Notwithstanding this strong recommendation, the Government of the day did not come to any practical conclusion, and even refused to guarantee the interest on the capital Two years later Disraeli effected the purchase ot the Suez Canal shares, and, a dreaded competitor being thus eliminated, Great Britain lost for the time being all further interest in the Baghdad Railway.
Turkey now began to take interest in the idea. In a report submitted to the Sultan in by the Minister of Public Works, the Baghdad Railway took first place among the various public undertakings under consideration. The project had no better fate than the others, including those which had agitated public opinion between and Among them was that promoted by a syndicate under the chairmanship of the Duke of Sutherland, who sent an expedition headed by the great explorer Cameron to map out the line.
With the widening ot the Suez Canal in , Great Britain was confirmed in her withdrawal from the field. Although France had great political and commercial interests in Turkey, she confined her railway activities to lines of a more local character. In a new competitor suddenly appeared. This was Germany, whose influence at the Court of the Sultan grew with the weakening of British and French influence. In October, , Europe was startled by the news that the Sultan had granted a concession to Germany for the construction of the railway from Ismid to Ankara via Eski Shehir.
The second step in the construction of the Baghdad Railway was thus ensured. A new era in railway politics now began for Turkey. During the next five years concessions were granted for railways in Asia Minor totalling 2, miles, the great majority to French and German capitalists. Great Britain remained outside.
Germany, mainly through the far-sighted policy of the Deutsche Bank, assured herself a steadily growing influence at Constantinople now Istanbul. The section through the Taurus Mountains was completed during the war of The original idea was to penetrate the range by one tunnel, but a series of twelve tunnels and bridges had to be built. The concrete bridges have a total length of yards, and the tunnels a total length of 7 miles yards. Above is a viaduct between two tunnel mouths.
This German company took over from the State the old line from Haydarpasa to Ismid. Work was begun in May, In December the line to Ankara, a distance of miles, was completed. This line was built by a number of contractors, again headed by Philipp Hoizmann. Two years later the Turkish Government began negotiations with the Anatolian Railway for the construction of the Baghdad Railway. Whereas previous projects had favoured a line from Ankara via Sivas, the extension of the line from Konia now found considerable favour. A number of new parties appeared on the scene with fresh schemes. Among these parties was a British group, of whom an interesting story is told.
It is said that, in the hope of obtaining the Sultans personal intervention in their favour, the aspirants presented Abdul Hamid with a map worked in pure silver on which the projected railway line was set out in costly gems. About this time also Russia submitted plans for railways to link up with the Russian railways ; two main lines to Baghdad and Basra on the Persian Gulf were to be connected via Tabriz, in Persia, with the Trans-Caucasian Railways.
But all these projects were either financially unsound or politically suspect. The German Emperor now made his spectacular and fruitful visit to Constantinople. Various new railway concessions and the construction of the harbour works at Havdarpasa were the immediate result. Moreover, the imperial visit was not without influence on the negotiations about the Baghdad Railway then proceeding. At the instance of the Government the Anatolian Railway Company dispatched a Commission of German engineers and experts to investigate the proposed route of the Baghdad Railway.
During their absence the activities of the chairman of the Deutsche Bank, Dr. The provisional agreement, signed on November 27, , was a bombshell in the European chancelleries. Many obstacles were still to be overcome and years passed until the opposition raised by Russia and England was overcome. Russia, who had cleverly managed to prevent the construction from Ankara via Sivas, was opposed also to the new southern line from Konia. Great Britain's attitude, which so far had remained that of an aloof spectator, sceptical as to the final outcome, was distinctly hostile now that the Baghdad Railway had entered upon the stage of realization.
France having invested so much capital in the country, could not remain indifferent. During the war of the Baghdad Railway became of strategic importance, and, to speed up construction, narrow-gauge lines were first laid. The alteration of the Taurus line to standard gauge did not take place until October, The above photograph was taken during the early days of the enterprise.
