Literary scandals result from some kind of fraud; either the authors are not who they say they are, or the facts have been misrepresented or they contain some defamation of another person. For example, two books by Holocaust survivors , Angel at the Fence by Herman Rosenblat and A Memoir of the Holocaust Years Misha Defonseca, were found to be based on false information,  while a prize won by novelist Helen Darville created a scandal in around the author's fraudulently claimed ancestry.
A political scandal occurs when political corruption or other misbehavior is exposed. Politicians or government officials are accused of engaging in illegal, corrupt, or unethical practices. A political scandal can involve the breaking of the nation's laws or moral codes and may involve other types of scandal.
Though persecuted his revelations proved to be true resulting in booking the culprits. Portraying a damaging status of corporate Japan, Woodford, in his memoirs has said: Since the development of printing , the media has had greater power to expose scandals and since the advent of mass media, this power has increased.
Following the Watergate scandal in the United States, other English-speaking countries have borrowed the suffix "gate" and added it to scandals of their own. Journalistic scandals relate to high-profile incidents or acts, whether done purposefully or by accident. It could be in violation of normally in vogue ethics and standards of journalism. It could also be in violation of the 'ideal' mission of journalism: The American quiz show of the s generated "hypnotic intensity" among viewers and contestants. The quiz show scandals were driven by a drive for financial gain, a willingness of contestants to "play along" with the assistance, and the lack of regulation prohibiting the rigging of game shows.
In October , a New York grand jury was instituted by prosecutor Joseph Stone and the matter was examined with recording of closed-door testimony. Following this, the US Congress ruled rigging a quiz show a federal crime. The TV soap opera titled "Scandal" a popular show on the American Television ABC channel has been dubbed a "self-absorbed, overblown, overacted, pretentious, soliloquy-laden car-wreck-of-a-series.
Corbin testified in front of the investigation committee. Circuit Justice John F. Sumner's accusation was not an exaggeration. An Democratic investigation was able to temporarily shut down the ring, but it reconstituted itself and continued until a federal trial in , under President Chester A. The historic testimony came on Saturday, February 12, On February 17, , U. Doping scandals have plagued the Olympic games as well, such as in the Doping in East Germany scandal and the Asian Games in
A sex scandal is a scandal involving allegations or information about possibly-immoral sexual activities being made public. Sex scandals are often associated with sexual affairs of film stars , politicians , famous athletes and others in the public eye, and become scandals largely because of the prominence of the person involved, perceptions of hypocrisy on their part, or the non- normative or non- consensual nature of their sexual activity.
A desire for success and financial gain or the abuse of power in sport have also created many scandals both at an individual and the organisational level. Scandals arising from corruption have an impact of the credibility of sport. The World Anti-Doping Agency , as part of its role to "promote, coordinate and monitor the fight against drugs in sports", has showed that bribery, doping by athletes and doping sample-tampering, have occurred in collusion with national and international sporting organizations.
Some consider that doping is "now endemic" in the world of sport and is becoming extremely pervasive, including more and more sports. One of the biggest individual scandals flowed from revelations that former American cycling champion Lance Armstrong had achieved success by consistent, long-term cheating.
One of the biggest institutional sporting scandals is the FIFA corruption case. Doping scandals have plagued the Olympic games as well, such as in the Doping in East Germany scandal and the Asian Games in Scandals in match games such as Major League baseball and cricket may relate to spot-fixing or gambling. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Scandal disambiguation.
A scandal can be broadly defined as an accusation or accusations that receive wide exposure. Among the most famous of fictional stories about scandal School for Scandal () by Richard Brinsley Sheridan and . Scandal!: An Explosive Exposé of the Affairs, Corruption and Power Struggles of the Rich and Famous. Ulysses S. Grant and his administration, including his cabinet, suffered many scandals, leading For example, when the Whiskey Ring scandal broke out in , Grant, in a reforming The following are scandals or instances of federal corruption associated with the Navy Department corruption was exposed in
List of corporate collapses and scandals. Roman Catholic sex abuse cases and Political sex scandals of the United States. List of sporting scandals and Olympic Games scandals and controversies. On October 19, , Grant made another reforming cabinet choice when he appointed Zachariah Chandler as Secretary of the Interior. Chandler immediately went to work reforming the Interior Department by dismissing all the important clerks in the Patent Office. Chandler had discovered that during Delano's tenure, money had been paid to fictitious clerks while other clerks had been paid without performing any services.
