, "Please saddle the horse for me, Grandpa. But the mudsnail insisted on having the horse saddled. There was nothing else to do, so the old man put the saddle on the horse. The mudsnail grasped the lead rope and rolled along leading it.
In that way he arr ived at a big house in the village and crawled up onto the rim of its open hearth. He said, "Please give me a bride. Who would ever give a bride to anyone like you? The people cried, "Stop that! We'll give you one, weill give you one! The people cried again, "Stop that, we'll give you one, we'11 give you one!
The mudsnail put his bride onto the horse, grasped the lead rope, and went rolling along, leading the horse home. The old man and the old woman were delighted. The br ide, however, hated the mudsnail and glared at it every day. Finally, he said, "If you hate me that much, take me to the stone where we pound straw and smash me! There she crushed him. But when she did that, he turned into a fine youth. She was happy over that and they lived together pleasantly. Noda Tayoko Sannohe-gun, Aomor i The Frog Son-in-Law Once there was an old man and an old woman who did not have a child, not even a deformed one.
They petitioned Kannon for a child, even if it were not like an ordinary one, even one like a frog, if only they had a child they could give their name. Soon the woman's sto- mach grew big, and when the time came, she gave birth to a child like a frog. Since he had been granted to them by Kannon, they cared for him lovingly despite the way he looked. Through the window, you see three cars in the driveway, and you want to ask him which one is his car.
They are called compound nouns. The following are some examples. Note that the consonant at the beginning of the second word of a compound is voiced in some cases: See Chapter 4 for stem forms. The following nouns contain a verb in the stem form and a noun: The fol- lowing table lists demonstrative adjectives discussed earlier in this chapter and frequently used demonstrative pronouns: If you use Ctl kore, A A sore, or are to refer a person, you will sound very rude. These words and phrases can be placed before a topic particle i wa or the copula T: See Chapter 1 for i wa and T: Ano hito wa gakusei desu.
That person is a student. A Kochira wa Yamada-san desu. This student is Japanese. Personal pronouns To refer to people in terms of first, second, and third person, use personal pronouns. See Chapter 7 for particles. The following table lists frequently used personal pronouns in Japanese: In fact, you should avoid the use of anata you either by dropping it or by replacing it with the name of the person.
Dropped pronouns and lack of articles and number specification The Japanese prefer to drop words in a sentence if they are understood. So they rarely use pro- nouns such as it, I, you, and he. For example, the following sentence means Did you brush your teeth? However, you need to add the particle D no at the end of the added noun to indicate that it is a modifier.
See how a noun can be modified in the following examples: Tanaka is my friend. This is a children's book. That one over there is Ms. That car over there is Ms. Omitting nouns after 0 no You can omit the noun after the particle D no if it is the last noun in the noun phrase and it is understood in context. The following table shows some of the essential Japanese kinship terms: Ano hito wa Tanaka-san no otosan, chichi desu.
Yamada-san no tomodachi no ani, onlsan wa karate no sensei desu. Complete the sentences with either i wa or D no. Make sure that you use i wa only once in each sentence. Mary is a student of Japanese language. Smith is my older sister's friend. My dog is a Japanese dog. AMTto Watashi ani tomodachi Yamada-san tomodachi desu. My older brother's friend is Ms. Nouns 23 This page intentionally left blank Numbers 4 This chapter shows how numbers are pronounced independently and with coun- ters such as class counters, ordinal counters, and unit counters.
You will also learn how to express times and dates in Japanese. Bare numbers based on the Chinese system Numbers are usually expressed based on the Chinese system and written in Ara- bic numerals from left to right in modern Japanese, just like in English, although they can be written in kanji. See how the numbers from 1 to 10 are written and pronounced in Japanese: They are not usually used for counting things or specifying places in an ordered sequence. Note that shi also means death in Japanese and tends to be avoided. For example, 11 is ju-ichi, 12 is ju-ni, and 19 is ju-kyu. The mul- tiples of 10 20, 30, 40, etc.
For example, 20 is ni-ju, 30 is san-ju, and 90 is kyu-ju. Other num- bers under consist of the multiples of ten plus one of the other digits. For example, 21 is ni-ju-ichi, and 99 is kyu-ju-kyu. The following table shows the multiples of 10, , 1,, and 10, Notice many irregular sound changes with the multiples of Pf: AV sen or AV zen: It is actually a numeral and a counter "3 tsu and goes only to 10 in modern Japanese.