After the Armistice with Turkey the line passed temporarily under British control and the work was continued. An understanding between the Deutsche Bank and the French capitalists was, however, arrived at, by which the capital of the new company to be formed was to be divided between the two countries in equal shares and with equal rights.
A new technical Commission was sent during the winter of to establish the definitive route of the railway. At the same time the German cruiser "Arkona" surveyed the Persian Gulf to determine the most suitable locality for a terminus of the railway. The report of the Commission declared that the construction of the line from Konia would be feasible but difficult, and suggested several alterations in the route.
This alteration was made in deference to the representations of the Turkish Government, which did not favour the construction of the line along the coast where it might be exposed to enemy fleets.
Another important alteration was that which moved the line via Nisibin, and the transfer of the line from Mosul to Baghdad from the eastern to the western bank of the Euphrates. The contract was signed in after all the financial arrangements had been made. But here the other European Powers, signatories of the Dette Ottomans the Turkish Public Debts Control Board , intervened, and it seemed as if an agreement would be difficult to reach. The conflicting political interests of the various European countries hampered the construction of the overland route to the East, and once more the Chancelleries of Europe were busy, once more Asia Minor, as thousands of years before, dominated the attention of the world.
To make a start with the construction of the railway, it was decided to divide the whole line into independent sections of miles, the completion of which and the guarantee funds for which would be independent of one another.
In this way it was possible for the Government to find the guarantee funds out of other sources without encroaching upon the Dette Ottomans conditions. On March 5, , the appropriate decree was signed by the Sultan, Abdul Hamid, and the great work was now to begin. Nearly seventy years had elapsed since the first idea of a Baghdad Railway had been conceived by Colonel Chesney.
Two clauses in the agreement are of particular interest, as they show the respect Abdul Hamid had for Britain. Paragraph 8 of the concession stipulated that the railway must never pass into other hands, while Paragraph 29 provided that the line between Baghdad and the Persian Gulf was not to be opened for traffic until the line from Constantinople to Baghdad had been completed.
Boring had to be carried out mostly through limestone rock. Tunnels were lined only in the sections which required strengthening ; but in the majority of places no lining was necessary, as the rock was sufficiently hard and solid. In view of the international character of the railway the company endeavoured to interest British capital.
London financial circles, as well as the British Government, were favourably inclined towards a financial participation, when suddenly a violent press campaign was launched against the venture. The result was that both Government and the London market withdrew. Thus it came about that Great Britain still remained outside. The construction of the first section, from Konia via Eregli to Bulgurlu, was begun in July, , by a syndicate formed lor the purpose, in which the Philipp Hoizmann Company of Frankfurt again took the leading part.
Eighteen months later this section of miles was completed. It was, for administrative purposes, provisionally transferred to the Anatolian Railway Company. This section is between the stations of Adana and Aleppo. The inability of the Turkish Government to find the necessary guarantee funds delayed the construction of other sections, and years had to pass until all these difficulties were overcome. It was not till , after the unification of the Turkish Debt, that sufficient funds became available for the conclusion of an additional agreement for the extension of the line to Helif miles.
But they can help us to identify children who are vulnerable and who may need extra support. To speed up construction, it was decided to build the remaining sections to the narrow gauge of 60 cm. But nothing ever came of it, as the Crimean War of was soon to convulse Europe. What can early intervention achieve? Such pleasure is greatly enhanced by the fascination which a trip by the "Taurus Express" exercises, even on the most jaded mind.
After many vicissitudes a conference was held in at Potsdam Berlin , at which the principal European powers were represented. This led to a further additional international agreement whereby the Baghdad Railway Company obtained a concession for continuing the line from Helif to Baghdad.