Chandler next turned to the Department of Indian Affairs to reform another Delano debacle. President Grant ordered Chandler to fire everyone, saying, "Have those men dismissed by 3 o'clock this afternoon or shut down the bureau. Many of these agents were unqualified and swindled the Native American tribes into believing they had a voice in Washington.
Attorney General George H. There were rumors that Williams was taking bribes in exchange for declining to prosecute pending trial cases. When informed of this, Grant forced Williams's resignation. Williams had also indiscreetly used Justice Department funds to pay for carriage and household expenses. The worst and most famous scandal to hit the Grant administration was the Whiskey Ring of , exposed by Treasury Secretary Benjamin H.
Bristow and journalist Myron Colony. Whiskey distillers had been evading taxes in the Midwest since the Lincoln Administration. The agents would neglect to collect the required excise tax of 70 cents per gallon, and then split the illegal gains with the distillers.
The ringleaders had to coordinate distillers, rectifiers, gaugers, storekeepers, revenue agents, and Treasury clerks by recruitment, impressment, and extortion. On January 26, , Bristow ordered Internal Revenue officers in various sites to different locations, effective February 15, , on a suggestion from Grant. This would keep the fraudulent officers off guard and allow investigators to uncover their misdeeds.
Grant later rescinded the order on the grounds that advance notice would cause the ringleaders to cover their tracks and become suspicious. Although moving the supervisors most certainly would have disrupted the ring, Bristow conceded that he would need documentary evidence on the ring's inner workings to prosecute the perpetrators.
Bristow, undaunted, kept investigating, and found the ring's secrets by sending Myron Colony and other spies to gather whiskey shipping and manufacturing information. On May 13, , with Grant's endorsement, Bristow struck hard at the ring, seized the distilleries, and made hundreds of arrests.
The Whiskey Ring was broken. Bristow, with the cooperation of Attorney General Edwards Pierrepont and Treasury Solicitor Bluford Wilson , launched proceedings to bring many members of the ring to trial. Bristow had obtained information that the Whiskey Ring operated in Missouri , Illinois , and Wisconsin. Missouri Revenue Agent John A. Babcock , the private secretary to the President , were eventually indicted in the Whiskey Ring trials.
Grant then appointed a special prosecutor, former senator John B. Henderson , to go after the ring. Henderson, while in the Senate, had been the administration's worst critic, and Grant appointed him to maintain integrity in the Whiskey Ring investigation. Henderson convened a grand jury, which found that Babcock was one of the ringleaders. Grant received a letter to this effect, on which he wrote, "Let no guilty man escape. After Babcock's indictment, Grant requested that Babcock go through a military trial rather than a public trial, but the grand jury denied his request.
In a reversal of his "let no guilty man escape," order to Sec. Bristow, Grant unexpectedly issued an order not to give any more immunity to persons involved in the Whiskey Ring, leading to speculation that he was trying to protect Babcock. Although this reversal had the appearance of not letting the guilty get away, the prosecutor's trial cases were made more difficult to prove in court. The order caused strife between Sec. Bristow and Grant, since Bristow needed distillers to testify with immunity in order to pursue the ringleaders.
The accusation angered Grant, who fired Henderson as special prosecutor. Grant then replaced Henderson with James Broadhead. Broadhead, though a capable attorney, had little time to get acquainted with the facts of Babcock's case and those of other Whiskey Ring members. At the trial a deposition was read from President Grant stating that he had no knowledge that Babcock was involved in the ring.