It is frequently used in informal contexts and rarely used in business and academics. See the following table for the num- bers in the native Japanese system: In fact, the Japanese use a counter for counting almost everything. A counter is placed after a numeral. The choice of counter varies depending on the shape, size, and type of the item. The following tables show how the counters A nin, A hiki, A hon, M satsu, and mai are combined with numbers: For counting medium-size objects such as apples and candies as well as some other inani- mate items under 10, use the native numbers, which includes the counter 3 tsu.
Specify the number of each of the following items, using the example as a guide. Please see page 5. The cafeteria is on the fifth floor. Mike is the top student in class. The third-place winner was Bill. Express the following in Japanese. Pay attention to irregular pronunciations.
To indicate PM, add gogo after the time phrase. Expressing months and days The following list shows how to express the months and days in Japanese: Ima, nan-ji desu ka. What time is it now? Kyo wa nan-nichi desu ka. What date is it today? Which floor is cafeteria located? Nan-peji kara nan-peji made yomimashita ka. From what page to what page did you read? Write the pronunciation of the following phrases using hiragana or romaji.
Nan-nen ni umaremashita ka. Numbers 31 Unit counters Unit counters are used to refer to a quantity of something that is divisible, such as water, time, money, and distance. U "J hffi -rittoru. The third student is Japanese. The first book was interesting. Futat-tsu-me no kosaten o migi ni magatte kudasai. Please make a right turn at the second intersection. Kono kohl wa kyo go-hai-me desu. This cup of coffee is the fifth one today. My second child is a high school student.
Give the following amounts and quantities in Japanese. Polite forms are longer than plain forms, and they end in masu, desu, and their variations. Japanese has two major tenses: The past tense is also called perfect. It refers to actions that took place in the past or that have completed. The non-past tense is also called present tense or imperfect.
The non-past tense refers to future actions, habitual actions, and actions that have not started yet. These terms will be explained case by case later in this chapter. Dictionary form The dictionary form is the shortest verb form that can end a sentence. A dictionary form ends in the vowel u. For example, the dictionary form of the Japanese verb for to write is Ur'skaku, which means will write, write, or writes, depending on the context.
Masu form The masu form is the polite version of the dictionary form. It is actually the polite non-past affirmative form. For example, the masu form of the Japanese verb for to write is kakimasu, which means will write, write, or writes, depending on the context. Nai form The nai form is the negative counterpart of the dictionary form or, more precisely, the plain non-past negative form.
Its major function is to serve as the stem of a complex word, being combined with a variety of suffixes, including the polite suffix SlT masu, discussed earlier. The stem form always ends in the vowel i or e. See how they are combined with the polite suffix S'! See Chapter 15 for their exceptional forms. Ru verbs and u verbs There are two classes of regular verbs: The root of an u verb always ends in one of the nine consonants s, k, g, m, n, b, r, t, or w. That is why all ru verbs end in eru or iru and all u verbs end in su, ku, gu, mu, nu, bu, w u where w is not audible , ru, or tsu.
The dictionary form of a ru verb ends in eru or iru, and the rest of the forms can be made by removing the final ru and adding something if needed. Its masu form can be created just by dropping the final ru and adding masu tabe-masu. Its nai form is created by dropping the final ru and adding nai tabe-nai. Its stem form can be created just by dropping the final ru.
By contrast, u verbs are the verbs whose dictionary form ends in su, ku, gu, mu, nu, bu, w u where w is not audible , ru, or tsu, and the rest of the forms can be made by dropping the final u and adding something. Its masu form can be cre- ated by dropping the final u and adding imasu Hr kak-imasu. Its stem form can be created by dropping the final u and adding i re? If it ends in eru or iru, it can be either a ru verb or an u verb. So, you can safely conclude that the following verbs are all u verbs: For example, the following verbs all end in either eru or iru, but some of them are ru verbs and others are u verbs, and they conjugate differently: I'' minai hashiranai inai iranai hairanai if kaerimasu mimasu hashirimasu imasu irimasu d l 'f' hairimasu whether each of the following verbs is a ru verb or an u verb, based on the ending.
If it is ambiguous, say so. You do not need to know their meanings for now. If what remains is exactly the same, you can conclude that it is a ru verb. Otherwise, it is an u verb. See the following example: Their masu form, nai form, and stem form are as follows: Pay attention to the w sound that surprisingly appears in the nai form of an u verb whose dictionary form ends in an independent syllable 3 u.