But the railway company relinquished its right to the construction of the railway from Baghdad to Basra, on the Persian Gulf. This was transferred to a Turkish company constituted for the purpose. Germany further undertook not to build any port or railway station on the Persian Gulf without British consent. By this move the company came to an understanding with Great Britain. During the period from to the outbreak of the war of an aggregate of miles in different parts of the country was opened for traffic.
During the war the German Government advanced the necessary capital to the Turkish Government, as the completion of the line was a matter of vital importance to the German and Turkish armies. To speed up construction, it was decided to build the remaining sections to the narrow gauge of 60 cm. By the beginning of the mountain ranges of the Taurus and the Caucasus had been pierced and through communication established.
The alteration of the Taurus line to standard gauge was completed in October —a few weeks before the Armistice, and not, therefore, of much benefit to the German and Turkish armies. After the Armistice the line passed temporarily under British control and work was continued.
During the war the British troops had built a strategic line of metre 3 ft. Up to a few years ago, that is, before the International Sleeping Car Company had inaugurated the service of the "Taurus Express" in connexion with the "Simplon Express," the journey across Asia Minor was somewhat of an ordeal. To-day, however, it is rendered as pleasant as anywhere in Europe.
Such pleasure is greatly enhanced by the fascination which a trip by the "Taurus Express" exercises, even on the most jaded mind. It is difficult indeed to conceive a journey through any other land which leaves such a deep impression on the mind. On the "Taurus Express" the passenger falls a victim to the spell of a great past.
Here is a bygone culture, buried beneath the sands of the desert, here and there are brought to light traces of mighty cities and of mightier kingdoms.
Haydarpasa, on the Asiatic side of the Bosporus, the starting-point of the journey, lies opposite Istanbul, once Constantinople. Istanbul, extending along the Golden Horn, with its thousands of minarets glittering in the sun, is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Haydarpasa, the former terminus of the Anatolian Railways, is a large structure built in a rather florid style, a blend of Western and Oriental architecture. Under the efficient administration of the Turkish State Railways the station has been modernized and presents an up-to-date aspect, with all the appurtenances of a busy railway centre.
Adana is a busy commercial centre on the banks of the River Sheihun, and here the "Taurus Express" leaves the territory of the Turkish State Railways to enter Syria on the lines of a French company. The French railway is used as far as Aleppo. A powerful locomotive, built by one of the great German works, is ready to haul the train, which is composed of two sleepers, a dining-car, and a luggage van.
There are also first, second and third-class ordinary coaches between Haydarpasa and Adana. The station and train staff have a smart appearance. The staff of the dining-car is busy taking in large blocks of ice, and fruit is delivered in large baskets. The train leaves at 9. Soon after steaming out of the station we travel among beautiful suburbs, with princely villas among flowering gardens on the coast of the Sea of Marmora and along the Gulf of Ismid.
The gulf affords a beautiful view, with Istanbul in the background. After the station ot Ismid the line runs through swampy land on the banks of the Lake Sabaudja, and enters the fertile valley of Sakaria, where tobacco and chillies are cultivated by Muhadjers Turkish peasants , who were settled here by the Turkish Government. They are mostly immigrants from districts which are now under foreign rule. The line then enters the valley of the Karasu, an affluent of the Sakaria, and rises feet in a distance of seven and a half miles.
Bridges, tunnels, and cuttings alternate in almost continuous sequence. The great Anatolian plateau lies in front of us—a vast expanse, intensively cultivated in parts, almost desert in others, where water is extremely scarce. For everything there is a season, and after more than a decade of serving as a community and resource for parents, Babble will be saying goodbye.
To all the moms, dads, family, friends, writers, and readers who supported us — thank you. We are so grateful for the time spent sharing your stories and your There's no crying in baseball! Let's have a slow clap for Gen Z, shall we? Looks like Christmas just came early. How many guys will swipe right if my profile says, "I like to eat ice cream from the carton and fall asleep on my couch in my underwear?
Just take all our money. November Horoscopes for Moms.
Wishing you good vibes this month, mamas!