The jury listened to the president's words and quickly acquitted Babcock of any charges. Broadhead went on to close out all the other cases in the Whiskey Ring. The Whiskey Ring scandal even came to the steps of the White House. There were rumors that Grant himself was involved with the ring and was diverting its profits to his re-election campaign. Grant needed to clear his own name as well as Babcock's. Earlier, Grant had refused to believe Babcock was guilty even when Bristow and Wilson personally presented him with damaging evidence, such as two telegrams signed "Sylph"; Babcock suggested that the signature was that of a woman giving the president "a great deal of trouble", hoping that Wilson would back off for fear of igniting a presidential sex scandal, but Wilson was not bluffed.
On the advice of Secretary of State Hamilton Fish , the President did not testify in open court but instead gave a deposition in front of a congressional legal representative at the White House. Grant was the first and, to date, only president ever to testify for a defendant.
The historic testimony came on Saturday, February 12, Chief Justice Morrison R. Waite , a Grant appointment to the U. Supreme Court , presided over the deposition. On February 17, , U. Circuit Justice John F. Dillon , another Grant appointment, overruled Cook's objections, declaring the questions admissible in court. Grant, who was known for a photographic memory , had many uncharacteristic lapses when it came to remembering incidents involving Babcock. The deposition strategy worked and the Whiskey Ring prosecution never went after Grant again.
During Babcock's trial in St. Louis the deposition was read to the jury. Babcock was acquitted at trial. After the trial, Grant distanced himself from Babcock. After the acquittal, Babcock initially returned to his position as Grant's private secretary outside the President's office. At public outcry and the objection of Hamilton Fish , Babcock was dismissed as private secretary and focused on another position that he had been given by Grant in Grant's Pulitzer Prize winning biographer, William S.
McFeely , stated that Grant knew Babcock was guilty and perjured himself in the deposition. According to McFeely the "evidence was irrefutable" against Babcock, and Grant knew this. Grant historian Jean Edward Smith counters that evidence against Babcock was "circumstantial" and the St. Louis jury acquitted Babcock "in the absence of adequate proof. Grant" concludes correspondence between Babcock and his lawyers "leaves little doubt of Babcock's complicity in the Whiskey Ring.
Many of Grant's friends who knew him claimed that the President was "a truthful man" and it was "impossible for him to lie. Willson told future Supreme Court Justice John Harlan, "What hurt Bristow most of all and disheartened him is the final conviction that Grant is himself in the Ring and knows all about [it]"  Grant's popularity, however, decreased significantly in the country as a result of his testimony and after Babcock was acquitted in the trial.
Grant's political enemies used this deposition as a launchpad to public office. When Secretary Benjamin Bristow struck suddenly at the Whiskey Ring in May , many people were arrested and the distilleries involved in the scandal were shut down.
Bristow's investigation resulted in federal indictments. There were convictions, and three million dollars in tax revenues were recovered from the ring. Grant had no time to recover after the Whiskey Ring graft trials ended, for another scandal erupted involving War Secretary William W. A Democratic House investigation committee revealed that Belknap had taken extortion money in exchange for an appointment to a lucrative Native American trading post. In , responding to extensive lobbying by Belknap, Congress had authorized the War Department to award private trading post contracts to military forts throughout the nation.
Belknap's wife Carrie, who desired to profit from these wealthy contracts, managed to secure a private trading post at Fort Sill for a personal friend from New York City , Caleb P. An extortion arrangement was set up among Carrie Belknap, Caleb P. Marsh, and incumbent contract holder John S.
Carrie Belknap died within the year, but William Belknap and his second wife continued to accept payments, though they were smaller due to a dip in Fort Sill's profits. Bass and Hiester Clymer.
During the testimony Marsh testified that Belknap and both his wives had accepted money in exchange for the lucrative trading post at Fort Sill. The scandal was particularly upsetting, in this Victorian age , since it involved women.