The root of such a verb ends in w, which is audible only when followed by the vowel a. Basic verb forms 39 Conjugate the following ru verbs into the masu form and the nai form. DtS nomu drink 2. Life shinu die 8. When a verb ends in eru or iru, you need to figure out whether it is a ru verb or an u verb by comparing two forms.
When listing actions in the same sentence, you need to use the te form for all verbs except the last verb. Accordingly, the te form cannot end a sentence; it must be followed by another verb or by an auxiliary adjective in order for the sentence to be complete. See Chapter 6 for auxiliary verbs and auxiliary adjectives. I will write and read.
I wrote and read. I want you to write it. I wrote it up! To create the te form from a dictionary form, follow these rules: Basic verb forms The following table shows examples of these rules: Which negative te form to use depends on the context. See Chapter 12 for the difference between the two types of negative te forms for verbs. It ends in either ta or da. For example, the ta form of taberu to eat is tabeta ate. You can make a ta form very easily if you know how to make a te form. Simply change the final vowel e in the te form to an a.
Similarly, the te form of yomu to read is cfc hJTf yonde read and , and its ta form is cfc A jTL yonda read. Indicate the ta form of each of the following verbs. S tobu jump 6. Indicate the nakatta form of each of the following verbs. Plain forms are the shortest verb forms that can end a sentence. They can be used in an informal context to complete sentences. The following table shows the four plain forms of the verb tf' kaku to write: Verbs are in the plain forms, Tl' hai is replaced by '! Complete the responses to the following questions. Conjugating verbs in the polite form The polite suffix can be used in both non-past and past forms as well as in both affirmative and negative forms, while maintaining the same stem form of the verb.
The particle tf 1 ka at the end of the sentence indicates a question. For example, nonde iru or nonde imasu means I am drinking. On the other hand, nonde ita or tc nonde imashita means I was drinking. Translate the following sentences into English. For ru verbs, drop the final ru from the dictionary form and add rareru. Note that more and more Japanese add just reru instead of rareru today, saying tc'Xf iXb tabereru instead of taberareru. For u verbs, drop the final u and add eru. To express the potential form of the verb suru do , use the verb T: See Chapter 5 for the verb T: To conjugate a verb in the potential form, look at the following table and follow the pat- tern of the verb in the same class and with the same ending: Watashi wa katakana de namae ga kakemasu.
I can write my name in katakana. Today, we can see movies for free. Sumisu-san wa karate ga dekimasu. Smith can do karate. See Chapter 10 for CL koto ga dekiru. Indicate the potential form of each of the following verbs. You use it in a formal situation or in writing like the following: Inu de wa nai.
Inu de wa arimasendeshita. Kino wa Kinyobi datta. Are wa neko ja nai. That one over there is not a cat. Ano hito wa Sumisu-san da. That person is Mr. Kino no ban-gohan wa tenpura ja nakatta. Yesterday's dinner was not tempura. This chapter explains some types of Japanese verbs that you should be aware of. Ototo wa mainichi konpyuta gemu o shite imasu.
My younger brother plays computer games every day. I often play tennis and swim. Chichi wa bengoshi o shite imasu. My father is a lawyer. Ii nioi ga shimasu ne. Kono isu wa guragura shite imasu. Heya o kirei ni shite kudasai. Please make your room clean and neat. Kono kutsu wa 30, en shimashita. This pair of shoes cost 30, yen. For example, it can follow Chinese compounds or words borrowed from English. So, in the following examples, sentences a to c are grammatical, but d is not: I study very hard.
I study mathematics very hard. Guess what they mean. To express the existence of inanimate items, use aru. To express the existence of animate items such as people and animals, use l''? Items that exist are marked by the particle ga, and the location is marked by the particle 1C ni. However, one of them should be conveyed as the old shared information, being marked by the topic particle wa, so the other can be conveyed as the new information.
This makes the sentence clear and natural. If you want to convey the location of an item as the new information, place the noun for the item at the beginning of the sentence and mark it with the topic particle wa, and then place the location noun and mark it with the particle L ni. If you want to convey the existence of an item as the new information, place the location noun at the beginning of the sentence and mark it with the topic particle wa, and then place the noun for the item and mark it with the particle tf' ga.
