As in Year 5, the use of metacognitive and social strategies was the most frequent among the high-achieving students; however, cognitive strategy use was also relatively high.
Charoento and Rao reported the same results, so we can confirm his previous research outcomes that high achievers avail themselves of strategies significantly more frequently than low-performing learners. According to our results, we found that children who prefer foreign language learning reported significantly higher strategy use.
As regards foreign language marks, the relationships between different kinds of strategy users and their foreign language marks were low. Children with high proficiency did not necessarily employ each of the strategies at a higher rate. The same result was reached by Chen The relationship between affective strategies and school achievement was not significant. We observed that children who use LLS have positive attitudes toward language learning.
So our findings partly confirmed previous results reported by Jabbari and Golkar and Platsidou and Kantaridou Concerning the impact of strategy use on foreign language learning attitudes, proficiency and general school achievement.
In Year 5 the effect of the questionnaire fields on foreign language attitude was considerably high; attitudes were strongly influenced by metacognitive strategies, and the effect of social strategies was also high. While memory and cognitive strategies showed positive paths to attitudes, compensation and affective strategies indicated negative effects on attitudes. Foreign language attitudes signified the same effect on foreign language marks as these marks did on general achievement. A lower but significant effect of metacognitive strategies was found on general school achievement in Year 5.
In Year 8, we found similar tendencies. The effect of metacognitive strategies on foreign language attitudes was very high, while that of memory strategies was low. The effect of social strategies was lost in Year 8. The impact of foreign language attitude on the foreign language mark was almost the same as in Year 5, but that of the foreign language mark on general school achievement was twice as high. Shawer likewise highlighted what our results have also shown: Metacognitive strategies also had a direct effect on foreign language marks.
On the whole, not only did we observe a strong use of metacognitive strategies, but the effect of metacognitive strategies on attitudes was also dominant in both years. Moreover, metacognitive strategies influenced school achievement in Year 5 and foreign language marks in Year 8. To sum up, our results demonstrated that like other studies, our Hungarian sample showed significant preferences for metacognitive strategy use.
We observed significant differences between more and less proficient students in strategy use. In line with other research Platsidou and Kantaridou, , we conclude that more proficient learners avail themselves of a broader range of strategies than less proficient students and strategy use has a significant effect on foreign language marks. The research focused on the whole language process in connexion with several other factors among young students.
The added value of our research is not only that we discovered relationships between factors required for foreign language learning, but direct and indirect underlying effects have also been brought to light through path analysis. These analyses provide a comprehensive view both of the dominant role of metacognitive strategies and of the foreign language learning process generally.
In spite of its value, the study has certain limitations. Qualitative methods would make it possible to gain a more detailed understanding of foreign language learning through interviews, including think-aloud procedures and classroom observations.
Language learning strategies is a term referring to the processes and actions that are consciously deployed by language learners to help them to learn or use a language more effectively. At the time it was thought that a better understanding of strategies deployed by successful learners could help inform teachers and. use of language learning strategies which will lead researchers to better understanding They do not only aid language learning, but also the learning of other.
Second, the current research into LLS and proficiency among Hungarian students was conducted with participants from two different years at the lower secondary school level, so generalisation of the results is limited. In addition, our sample was not representative. Further research would be necessary to fully examine the relationship between language learning strategies, language learning attitudes, foreign language proficiency and general achievement among Hungarian students in a variety of years and in a larger sample.
Third, the current research only used two measurement points of proficiency, the foreign language mark and general achievement, which are evaluated by different teachers. In future, we will collect a wider range of language proficiency data, including language proficiency test and interviews. The main purpose of the present study was to ascertain the effect of LLS on other variables, such as foreign language attitude, foreign language proficiency and general school achievement among secondary school children in Hungary at the beginning and end of lower secondary school.
In the beginner phase of learning foreign languages, it is important to better understand the relationship between language learning and related factors.
Hence, our main objective was to provide a complex overview of these measurement points and to examine how LLS can support children in the first phase of the language learning process. This provided the basis for our research. Past research has demonstrated that students with more frequent LLS use have better chances to become more proficient language learners. It has been pointed out that students that are more proficient engage in a wider range of strategies and select learning strategies dependent on learning tasks.
Thus, teachers are encouraged to introduce a range of strategies for children to be able to select those that are most appropriate to features of their personality and relevant to learning tasks. At this age, introducing LLS is significant, particularly for children with low and average foreign language marks.
It would be essential to motivate children to discover a variety of ways to practise their foreign language and find opportunities to read and engage in conversations with others. Children who are able to recognise the significance of language learning and use a broad range of strategies can find new ways and opportunities to practise language and to improve their proficiency. Hence, it would be highly recommended to integrate LLS consciously into foreign language lessons. This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the University of Szeged.
According to these recommendations participation in the study was voluntary both for schools and students. The whole process is permitted and coordinated by the school holding municipalities. The agreements are documented and stored in written forms in the schools. The authors declare that data collection and handling strictly adhered to the usual standards of research ethics as approved by the University of Szeged.