Custer later testified to the Clymer committee on March 29 and April 4 that Sec. Belknap had received kick back money from the profiteering scheme of post traders through the resale of food meant for Indians. After hearing about Belknap's predicament, Grant arranged a meeting with Representative Bass about the investigation. Belknap appeared visibly upset or ill, mumbling something about protecting his wives' honor and beseeching Grant to accept his resignation "at once. Grant historian Josiah Bunting III noted that Grant was never put on his guard when Secretary Belknap came to the White House in a disturbed manner or even asked why Belknap wanted to resign in the first place.
Bunting argues that Grant should have pressed Belknap into an explanation for the abrupt resignation request. Belknap was acquitted by the Senate , escaping with less than the two-thirds majority vote needed for conviction. Even though the Senate voted that it could put private citizens on trial, many senators were reluctant to convict Belknap since he was no longer Secretary of War. It has been suggested that Grant accepted the resignation in a Victorian impulse to protect the women involved. Congress allotted Secretary George M. In , a congressional committee headed by Representative Washington C.
The committee suspected that Robeson, who was responsible for naval spending, embezzled some of the missing money and laundered it in real estate transactions. This allegation remained unproven by the committee. The House Investigation committee had searched the disorganized books of Cattell, but found no evidence of payments to Robeson. Without enough evidence for impeachment, the House ended the investigation by admonishing Robeson for gross misconduct and claimed that he had set up a system of corruption known as Cattellism.
A competent authority claimed that the contractor had already been paid in full and there was no need for further reward. Robeson was also charged with awarding contracts to ship builder John Roach without public bidding. The latter charge proved to be unfounded. The close friendship with Daniel Ammen , Grant's longtime friend growing up in Georgetown, Ohio, helped Robeson keep his cabinet position.
On March 18, , Admiral David D. Porter wrote a letter to William T. Our cuttle fish [Robeson] of the navy although he may conceal his tracks for a while in the obscure atmosphere which surrounds him, will eventually be brought to bay Robeson was asked about the use of old material to build ironclads and whether he had the authority to dispose of the Puritan, an outdated ironclad. Although Robeson served ably during the Virginius Affair and did authorize the construction of five new Navy ships, his financial integrity remained in question and was suspect during the Grant administration.
To be fair, Congress gave Robeson limited funding to build ships and as Secretary was constantly finding ways to cut budgets. In September , Orville E. Babcock was involved in another scandal. On the night of April 23, , hired thieves opened the safe, using an explosive to make it appear that the safe had been broken into. One of the thieves then took the fake evidence to the house of Columbus Alexander, a citizen who was active in prosecuting the ring. The conspiracy came apart when two of the thieves turned state evidence and Alexander was exonerated in court.
Babcock was named as part of the conspiracy, but later acquitted in the trial against the burglars; evidence suggests that the jury had been tampered with. In Grant dismissed Babcock from the White House under public pressure due to Babcock's unpopularity. Babcock continued in government work, and became Chief Light House Inspector. In , Babcock drowned at sea at the age of 48 while supervising the building of Mosquito Inlet Light station.
The most infamous of Grant's cabinet or other presidential appointees who were involved in scandals or criminal activity:. Grant was accused by Senator Charles Sumner in of practicing nepotism while President. Sumner's accusation was not an exaggeration. Grant's cousin Silas A. Hudson was appointed minister to Guatemala. His brother-in-law Reverend M. Cramer was appointed as consul at Leipzig. His brother-in-law James F. Casey was given the position of Collector of Customs in New Orleans , Louisiana where he made money by stealing fees.
Frederick Dent, another brother-in-law was the White House usher and made money giving out insider information. In all, it is estimated that 40 relatives somehow financially prospered indirectly while Grant was President. The Liberal Republican movement initially began out of dissatisfaction with the centralized federal government controlled by the Radicals , a faction of the Republican Party who favored African American civil rights, a patronage system, high tariffs, and disenfranchising former confederates.
It was the Radicals who sponsored the Presidency of Ulysses S. Senator Schurz, did not favor federal military intervention in Southern affairs or protecting blacks, and he was against miscegenation. In , Senator Carl Schurz and B. The founders argued that dependent citizens, corruption, and centralized power endangered people's liberty.