See Chapter 7 for the topic particle X wa. The TV is in the living room. The location living room is the new information. There is a TV in the living room. The existence of the TV is the new information. Kono tatemono ni wa keisatsukan ga imasu. There is a police officer in this building. The existence of the police officer is the new information. Keisatsukan wa asoko ni imasu. The police officer is over there. The location over there is the new information. Precise locations of things are expressed using relative location terms. It is used in a sentence as shown in this example: Jisho wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu.
The dictionary is on the desk. The following table lists some of the essential relative location terms: The cat is under the table. B naka inside Keitai wa kaban no naka ni arimasu. The cellphone is in the bag. The bag is on the right of the desk. The bank is to the left of the hospital. Tanaka is in front of Ms. Takahashi is behind Ms. The post office is between the hospital and the bank.
The bookstore is near the university. Hi yoko side Honbako wa tsukue no yoko ni arimasu. The bookcase is on the side of the desk. Mike is next to me. The bank is next to the supermarket. Translate the following sentences into Japanese. My book is in the bag. My bag is behind the chair. The dog is under the desk. The cat is next to the dog. Kyo wa kurasu ga arimasu. Ashita wa mensetsu ga arimasu. I have a class today. I have an interview tomorrow. We will have a conference in Nagoya next week.
There was an earthquake in Osaka today. Fujisan o mita koto ga arimasu. I have seen Mt. The locations of events and incidents are marked by the particle T? You express your experience by using a verb in the ta form and C t. See Chapter 10 for this construction. Watashi wa ani ga san-nin imasu. I have three older brothers. Ani wa Furansujin no tomodachi ga imasu.
My older brother has a French friend. See Chapter 6 for auxiliary verbs. For each of the following, choose the appropriate answer from the options in the parentheses. There was a fire in Sakura Street. Ito has three siblings. I'Sf o Ashita wa sugaku no shiken ga arimasu, imasu. I have a math exam tomorrow.
I'SWo Unagi o tabeta koto ga arimasu ka, imasu ka. Have you ever had eel? JSfiifdtC Neko wa doko ni arimasu ka, imasu ka. Where is the cat? Verb types 53 Transitive and intransitive verbs A transitive verb is a verb that can take a direct object. In English, a direct object immediately follows a verb, without an intervening preposition.
For example, the verb to make is a transitive verb in English. First, this verb makes sense only when someone makes something. Second, you cannot say only I made, even if what you made is contextually understood. You have to say, for example, I made this cake or I made it. A direct object does not have to be an inanimate object but can be a person or an animal. For example, in the sentence Mary invited John, the direct object is John, because this name immediately follows the verb. By contrast, the verb to go is not a transitive verb because it cannot be immediately followed by a noun.
For example, you can say He will go to Tokyo, but you cannot say He will go Tokyo. A verb that cannot take a direct object is called an intransitive verb. In Japanese, if a verb can have a noun marked by the particle? The following sentences use transitive verbs. Haha ga sushi o tsukurimasu. My mother will make sushi. I read the newspaper. Meari-san o shotai shimasu. I will invite Mary. By contrast, the following sentences contain intransitive verbs: Ani wa mainichi toshokan ni ikimasu. My older brother goes to the library every day. Kodomo ga yoku kono koen de asobimasu. Children often play in this park.
Identify the direct object in each of the following sentences, if any. Kino wa uchi ni Tanaka-san ga kimashita. Tanaka came to my house yesterday. Ane wa tenpura o tsukurimashita. My sister made tempura. Ashita wa Bosuton ni ikimasu. Transitive and intransitive pairs In English, some pairs of verbs e. For example, consider I will raise the flag vs. The flag will rise. The flag is the direct object of the verb to raise, but it is the subject of the verb to rise. Therefore, to raise is a transitive verb, and to rise is an intransitive verb.
Another example of a transitive and intransitive pair of verbs in English is to lay and to lie. There are not many pairs like this in English, but there are many in Japanese. Ototo ga chichi no kamera o kowashimashita. The following are only a few of the many transitive and intransitive pairs in Japanese: Doa ga, o akimashita. Lfco Hon ga, o kaban ni iremashita. Kurasu ga, o hajimarimashita. The understood direct objects of these verbs are marked by the particle ft ga rather than the particle o. A, Fujisan ga miemasu yo. Oh, we can see Mt. Ashioto ga kikoemasu yo. Oh, I hear footsteps.