AH and AM substantially contributed to the conception and design of the study, data collection, analysis and interpretation of data for the research. Both have written the manuscript and reviewed all parts of the manuscript. AH and AM have given final approval of the final version to be published.
AH and AM agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Language learning strategies use by Saudi EFL students: Strategy inventory for language learning—ELL student form: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming , 2nd Edn. Issues in language learning strategy research and teaching. Individual learner differences and language learning strategies. Age differences in the use of language learning strategies.
Influence of grade level on perceptual learning style preferences and language learning strategies of Taiwanese English as a foreign language learners. Language learning strategies profiles of EFL learners in Nepal. Language learning strategies in elementary school: The twenty-first century landscape of language learning strategies: Extroverted students, on the other hand, are more likely to go out on a limb and try out their newly learned vocabulary. While students of all ages can learn a foreign language, there is consensus that certain aspects are affected by the age of the learner.
It becomes harder for students to have native pronunciation from the teen years. Most children move to a new country because of a parent's job, not by choice. Luckily, even if a child is unhappy at first, their attitude can shift if they feel welcomed by their teachers and supported by their parents. To learn more about the unique learning environment at Whitby, schedule a tour or download our guide to the difference between an N8 and K12 education. Motivation Is the child being forced to learn, or do they want to learn the language?
Learning Environment How does the child feel in the classroom? Teaching Strategies How is the language taught? Comprehensible Input How attainable does the language feel to the student? Student Personality Is the student introverted or extroverted? Communication strategies are used by speakers when faced with some difficulty due to the fact that their communication ends outrun their communication means or when confronted with misunderstanding by a co-speaker.
Social Strategies Social strategies are those activities learners engage in which afford them opportunities to be exposed to and practise their knowledge. Although these strategies provide exposure to the target language, they contribute indirectly to learning since they do not lead directly to the obtaining, storing, retrieving, and using of language Rubin and Wenden Oxford divides language learning strategies into two main classes, direct and indirect, which are further subdivided into 6 groups.
In Oxford's system, metacognitive strategies help learners to regulate their learning. Affective strategies are concerned with the learner's emotional requirements such as confidence, while social strategies lead to increased interaction with the target language. Cognitive strategies are the mental strategies learners use to make sense of their learning, memory strategies are those used for storage of information, and compensation strategies help learners to overcome knowledge gaps to continue the communication.
Creating mental linkages B. Applying images and sounds C. Receiving and sending messages strategies C. Analysing and reasoning D. Creating structure for input and output III. Centering your learning B. Arranging and planning your learning C. Evaluating your learning II. Lowering your anxiety B.
Taking your emotional temperature III. Cooperating with others C. Emphathising with others It can be seen that much of the recent work in this area has been underpinned by a broad concept of language learning strategies that goes beyond cognitive processes to include social and communicative strategies. Metacognitive Strategies Cognitive Strategies Socioaffective Strategies Metacognitive Strategies It can be stated that metacognitive is a term to express executive function, strategies which require planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one's production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed.
Among the main metacognitive strategies, it is possible to include advance organizers, directed attention, selective attention, self-management, functional planning, self-monitoring, delayed production, self-evaluation. Cognitive Strategies Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.
Repetition, resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking, deduction, recombination, imagery, auditory representation, key word, contextualization, elaboration, transfer, inferencing are among the most important cognitive strategies. Socioaffective Strategies As to the socioaffective strategies, it can be stated that they are related with social-mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and question for clarification are the main socioaffective strategies Brown These are as follows: A learner can take charge of the development of his own programme when he is helped by a teacher whose role is that of an adviser and resource person.
That is to say that the learner must: Cognitive Strategies They are steps or operations used in learning or problem solving that require direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning materials. In the following, some of the cognitive strategies are exhibited: The purpose of using these techniques is to avoid interrupting the flow of communication Stern Interpersonal Strategies They should monitor their own development and evaluate their own performance. Learners should contact with native speakers and cooperate with them.
Learners must become acquainted with the target culture Stern Affective Strategies It is evident that good language learners employ distinct affective strategies. Language learning can be frustrating in some cases. In some cases, the feeling of strangeness can be evoked by the foreign language. In some other cases, L2 learners may have negative feelings about native speakers of L2. Good language learners are more or less conscious of these emotional problems.
Offering an immersion experience helps students connect the language learning to their everyday lives, but rote vocabulary memorization and grammar drills create 'meaning-less' language lessons. To sum up, our results demonstrated that like other studies, our Hungarian sample showed significant preferences for metacognitive strategy use. Thus, teachers are encouraged to introduce a range of strategies for children to be able to select those that are most appropriate to features of their personality and relevant to learning tasks. Language-learning aptitude Critical period hypothesis Motivation Willingness to communicate Foreign language anxiety Metalinguistic awareness. The language teacher should also study his own teaching method and overall classroom style. Follow the link or type the following address into your internet browser to reach the home page for OomRoom: Share your thoughts on this in the comments below.