The party advocated confederate amnesty, civil service reform, and free trade. As the party grew nationally prominent persons joined including Charles Francis Adams, Jr. Grant, who was persuaded that the Liberal Republicans were bolting from the Republican Party, used the patronage system to purge them out of office in Missouri. Grant again nominated by the more conservative Radicals. The result being that the Democratic Party endorsed the reformer and Liberal Republican presidential candidate Horace Greeley. However, as more scandals broke out the Liberal Republicans became a party of reform who, along with the Democrats, wanted to purge the government from corruption.
The wave of reform was beginning in with the Democrats controlling the House of Representatives. Eventually, Grant put reformers on his cabinet as House investigations in were beginning to expose the Whiskey Ring depleting tax revenues in the United States Treasury Department. Newspapers exposed bogus agents in Interior Department in Navy Department corruption was exposed in No reformer was appointed to the Navy Department, however.
The Liberal Republican movement lasted from to and at times it is difficult to distinguish between party members, both Democrat and Republican, who adopted all or parts of the Liberal Republican reform agenda. Grant signed the Amnesty Act of , a Liberal Republican platform, that gave amnesty to former Confederates. Another instance occurred when the Democratic Party reluctantly and chaotically melded with the Liberal Republican Party in the presidential election of , in support of the reformer, Horace Greeley.
The height of the Liberal Republican era in the U. Congress was from the periods of to with 7 Liberal Republicans in the Senate and 4 Liberal Republicans in the House of Representatives. The Democratic Party reform movement in Congress, although initially a minority after the American Civil War , began during their investigation into the Grant Administration following the Black Friday gold speculation scandal in The Democratic reform movement sought to expose the corruption in the Grant Administration and to do this needed a majority in the House of Representatives.
Following the inability of the Grant Administration and Republican Congress to stop the damaging economic effects from Panic of , in addition to the unpopularity of the Republican Reconstruction Acts , the Democratic Party, on March 4, gained a majority in the House of Representatives. Having gained the majority, the Democrats became the reforming party. For the next two years they investigated corruption scandals in the Grant Administration to increase their chances of winning the presidential election. The scandals in the Grant Administration were indicative of greater national moral decline.
According to one respected historian, C. Vann Woodward , there are three primary forces that caused national corruption during this time period. The most compelling event that lead to corruption was the Civil War itself, unleashing a torrent of human depravity, deaths and unscrupulously gained riches enabled by persons who rose from deserved obscurity to powerful military and civilian positions.
These men—the claim agents, speculators, subsidy-seekers, government contractors, and the all-purpose crooks—were born from the war and entered politics after the fighting stopped. The second generator of corruption was the opening of the West and South to unrestrained exploitation that caused older parts of the country to fall into moral confusion. The third cause, according to Vann Woodward, was the rapid rise of American industrialism, which loosened the nation's standards and values.
Americans found themselves released from discipline and restraint by the rapid growth of industrial wealth after the Civil War. The nation and the constitution survived the rising tide of financial and political corruption during President Grant's two terms in office from to With slavery no longer the clear moral issue for the American people, and absent the dynamic leadership of Abraham Lincoln taken by an assassin's bullet, the nation for a while floundered in the seas of financial and political indulgence.
The high-water mark of the flood of corruption that swept the nation took place in , after Benjamin Bristow was put in charge to reform the Treasury. Between and , the United States population nearly doubled in size, gainful employment increased by percent, and non farm labor constituted 60 percent of the work force.
Inevitably, Grant's low standards in cabinet appointments, and his readiness to cover for associates or friends involved in condemnable behavior, defied the popular notion of a government free of corruption and favoritism. Stemming the flood of corruption that swept the nation during Grant's presidency and the Reconstruction period would have required the strength of a moral giant in the White House. Grant was no moral giant.
In fairness, the booming economy that proceeded after the Civil War enveloped the whole nation in a chaotic frenzy for achieving financial gain and success.