Nihongo ga wakarimasu ka. Do you understand Japanese? Mada unten ga dekimasen. I still cannot drive. These verbs cannot be used with the potential suffix rareru or eru because they already include the potential meaning. See Chapter 4 for potential forms. If you buy a 2,yen ticket, you can see a show.
Heddohon o tsukaeba ongaku ga kikemasu. If you use headphones, you can listen to music. Karate o, ga dekimasu. This is the case because some Japanese verbs have a hidden meaning become or get. See Chapter 6 for the auxiliary verb iru. For Verb types 57 example, to say you know someone, you cannot say shirimasu, but you have to say shitte imasu.
It is a good idea to know the following verbs: Utd komu Kono basu wa konde imasu. Verbs of giving and receiving You express giving and receiving by using three verbs in Japanese: They have honorific counterparts: Here, the notion of in-group and out-group plays an important role. Your family are always your in-group members, whereas the others are usually your out-group members. However, if you feel very close to your friend, he or she can be your in-group member.
Similarly, if you are in a business context, the members in your company can be your in-group members whereas your clients are your out- group members. In fact, the giver and the receiver are often omitted in conversations because the choice of verbs can clarify who is the giver and who is the receiver. However, in a question sentence, the second person can be the receiver. Yamada-san wa watashi ni hana o kuremashita.
Yamada gave me flowers. Yamada-san wa watashi no imoto ni hana o kuremashita. Yamada gave my little sister flowers. Lfco Oji wa haha ni kabin o kuremashita. My uncle gave my mother a vase.
Tanaka-san wa anata ni nani o kuremashita ka. Tanaka give to you? Anata ni wa hon o agemasu. Tomu-san wa Mika-san ni hon o agemashita. Anata wa Mika-san ni nani o agemashita ka. Tom gave Mika a book. What did you give to Mika? In a formal context, use honorific counterparts of these verbs. The relative social status can be decided by a variety of factors including age and occupational posi- tion. Sensi ga watashi ni jisho o kudasaimashita. Watashi wa sensei ni hana o sashiagemashita. The teacher gave me a dictionary. I gave my teacher flowers. When you are talking about giving to animals or plants, you can use yaru instead of ageru.
I watered my flowers. Ototo ni furui fuku o yarimashita. I gave my old clothes to my younger brother. Verb types 59 4. The verb t b'? Watashi wa Yamada-san ni hon o moraimashita. I received a book from Ms. Lfco Imoto wa Tanaka-san kara kukki o moraimashita. My younger sister received cookies from Mr. Remember that the receiver must be closer to the speaker than to the giver. So, for example, if you want to say Ms. Yamada received cookies from my mother, you should not say: Yamada-san wa haha ni kukki o moraimashita. Haha wa Yamada-san ni kukki o agemashita. My mother gave Ms.
You replace morau with MOtadaku when the giver is someone to whom you wish to show respect. I received a dictionary from my teacher. Yamada-san, ani wa haha kara hon o moraimahsita. For example, if your mother made cookies and it was for you, say: I, me riJH shacho: I, me M haha: I, me Verb types 61 This page intentionally left blank Auxiliaries that follow verbs in the te form Some verbs and adjectives also function as auxiliary verbs or auxiliary adjectives following a verb in the te form.
The basic meaning they add is do.. Which one of these verbs you use depends on who the giver and the receiver are and what their relationship is. I cleaned your room as a help! Yamada-san ga honto no koto o watashi ni hanashite kuremashita. She told me the truth and I appreciate it. Sensei ni suisenjo o kaite itadakimashita. Ototo no shukudai o tetsudatte yarimashita.
Ebi wo kau - Buying Shrimps (Japanese Edition) - Kindle edition by Kazuya Akimoto. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. スーパーでエビを 買 か ってください。 suupaa de ebi o katte kudasai. Meaning: Please buy shrimp from the supermarket. Part of speech: sentence. Pronunciation.
I helped my younger brother do his homework. Sensei ga suisenjo o kaite 2. Sensei ni suisenjo o kaite 3. Haha ga kukkl o tsukutte 4. Chichi no kuruma o aratte 5. Although it is a verb, it represents a state rather than an action. Likewise, the auxiliary verb l ' 1? An activity progressively continues over a period of time. An activity takes place regularly, such as every day or every week.
An activity took place in the past and still influences the current state. The context can help you figure out the meaning of a sentence. It is also useful to know that some verbs can express actions that can be repeated and prolonged, such as drinking and walking, but others can only express one-time action or change-of-state actions, such as getting married, going, or opening. The latter kind of verbs cannot express progressive state. The follow- ing are examples of these three states: Watashi wa ima piza o tabete imasu.
