Among those categorized as postmodernist, literary minimalism is most commonly associated with Jon Fosse and especially Samuel Beckett.
Fragmentation is another important aspect of postmodern literature. Various elements, concerning plot, characters, themes, imagery and factual references are fragmented and dispersed throughout the entire work. Fragmentation purports, however, to depict a metaphysically unfounded, chaotic universe. It can occur in language, sentence structure or grammar. Exit , a fictional diary by Greek writer Dimitris Lyacos , one of the major exponents of fragmentation in postmodern literature,   an almost telegraphic style is adopted, devoid, in most part, of articles and conjunctions.
The text is interspersed with lacunae and everyday language combines with poetry and biblical references leading up to syntax disruption and distortion of grammar. A sense of alienation of character and world is created by a language medium invented to form a kind of intermittent syntax structure which complements the illustration of the main character's subconscious fears and paranoia in the course of his exploration of a seemingly chaotic world.
John Barth , the postmodernist novelist who talks often about the label "postmodern", wrote an influential essay in called " The Literature of Exhaustion " and in published "The Literature of Replenishment" in order to clarify the earlier essay. In "Literature of Replenishment" Barth says,. My ideal Postmodernist author neither merely repudiates nor merely imitates either his 20th-century Modernist parents or his 19th-century premodernist grandparents.
He has the first half of our century under his belt, but not on his back. The ideal Postmodernist novel will somehow rise above the quarrel between realism and irrealism, formalism and "contentism," pure and committed literature, coterie fiction and junk fiction Heller claimed his novel and many of the other American novels of the time had more to do with the state of the country after the war:.
The antiwar and anti government feelings in the book belong to the period following World War II: A general disintegration of belief took place then, and it affected Catch in that the form of the novel became almost disintegrated. Catch was a collage; if not in structure, then in the ideology of the novel itself Without being aware of it, I was part of a near-movement in fiction.
While I was writing Catch , J. I don't think any one of us even knew any of the others.
A revised version called The Dalkey Archive was published before the original in , two years before O'Brien died. Exit , a fictional diary by Greek writer Dimitris Lyacos , one of the major exponents of fragmentation in postmodern literature,   an almost telegraphic style is adopted, devoid, in most part, of articles and conjunctions. The parodic element is much more important in the American postmodernists than in the French new novelists. It is the study of the codes which govern meaning and of the structure of the message. Real narratives translate into one another:
Certainly I didn't know them. Whatever forces were at work shaping a trend in art were affecting not just me, but all of us. The feelings of helplessness and persecution in Catch are very strong in Cat's Cradle. In his Reflections on ' The Name of the Rose ' , the novelist and theorist Umberto Eco explains his idea of postmodernism as a kind of double-coding, and as a transhistorical phenomenon:.
I think of the postmodern attitude as that of a man who loves a very cultivated woman and knows that he cannot say to her "I love you madly", because he knows that she knows and that she knows he knows that these words have already been written by Barbara Cartland. Still there is a solution. He can say "As Barbara Cartland would put it, I love you madly".
At this point, having avoided false innocence, having said clearly it is no longer possible to talk innocently, he will nevertheless say what he wanted to say to the woman: Fiction" makes the connection between the rise of postmodernism and the rise of television with its tendency toward self-reference and the ironic juxtaposition of what's seen and what's said.
This, he claims, explains the preponderance of pop culture references in postmodern literature:. It was in post-atomic America that pop influences on literature became something more than technical. About the time television first gasped and sucked air, mass popular U. The episcopate of this pop-reference movement were the post-Nabokovian Black Humorists , the Metafictionists and assorted franc-and latinophiles only later comprised by "postmodern.
Hans-Peter Wagner offers this approach to defining postmodern literature:. In what follows, the term 'postmodernist' is used for experimental authors especially Durrell , Fowles , Carter , Brooke-Rose , Barnes , Ackroyd , and Martin Amis while "post- modern" is applied to authors who have been less innovative. This is a list of some well known examples of postmodern literature, in chronological order: List of postmodern novels. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
General Introduction to Postmodernism. College of Liberal Arts: Retrieved August 16, Four Essays on Don Quijote. The Example of William Gibson". University of Wisconsin Press. The latest in postmodern literary theory". Routledge, and "Constructing Postmodernism" New York: First published 24 October accessed 17 March Realism " Further Fridays.
Little, Brown and Company, A Poetics of Postmodernism: The History of English Literature , p. Techniques of subversion in modern literature: University Press of Florida, Archived from the original on Paula Geyh, Fred G. Leebron , and Andrew Levy.
Duke University Press, From Modernism to Postmodernism: Concepts and Strategies of Postmodern American Fiction: T Lehmann, Postdramatic Theatre, p. Johns Hopkins University Press, Catch as Catch Can. Simon and Schuster, Secker and Warburg, , pp 65— Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links Pages with login required references or sources CS1 Vietnamese-language sources vi Wikipedia articles needing clarification from July All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from March Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from September Articles with permanently dead external links.
Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 19 August , at Acquainting his readers with Mrs. Poultney, the narrator relates: The narrator blurs the distinction between the real world and the fictive world, in such a way that foregrounds the degree by which reality is constructed. The various kinds of epigraphs, the footnotes, the references to nineteenth-century and twentieth-century characters all serve to undermine the very concept of reality.
Fowles concludes the twelfth chapter of the novel with the question. Out of what shadows does she come? The following chapter fails to provide an answer, and Fowles breaks the narrative frame by undermining the established convention of the omniscient narrator: I do not know. This story I am telling is all imagination.
These characters I create never existed outside my own mind. He may not know all, yet he tries to pretend that he does. Fowles acknowledges that his narrative is a form of pastiche of Victorian conventions and realism in literature that simultaneously mediates the nature of fictional representation in the nineteenth-century novel and the way this is perceived from a twentieth-century perspective.
He goes on to address the reader:. You may think novelists always have fixed plans to which they work, so that future redicted by Chapter One is always inexorably the actuality of Chapter Thirteen. But novelists write for countless different reasons […] I could fill a book with reasons, and they would all be true, though not true of all. Film, Nihilism and the Restoration of Belief. The Sexual Politics of Time. The Philosophy of Documentary Film. Seven Modes of Uncertainty. The Couch and the Silver Screen. New Takes in Film-Philosophy.
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