I am eating pizza now. Haha wa daigaku de eigo o oshiete imasu. Chichi wa ginko de hataraite imasu. Ototo wa koko ni itte imasu. My mother teaches English at a college. My father works at a bank. My younger brother goes to high school, habitual state Tanaka-san wa kotoba o yoku shitte imasu ne. Hon o takusan yonde iru n desho. Chichi wa ima Osaka ni itte imasu. Ashita wa uchi ni kaerimasu.
My father has gone to Osaka. My older sister is married, resulting state Which state do the underlined phrases represent: Onesan wa gakusei-san desu ka. Hai, ane wa daigaku ni itte imasu. IT o Oni san wa ima uchi ni irasshaimasu ka. Ie, ima Osaka ni itte imasu. Ie, ima koko de tenisu o shite imasu. Auxiliaries that follow verbs in the te form 65 4.
Yamada-san wa kurasu ni kite imasu ka. I did all homework! Please keep this matter a secret because otherwise, it would cause a problem. Complete the following passage appropriately. Isshoni sukiyaki o tabemasu. Kyo wa heya o okimasu. Sorekara, nomimono o okimasu. Niku to yasai wa ashita kaimasu. Tanaka will come to my home tomorrow. We will have sukiyaki together. I will clean my room today. Then, I will buy drinks. I will buy meat and vegetables tomorrow.
Oishii desu kara tabete mite kudasai. Kono doresu o kite mite mo ii desu ka. Is it okay to wear this dress? Choose from the following list of verbs to complete the sentences. Make sure to conjugate each verb appropriately. He is a nice person, so please try meeting him. I tried using it, but it was a bit inconvenient. Auxiliaries that follow verbs in the te form 67 3. I tried putting it on, but it was a bit short. This job is not very good. Please try thinking about it one more time. Complete the foilowing sentences appropriately. Ashita wa tesuto ga aru node okimasu. I forgot the kanji again.
Let's finish doing our homework. Please try using it. The auxiliary verb V iku shows the initiation of the action or change at the time of the speech and its continuation thereafter. Korekara dandan atatakaku natte ikimasu yo. It will gradually become warmer and warmer. From now on, I will start trying my best and will continue to do so. Every year, I shall make the questions in the exam gradually more difficult. Samuku natte kimashita ne. Nihongo no bunpo ga wakatte kimashita. I have come to understand Japanese grammar.
Recently, I started to get accustomed to it little by little. Yatto bunpo ga wakatte ikimasu, ikimashita, kimashita. I started to understand grammar. Korekara mo ganbatte benkyo shite ikimasu, ikimashita, kimashita. Korekara mo yoroshiku onegai shimasu. I will continue to try my best and study from now on also. Thank you in advance for your support. Korekara wa atsuku natte ikimasu yo, kimashita yo. It will gradually become hot from now on. Saikin atsuku natte ikimasu ne, kimashita ne.
It started to become hot recently. Auxiliaries that follow verbs in the te form The item can be marked by 1v ga or o. However, if marked by o, it implies that the action was performed by the speaker. In this case, there is no implication about who performed the action. See Chapter 5 for transitive and intransitive verbs. Doa ga shimete arimasu. The door is closed. Following the example, convert the sentences to include SO. Dareka ga teburu no ue ni kabin o okimashita. Someone placed a vase on the table. Dareka ga kabe ni posuta o harimashita. Someone glued a poster on the wall.
A poster is glued on the wall. Dareka ga shatsu o kabe ni kakemashita. Someone hung a shirt on the wall. Dareka ga mado o akemashita. Someone opened the window. Dareka ga denki o tsukemashita. Someone turned on the light. A shirt is hung on the wall. The window is open. The light is on. Dareka ga misoshiru o tsukurimashita. The person who performs the action is marked by the particle C ni. To express what you do not want the person to do, use the verb in the nai form followed by the particle T: Mo uchi ni wa konai de hoshii desu.
I want that person to go somewhere. I want him not to come to my house anymore. For example, the following sentence means the same as the above sentence: Mo uchi ni wa konai de moraitai desu. Complete the Japanese passage so it has the following meaning. My younger brother's room is dirty. I want him to make it cleaner.
I don't want him to put his clothes on the floor.